Human Herpesvirus 6B and Lower Respiratory Tract Disease After Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2019;:Jco1900908
PURPOSE Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) DNA is frequently detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from immunocompromised subjects with lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD). Whether HHV-6B is a pulmonary pathogen is unclear. METHODS We tested BALF for HHV-6B DNA using polymerase chain reaction in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients who underwent a BAL for evaluation of LRTD from 1992 to 2015. We used multivariable proportional hazards models to evaluate the association of HHV-6B(+) BALF with overall mortality, death from respiratory failure, and the effect of anti-HHV-6B antivirals on these outcomes. We used branched-chain RNA in situ hybridization to detect HHV-6 messenger RNA (U41 and U57 transcripts) in lung tissue. RESULTS We detected HHV-6B(+) BALF from 147 of 553 (27%) individuals. Subjects with HHV-6B(+) BALF, with or without copathogens, had significantly increased risk of overall mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.18; 95% CI, 1.41-3.39) and death from respiratory failure (aHR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.56-4.01) compared with subjects with HHV-6B(-) BALF. Subjects with HHV-6B(+) BALF who received antivirals within 3 days pre-BAL had an approximately 1 log10 lower median HHV-6B BALF viral load, as well as a lower risk of overall mortality (aHR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.16-1.10), compared with subjects with HHV-6B(+) BALF not receiving antivirals. We detected intraparenchymal HHV-6 gene expression by RNA in situ hybridization in lung tissue in all three tested subjects with HHV-6B(+) BALF and sufficient tissue RNA preservation. CONCLUSION These data provide evidence that HHV-6B detection in BALF is associated with higher mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients with LRTD. Definitive evidence of causation will require a randomized prevention or treatment trial.
The association between platelet transfusion and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome is unaffected by platelet product type
BACKGROUND Methods used to produce platelet (PLT) components, pooling of PLT-rich plasma (PRP-PLT) and apheresis (AP-PLT), may variably contribute to the pathogenesis and severity of idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a retrospective cohort study of 906 allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients to examine associations between PLT product type and risks of developing IPS and dying after IPS onset. Proportional hazards models included separate terms for the sum of all PLT transfusions and the sum of PRP-PLT units received in the 3 or 7 days before IPS onset. Similarly constructed models analyzed the outcome of time to death after IPS onset. All analyses were adjusted for known IPS risk factors. RESULTS Patients received a median of three PRP-PLT transfusions (interquartile range [IQR], 0-6) and five AP-PLT transfusions (IQR, 1-13) while at risk for IPS. Seventy-five patients (8%) developed IPS by Posttransplant Day 120. The proportion of PRP-PLT transfusions was not associated with risk of developing IPS (3-day hazard ratio [HR] 0.98, 95% CI 0.74-1.29, p=0.86; 7-day HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.86-1.15, p=0.95) or dying after IPS onset (3-day HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.75-1.31, p=0.97; 7-day HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.78-1.12, p=0.47). CONCLUSION The association between PLT transfusions and risk of developing IPS or dying after IPS onset does not differ according to PLT product type. Further research is required to identify potentially modifiable steps in PLT component production that contribute to IPS. Copyright © 2015 AABB.