Myeloablative conditioning for allo-HSCT in pediatric ALL: FTBI or chemotherapy?-A multicenter EBMT-PDWP study
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Although most children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) receive fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI) as myeloablative conditioning (MAC) for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), it is an important matter of debate if chemotherapy can effectively replace FTBI. To compare outcomes after FTBI versus chemotherapy-based conditioning (CC), we performed a retrospective EBMT registry study. Children aged 2-18 years after MAC for first allo-HSCT of bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) from matched-related (MRD) or unrelated donors (UD) in first (CR1) or second remission (CR2) between 2000 and 2012 were included. Propensity score weighting was used to control pretreatment imbalances of the observed variables. 3.054 patients were analyzed. CR1 (1.498): median follow-up (FU) after FTBI (1.285) and CC (213) was 6.8 and 6.1 years. Survivals were not significantly different. CR2 (1.556): median FU after FTBI (1.345) and CC (211) was 6.2 years. Outcomes after FTBI were superior as compared with CC with regard to overall survival (OS), leukemia-free survival (LFS), relapse incidence (RI), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). However, we must emphasize the preliminary character of the results of this retrospective "real-world-practice" study. These findings will be prospectively assessed in the ALL SCTped 2012 FORUM trial.
Transplant center practices for psychosocial assessment and management of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell donors
Bone marrow transplantation. 2019
Understanding the potential emotional and psychological risks of pediatric sibling HSC donation is an area of research that remains in its infancy. A cross-sectional survey was distributed electronically to directors at all CIBMTR and EBMT centers to describe current transplant center practices for obtaining assent, preparation for the physical/emotional experiences of donation, and monitoring the post-donation well-being of pediatric donors (<18 years of age). Respondents were 45/91 (49%) and 66/144 (46%) of CIBMTR and EBMT centers, respectively. Although 78% of centers reported having a mechanism in place to ensure donor free assent, centers also reported only limited assessment of psychosocial suitability to manage the emotional risks of donation. More than half of centers reported no psychosocial follow-up assessment post-donation. Few centers have policies in place to address donor psychological needs. Future investigations should include medical and psychosocial outcomes following full integration of comprehensive psychosocial screening and surveillance of pediatric donors.
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from unrelated donors is associated with higher infection rates in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia - A prospective international multicenter trial on behalf of the BFM-SG and the EBMT-PDWP
American journal of hematology. 2019
Severe infections (SI) significantly impact on non-relapse mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We assessed 432 children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) after total body irradiation based myeloablative HSCT within the multicenter ALL-BFM-SCT 2003 trial for SI grade 3 or higher according to common terminology criteria for adverse events. A total 172 patients experienced at least one SI. Transplantation from matched unrelated donors (MUD) was associated with any type of SI in the pre-engraftment period (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.57; P < 0.001) and with any SI between day +30 and + 100 (HR: 2.91; P = 0.011). Bacterial (HR: 2.24; P = 0.041) and fungal infections (HR: 4.06; P = 0.057) occurred more often in the pre-engraftment phase and viral infections more often before day +30 (HR: 2.66; P = 0.007) or between day +30 and + 100 (HR: 3.89; P = 0.002) after HSCT from MUD as compared to matched sibling donors. Chronic GvHD was an independent risk factor for any type of SI after day +100 (HR: 2.57; P < 0.002). We conclude that allogeneic HSCT from MUD in children and adolescents with pediatric ALL is associated with higher infection rates, which seems attributable to an intensified GvHD prophylaxis including serotherapy and methotrexate.
More precisely defining risk peri-HCT in pediatric ALL: pre- vs post-MRD measures, serial positivity, and risk modeling
Children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n=432)
Total body irradiation based myeloablative HSCT
A total 172 patients experienced at least one severe infection (SI). Transplantation from matched unrelated donors (MUD) was associated with any type of SI in the pre-engraftment period and with any SI between day +30 and + 100. Bacterial and fungal infections occurred more often in the pre-engraftment phase and viral infections more often before day +30 or between day +30 and + 100 after HSCT from MUD as compared to matched sibling donors. Chronic GvHD was an independent risk factor for any type of SI after day +100.
Blood advances. 2019;3(21):3393-3405
Detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) pre- and post-hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been associated with relapse and poor survival. Published studies have had insufficient numbers to: (1) compare the prognostic value of pre-HCT and post-HCT MRD; (2) determine clinical factors post-HCT associated with better outcomes in MRD+ patients; and (3) use MRD and other clinical factors to develop and validate a prognostic model for relapse in pediatric patients with ALL who undergo allogeneic HCT. To address these issues, we assembled an international database including sibling (n = 191), unrelated (n = 259), mismatched (n = 56), and cord blood (n = 110) grafts given after myeloablative conditioning. Although high and very high MRD pre-HCT were significant predictors in univariate analysis, with bivariate analysis using MRD pre-HCT and post-HCT, MRD pre-HCT at any level was less predictive than even low-level MRD post-HCT. Patients with MRD pre-HCT must become MRD low/negative at 1 to 2 months and negative within 3 to 6 months after HCT for successful therapy. Factors associated with improved outcome of patients with detectable MRD post-HCT included acute graft-versus-host disease. We derived a risk score with an MRD cohort from Europe, North America, and Australia using negative predictive characteristics (late disease status, non-total body irradiation regimen, and MRD [high, very high]) defining good, intermediate, and poor risk groups with 2-year cumulative incidences of relapse of 21%, 38%, and 47%, respectively. We validated the score in a second, more contemporaneous cohort and noted 2-year cumulative incidences of relapse of 13%, 26%, and 47% (P < .001) for the defined risk groups.
