[Optimization of ATG dose in haploid hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies]
Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi. 2020;41(7):557-563
Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy of different doses of rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) in haplo-HSCT in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Methods: Malignant hematological patients treated at our hospital from March 2013 to December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. These patients were divided into three groups as per three doses of ATG (6 mg/kg, 7.5 mg/kg, and 9 mg/kg) in the conditioning regimens. The transplant outcomes were compared in terms of the occurrence of acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) , infection, and survival. Results: ?Total 288 patients were enrolled in the study, including 182 men and 106 women, with a median age of 18 (6-62) years. Total 110 patients were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) , 128 with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) , 8 with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) , 28 with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) , and 14 with mixed cell leukemia (MAL) . There were 159 patients in the ATG-6 group, 72 in the ATG-7.5 group, and 57 in the ATG-9 group. The median follow-up time of post transplantation was 14 (0.2-74) months. ?The incidence of neutrophil engraftment (96.9% , 97.2% , and 96.5% , respectively) and platelet engraftment (92.5% , 87.5% , and 86% , respectively) did not significantly differ among the ATG-6, ATG-7.5, and ATG-9 groups (P=0.972, P=0.276) . The incidence of grades 2-4 acute GVHD was 14.5% , 11.1% , and 8.8% in the three groups, respectively (P=0.493) , chronic GVHD incidence in the three group was 8.8% , 14.3% and 12.0% , respectively (P=0.493) . The infection rates of CMV and EBV in the ATG-9 group (77.2% and 12.5% ) were significantly higher than those in the ATG-6 (43.3% and 3.5% ) , and ATG -7.5 group (44.4% and 1.5% ) (P<0.001 and P=0.033, respectively) . ?Among the three groups, there were no significant difference in the 3-year overall survival [68.5% (95% CI 60.3% -77.9% ) , 60.1% (95% CI 48.3% -74.8% ) , 64.7% (95% CI 51.9% -80.7% ) ], cumulative incidences of relapse [34.6% (95% CI 34.3% -35.1% ) , 38.0% (95% CI 37.3% -38.7% ) , 20.6% (95% CI 20.0% -21.3% ) ], disease-free survival [53.3% (95% CI 44.9% -63.4% ) , 51.9% (95% CI 41% -65.8% ) , 63.9% (95% CI 51.9% -78.7% ) ] and non-relapse mortality [24.2% (95% CI 23.8% -24.5% ) , 26.0% (95% CI 25.4% -26.6% ) , 23.6% (95% CI 26.3% -28.2% ) ] (P=0.648, P=0.165, and P=0.486 and P=0.955) . Conclusion: Low dose (6 mg/kg) of rATG may increase the risk of grade ?-? aGVHD, and a high dose (9 mg/kg) of ATG could significantly increase the risk of CMV and EBV infection. Median dose (7.5 mg/kg) of ATG is expected to reduce the incidence of moderate to severe aGVHD and viral infections without increasing the mortality.
Comparing the outcomes between TMLI and non-TMLI conditioning regimens for adult high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a single-center experience
Leukemia & lymphoma. 2020;:1-9
This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the outcomes of adult patients with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with either total marrow and lymphoid irradiation (TMLI)-containing or non-TMLI conditioning regimen. Seventy adult patients with high-risk ALL who received allo-HSCT were enrolled in this study and divided into two groups based on the conditioning regimen type (TMLI group: n = 29 and non-TMLI group: n = 41). We noted significant statistical differences in the 1-year estimated cumulative incidence of relapse (25% vs. 46.5%, p = 0.018), the 1-year estimated overall survival (73.1% vs. 52.6%, p = 0.033) and disease-free survival (65.2% vs. 48.2%, p = 0.026) but found no considerable difference in transplant-related mortality (12% vs. 13.4%, p = 0.619) between patients in the TMLI and non-TMLI groups. The TMLI-containing regimen is safe and alternative for patients with high-risk ALL undergoing allo-HSCT.
