[Optimization of ATG dose in haploid hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies]
Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi. 2020;41(7):557-563
Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy of different doses of rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) in haplo-HSCT in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Methods: Malignant hematological patients treated at our hospital from March 2013 to December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. These patients were divided into three groups as per three doses of ATG (6 mg/kg, 7.5 mg/kg, and 9 mg/kg) in the conditioning regimens. The transplant outcomes were compared in terms of the occurrence of acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) , infection, and survival. Results: ?Total 288 patients were enrolled in the study, including 182 men and 106 women, with a median age of 18 (6-62) years. Total 110 patients were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) , 128 with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) , 8 with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) , 28 with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) , and 14 with mixed cell leukemia (MAL) . There were 159 patients in the ATG-6 group, 72 in the ATG-7.5 group, and 57 in the ATG-9 group. The median follow-up time of post transplantation was 14 (0.2-74) months. ?The incidence of neutrophil engraftment (96.9% , 97.2% , and 96.5% , respectively) and platelet engraftment (92.5% , 87.5% , and 86% , respectively) did not significantly differ among the ATG-6, ATG-7.5, and ATG-9 groups (P=0.972, P=0.276) . The incidence of grades 2-4 acute GVHD was 14.5% , 11.1% , and 8.8% in the three groups, respectively (P=0.493) , chronic GVHD incidence in the three group was 8.8% , 14.3% and 12.0% , respectively (P=0.493) . The infection rates of CMV and EBV in the ATG-9 group (77.2% and 12.5% ) were significantly higher than those in the ATG-6 (43.3% and 3.5% ) , and ATG -7.5 group (44.4% and 1.5% ) (P<0.001 and P=0.033, respectively) . ?Among the three groups, there were no significant difference in the 3-year overall survival [68.5% (95% CI 60.3% -77.9% ) , 60.1% (95% CI 48.3% -74.8% ) , 64.7% (95% CI 51.9% -80.7% ) ], cumulative incidences of relapse [34.6% (95% CI 34.3% -35.1% ) , 38.0% (95% CI 37.3% -38.7% ) , 20.6% (95% CI 20.0% -21.3% ) ], disease-free survival [53.3% (95% CI 44.9% -63.4% ) , 51.9% (95% CI 41% -65.8% ) , 63.9% (95% CI 51.9% -78.7% ) ] and non-relapse mortality [24.2% (95% CI 23.8% -24.5% ) , 26.0% (95% CI 25.4% -26.6% ) , 23.6% (95% CI 26.3% -28.2% ) ] (P=0.648, P=0.165, and P=0.486 and P=0.955) . Conclusion: Low dose (6 mg/kg) of rATG may increase the risk of grade ?-? aGVHD, and a high dose (9 mg/kg) of ATG could significantly increase the risk of CMV and EBV infection. Median dose (7.5 mg/kg) of ATG is expected to reduce the incidence of moderate to severe aGVHD and viral infections without increasing the mortality.
Comparing the outcomes between TMLI and non-TMLI conditioning regimens for adult high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a single-center experience
Leukemia & lymphoma. 2020;:1-9
This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the outcomes of adult patients with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with either total marrow and lymphoid irradiation (TMLI)-containing or non-TMLI conditioning regimen. Seventy adult patients with high-risk ALL who received allo-HSCT were enrolled in this study and divided into two groups based on the conditioning regimen type (TMLI group: n = 29 and non-TMLI group: n = 41). We noted significant statistical differences in the 1-year estimated cumulative incidence of relapse (25% vs. 46.5%, p = 0.018), the 1-year estimated overall survival (73.1% vs. 52.6%, p = 0.033) and disease-free survival (65.2% vs. 48.2%, p = 0.026) but found no considerable difference in transplant-related mortality (12% vs. 13.4%, p = 0.619) between patients in the TMLI and non-TMLI groups. The TMLI-containing regimen is safe and alternative for patients with high-risk ALL undergoing allo-HSCT.