AlloHSCT in paediatric ALL and AML in complete remission: improvement over time impacted by accreditation?
Paediatric patients (age 1-21 years) with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (n=616)
An international database of patients in complete remission following myeloablative allogeneic transplant, with at least one minimal residual disease (MRD) measurement prior to transplant
Although high and very high MRD pre-HCT were significant predictors in univariate analysis, with bivariate analysis using MRD pre-HCT and post-HCT, MRD pre-HCT at any level was less predictive than even low-level MRD post-HCT. Patients with MRD pre-HCT must become MRD low/negative at 1 to 2 months and negative within 3 to 6 months after HCT for successful therapy. Factors associated with improved outcome of patients with detectable MRD post-HCT included acute graft-versus-host disease.
Bone marrow transplantation. 2018
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) has become a well-established treatment option for many patients suffering from malignant and non-malignant diseases. In the past decade, high-resolution HLA-typing, remission surveillance, pre-emptive immune intervention, and standardisation in supportive care measures have substantially improved transplant outcomes. This retrospective study evaluated transplant procedures in 162 paediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (n = 124) or acute myeloid leukaemia (n = 38) who received their first alloHSCT in our institution over an 11-year period. We observed a significant reduction in risk of non-relapse mortality (NRM) over time (HR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.12-0.98; P = 0.05), the 4-year NRM estimate decreased from 20% in 2005-2008 to 7% in 2012-2016 (P = 0.02) and an increase in survival after relapse. There was no significant difference in patients who received a graft from a sibling, haplo, or an unrelated donor with regard to their overall survival (P = 0.45), event-free survival (P = 0.61), and non-relapse mortality (P = 0.19). Our data suggest that a specific transplant infrastructure with a highly experienced team in an accredited transplant centre likely contributes to better transplant outcomes for acute leukaemia patients in complete remission regardless of donor type.
Outcome of relapse after allogeneic HSCT in children with ALL enrolled in the ALL-SCT 2003/2007 trial
British Journal of Haematology. 2017
Relapse remains the major cause of treatment failure in children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Prognosis is considered dismal but data on risk factors and outcome are lacking from prospective studies. We analysed 242 children with recurrence of ALL after first allo-SCT enrolled in the Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster (BFM) ALL-SCT-BFM 2003 and ALL-SCT-BFM international 2007 studies. Median time from allo-SCT to relapse was 7.7 months; median follow-up from relapse after allo-SCT until last follow-up was 3.4 years. The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) was 15% and overall survival (OS) was 20%. The main cause of death was disease progression or relapse (86.5%). The majority of children (48%) received salvage therapy without second allo-SCT, 26% of the children underwent a second allo-SCT and 25% received palliative treatment only. In multivariate analyses, age, site of relapse, time to relapse and type of salvage therapy were identified as significant prognostic factors for OS and EFS, whereas factors associated with first SCT were not statistically significant. Combined approaches incorporating novel immunotherapeutic treatment options and second allo-SCT hold promise to improve outcome in children with post allo-SCT relapse.
Epidemiology, risk factors, and prognosis of capillary leak syndrome in pediatric recipients of stem cell transplants: a retrospective single-center cohort study
Pediatric Transplantation. 2016;20(8):1132-1136
CLS involves sudden loss of intravascular fluids into the interstitial spaces. CLS was described as a possible complication after SCT. Few studies report the incidence of CLS in pediatric populations. We aimed to assess CLS incidence, its risk factors, and impact on the survival. The clinical charts of patients <18 years of age transplanted at our institution between 2002 and 2012 were reviewed. CLS was defined by weight gain >3% in 24 hours and positive intake balance despite furosemide administration. In total, 234 patients underwent 275 allogeneic SCT procedures in the analyzed time frame. Fifteen patients developed CLS (5.4%). The probability of developing CLS was significantly increased in patients suffering from sepsis (14.3% vs 0.6%, P<.001). Patients with CLS exhibited an increased risk of acute GvHD in the first 30 days after SCT (10.8% vs 1.8%, P=.002). Ten of the patients with CLS required intensive care. CLS strongly impacts OS at day +100 after SCT and is a predictive factor of TRM at the same date (42.9% vs 5%, P<.0001). The biological relation among sepsis, GvHD, and CLS development in terms of cytokine release and endothelial damage warrants further studies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.