Efficacy and safety of mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of patients infected with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol
BMJ Open. 2020;10(12):e042085
INTRODUCTION To date, no specific antivirus drugs or vaccines have been available to prevent or treat the COVID-19 pandemic. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy may be a promising therapeutic approach that reduces the high mortality in critical cases. This protocol is proposed for a systematic review and meta-analysis that aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MSC therapy on patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS Ten databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journals Database (VIP), Wanfang database, China Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) and Chinese Biomedical Literature Service System (SinoMed) will be searched from inception to 1 December 2020. All published randomised controlled trials, clinical controlled trials and case series that meet the prespecified eligibility criteria will be included. The primary outcomes include mortality, incidence and severity of adverse events, respiratory improvement, days from ventilator, duration of fever, progression rate from mild or moderate to severe, improvement of such serious symptoms as difficulty breathing or shortness of breath, chest pain or pressure, and loss of speech or movement, biomarkers of laboratory examination and changes in CT. The secondary outcomes include dexamethasone doses and quality of life. Two reviewers will independently perform study selection, data extraction and assessment of bias risk. Data synthesis will be conducted using RevMan software (V.5.3.5). If necessary, subgroup and sensitivity analysis will be performed. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system will be used to assess the strength of evidence. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION Ethical approval is not necessary since no individual patient or privacy data have been collected. The results of this review will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal or an academic conference presentation. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER CRD42020190079.
Ruxolitinib add-on in corticosteroid-refractory graft-vs-host disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: Results from a retrospective study on 38 Chinese patients
World journal of clinical cases. 2020;8(6):1065-1073
BACKGROUND Graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Some patients have steroid-refractory (SR) GVHD. AIM: To evaluate the effect and safety of ruxolitinib add-on in the treatment of patients with SR acute (a) and chronic (c) GVHD. METHODS We retrospectively analyzed 38 patients administered ruxolitinib add-on to standard immunosuppressive therapy for SR-aGVHD or SR-cGVHD following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Ruxolitinib was administered 5-10 mg/d depending on disease severity, patient status, and the use of anti-fungal drugs. Overall response rate, time to best response, malignancy relapse rate, infection rate, and treatment-related adverse events were assessed. RESULTS The analysis included 10 patients with SR-aGVHD (grade III/IV, n = 9) and 28 patients with SR-cGVHD (moderate/severe, n = 24). For the SR-aGVHD and SR-cGVHD groups, respectively: Median number of previous GVHD therapies was 2 (range: 1-3) and 2 (1-4); median follow-up was 2.5 (1.5-4) and 5 (1.5-10) mo; median time to best response was 1 (0.5-2.5) and 3 (1-9.5) mo; and overall response rate was 100% (complete response: 80%) and 82.1% (complete response: 10.7%) with a response observed in all GVHD-affected organs. The malignancy relapse rates for the SR-aGVHD and SR-cGVHD groups were 10.0% and 10.7%, respectively. Reactivation rates for cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and varicella-zoster virus, respectively, were 30.0%, 10.0%, and 0% for the SR-aGVHD group and 0%, 14.3%, and 7.1% for the SR-cGVHD group. CONCLUSION Ruxolitinib add-on was effective and safe as salvage therapy for SR-GVHD.