Delay expression of NKp30 on NK cells correlates with long-term mycophenolate mofetil treatment and higher EBV viremia post allogenic hematological stem cells transplantation
Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.). 2019
Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is an immunosuppressive agent that is widely used in graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis because of its inhibitory function on T cells and B cells. However, the effect of MMF on natural killer cell reconstitution after allogenic hematological transplantation is largely unknown. The present study examined the effects of different MMF administration durations after haploidentical allo-HSCT on NK cell reconstitution. Ninety patients were enrolled in this study and defined into two groups in term of MMF duration. We found that MMF patients in the long-term MMF group were associated with a poor reconstitution of NK cells and a significantly lower cytotoxicity from day 30 to day 180 post-transplantation. Especially, the long-term MMF group inhibits reconstitution of NKp30 NK subsets, which correlated with higher risk of EBV viremia. Multivariate analysis showed that a better reconstitution of NKp30 cells was associated with lower EBV viremia (HR0.957, p=.04). In vitro experiments demonstrated that the active metabolite of MMF, mycophenolic acid (MPA), inhibited the proliferation and cytotoxicity of NK cells from healthy donors or patients at day 30 post-transplantation. In summary, our findings demonstrated that long-term MMF administration delayed the quality and quantity of NK cells, especially NKp30 subpopulations, which was associated with decreased EBV viremia post allogeneic HSCT.
The impact of donor characteristics on the invariant natural killer T cells of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor-mobilized marrow grafts and peripheral blood grafts
Transplant immunology. 2018
INTRODUCTION Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKTs) are a rare but vital subset of immunomodulatory T cells and play an important role in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell trans-plantation (HSCT). The association of donor characteristics with the number and frequency of the iNKTs subsets in allografts remains poorly understood. In this paper, we prospectively investigate the association of donor characteristics with iNKTs dose and frequency in granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilized marrow and peripheral blood harvests. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 bone marrow (BM) units and 100 peripheral blood (PB) units from 100 healthy donors were examined. Parameters including donor age, sex, weight, height, BMI and blood count [including white blood cells (WBCs), lymphocytes and monocytes] at three time points [donor's steady state before G-CSF administration, the day of G-BM harvesting and the day of G-PB apheresis] were analyzed to explore the impact of donor characteristics on iNKTs composition in BM and PB grafts. RESULTS Multivariate analysis showed monocyte counts before G-BM harvest could predict higher frequency of iNKTs in WBC (OR=2.593, 95%CI: 1.128-5.961, p=0.025), higher total CD4+ iNKTs dose (OR=2.250, 95%CI: 1.011-5.008, p=0.047) and higher total iNKTs dose (OR=2.662, 95%CI: 1.187-5.970, p=0.017) in mixture allografts. DISCUSSION The results suggested that monocyte counts pre G-BM harvest could predict the yield of total CD4+ iNKTs and total iNKTs in mixture allografts. The male and older donors were associated with a higher dose of total CD4- iNKTs in mixture allografts.
Novel agent induction therapy alone or followed by autologous stem cell transplantation in younger patients with multiple myeloma: A single-center retrospective study of 114 cases
Molecular & Clinical Oncology. 2016;4(1):107-113
To define the role of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) in the era of novel agents, we analyzed follow-up data of patients treated by these agents alone or followed by ASCT. From January, 2008 to December, 2012, 136 patients with de novo MM, aged <65 years, completed bortezomib- or thalidomide-based induction therapy and 114 patients achieved at least a partial response (PR). A total of 42 patients underwent ASCT. After a median follow-up of 39 months (range, 5-74 months), the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 23 months in the non-ASCT group vs. 42 months in the ASCT group (P=0.001), and the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 58.9 vs. 81.2%, respectively (P=0.03). The multivariate analysis revealed that complete response (CR) and maintenance therapy (MT) were independent factors of improved OS in both groups. Moreover, a subgroup analysis was performed according to the response status to evaluate the role of ASCT and MT. In the CR subgroup, neither ASCT nor MT exerted a significant effect on PFS or OS. In the very good PR subgroup, ASCT after MT (ASCT/MT) significantly improved PFS, but not OS. In patients exhibiting PR, ASCT/MT significantly prolonged PFS and OS. Therefore, ASCT in the era of novel agents maintains an important role in younger MM patients, particularly those achieving a PR after induction therapy. Furthermore, MT is a key factor associated with long-term survival in all MM patients.