The great challenge of managing recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation combined with COVID-19
Bone Marrow Transplantation. 2020
IDA-intensified hematopoietic cell transplantation improves relapse and survival of high-risk acute leukemia patients with minimal residual disease
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2018
The optimal conditioning regimen of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for high-risk patients with minimal residual disease (MRD) remains controversial. We studied the results in 98 high-risk acute leukemia patients being transplanted with idarubicin (IDA)-intensified conditioning regimens between 2012 January and 2017 January. Among these patients, 31 (31.6%) had more than 5% marrow blasts at time of transplantation. 67 patients were in morphologic remission and MRD negative status at time of conditioning was achieved in 39 (39.8%) patients, whereas 28 (28.6%) remained carriers of any other positive MRD level in the bone marrow. Three-year relapse estimates of patients with MRD-positive remission was 22.0%, which was remarkably lower than patients with active disease (45.4%, p=0.027), but approximate to that of patients in MRD-negative remission (15.5%, p=0.522). There were no significant differences in terms of 3-year estimated overall survival (3y-OS) and disease-free survival (3y-DFS) between MRD-positive remission and MRD-negative remission groups (71.4% vs 79.1%, p=0.562; 67.9% vs 76.9%, p=0.634). Moreover, the estimated 3y-OS and 3y-DFS of patients in MRD-positive remission were significantly better than those in patients with active disease (71.4% vs 41.9%, p=0.033; 67.9% vs 38.7%, p=0.037). These data indicate that IDA-intensified conditioning allo-HSCT could overcome the negative prognostic impact of MRD.
Idarubicin-intensified haploidentical HSCT with GvHD prophylaxis of ATG and basiliximab provides comparable results to sibling donors in high-risk acute leukemia
Bone Marrow Transplantation. 2017;52(9):1253-1260
We designed a novel haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) system using idarubicin (IDA) intensified conditioning regimens and combination of antithymocyte globulin and basiliximab for GvHD prophylaxis. The outcomes of 110 high-risk acute leukemia patients undergoing haplo-HSCT were compared with 69 contemporaneous high-risk patients receiving HLA-matched sibling transplantation using uniform IDA-intensified regimens. The relapse incidence of haplo-HSCT was 23.4%, and 3-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) achieved 62.9%, 59.1%, respectively. The cumulative incidences of II-IV and III-IV aGvHD were 28.6 and 14.3%, while limited and extensive cGvHD were 19.4, 13.8%. All these results were equivalent to those of concurrent identical sibling transplantation. Three-year OS and DFS for patients in advance stage reached 48.5, 47.3%. Furthermore, the relapse, 3-year OS of positive minimal residual disease (MRD) patients did not differ from negative MRD patients (18.9% vs 11.5%, 63.6% vs 69.6%), indicating our intensified haplo-HSCT technique could circumvent the dismal prognosis of MRD. These data provide reinforcing evidence that our haplo-HSCT system could dramatically improve the survival of high-risk acute leukemia with low relapse and acceptable transplantation-related mortality, and might be a promising therapeutic option for high-risk patients.
Idarubicin-intensified BUCY2 conditioning regimen improved survival in high-risk acute myeloid, but not lymphocytic leukemia patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A retrospective comparative study
Leukemia Research. 2016;46:61-8
The intensity of conditioning regimen is highly correlated with outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We have previously reported that idarubicin (IDA) intensified BUCY2 regimen could reduce relapse and improve survival for high-risk hematological malignancies undergoing allo-HSCT. However, there is no published study comparing the efficacy of IDA-BUCY2 regimen for high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) versus acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). We further retrospectively compared therapeutic outcomes of intensified conditioning regimen on 140 high-risk AML and ALL patients in the data analyses. IDA 15mg/m(2)/d was administered by continuous infusion from day -11 to -9, followed by intravenous injection of busulfan (BU) (3.2mg/kg/d) from day -6 to -4, and intravenous injection of cyclophosphamide (CY) (1.8g/m(2)/d) from day -3 to -2 in IDA-BUCY2 regimen. For high-risk AML, cumulative probabilities of 3-year relapse rates in IDA-BUCY2 and traditional BUCY2 regimens were 16.9%, 43.3% (P=0.016). Cumulative probabilities of 3-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 69.2% vs 44.0% (P=0.024), and 66.9% vs 38.2% (P=0.01). However, two regimens showed no significant differences for high-risk ALL. Multivariate analysis also indicated that IDA intensified BUCY2 conditioning was the favorable variable to reduce relapse and elevate survival for high-risk AML patients. In conclusion, IDA-BUCY2 regimen reduces relapse and improves survival for high-risk AML undergoing allo-HSCT, but not presenting uniform therapeutic effects for high-risk ALL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.