Allogeneic transplantation for Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia with posttransplantation cyclophosphamide
Blood advances. 2020;4(20):5078-5088
Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (alloBMT) is standard of care for adults with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) in first complete remission (CR1). The routine pretransplant and posttransplant use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has dramatically improved outcomes, but the optimal conditioning regimen, donor type, and TKI remain undefined. The bone marrow transplant database at Johns Hopkins was queried for adult patients with de novo Ph+ ALL who received alloBMT using posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) as a component of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis from 2008 to 2018. Among transplants for Ph+ ALL, 69 (85%) were performed in CR1, and 12 (15%) were performed in second or greater remission (CR2+). The majority of transplants (58%) were HLA haploidentical. Nearly all patients (91.4%) initiated TKI posttransplant. For patients in CR1, the 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) was 66%. The use of nonmyeloablative conditioning, absence of measurable residual disease (MRD) according to flow cytometry at transplant, and the use of dasatinib vs imatinib at diagnosis were associated with improved overall survival (OS) and RFS. Neither donor type nor recipient age ≥60 years affected RFS. When analyzing all transplants, alloBMT in CR1 (vs CR2+) and the absence of pretransplant MRD were associated with improved RFS. Most relapses were associated with the emergence of kinase domain mutations. The cumulative incidence of grade 3 to 4 acute GVHD at 1 year was 9%, and moderate to severe chronic GVHD at 2 years was 8%. Nonmyeloablative alloBMT with PTCy for Ph+ ALL in an MRD-negative CR1 after initial treatment with dasatinib yields favorable outcomes.
Adults with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) undergoing allogeneic transplantation (n=76)
Myeloablative conditioning in first complete remission (CR1 MAC, n=26); Non-myeloablative conditioning in first complete remission (CR1 NMAC, n=43)
Patients in second or subsequent remission (CR2+, n=12)
For patients in CR1, the 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) was 66%. The use of nonmyeloablative conditioning, absence of measurable residual disease (MRD) according to flow cytometry at transplant, and the use of dasatinib vs imatinib at diagnosis were associated with improved overall survival (OS) and RFS. Neither donor type nor recipient age ≥60 years affected RFS. When analyzing all transplants, alloBMT in CR1 (vs CR2+) and the absence of pretransplant MRD were associated with improved RFS. Most relapses were associated with the emergence of kinase domain mutations. The cumulative incidence of grade 3 to 4 acute GVHD at 1 year was 9%, and moderate to severe chronic GVHD at 2 years was 8%.
Thrombotic Microangiopathy after Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide-Based Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2020
Transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (taTMA) is a systemic vascular illness associated with significant morbidity and mortality, resulting from a convergence of risk factors after allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (alloBMT). The diagnosis of taTMA has been a challenge, but most criteria include an elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), low haptoglobin, and schistocytes on peripheral blood smear. We performed a retrospective review of the 678 consecutive adults who received high-dose post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy)-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) between January 1, 2015, and August 31, 2018. In April 2016, we initiated a monitoring program of weekly LDH and haptoglobin measurements and blood smears when those 2 parameters were both abnormal on all of our adult patients undergoing alloBMT for hematologic malignancies. During the entire period, the 1-year cumulative incidence of taTMA was 1.4% (95% confidence interval, 0.5% to 2.3%). Eight patients were taking tacrolimus at the time of diagnosis, and 1 was not on any immunosuppression. Eight of 9 patients (89%) were hypertensive. Four patients had invasive infections at the time of diagnosis, 4 patients required renal replacement therapy, and 5 of 9 patients were neurologically impaired. Eculizumab was given to 6 patients (0.9%), of whom 2 died and 4 recovered with resolution of end-organ dysfunction. The paucity of events made the determination of risk factors difficult; however, the low incidence of taTMA in this cohort may be related to the limited use of myeloablative conditioning regimens, low incidence of severe GVHD, and use of PTCy. PTCy-based GVHD prophylaxis appears to be associated with a low incidence of severe taTMA.
Haploidentical transplantation using posttransplant cyclophosphamide as GVHD prophylaxis in patients over age 70
Blood advances. 2019;3(17):2608-2616
Hematologic malignancies in older people are unlikely to be cured with chemotherapy alone. Advances in allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (alloBMT), especially nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning and the use of haploidentical donors, now make this therapy available to older people; however, long-term outcomes and predictors of success are unclear. We reviewed the outcomes of 93 consecutive patients aged 70 and older (median, 72; range, 70-78), who underwent haploidentical BMT at Johns Hopkins Hospital between 1 September 2009 and 1 April 2018. All patients received NMA conditioning and posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The 2-year overall survival was 53%, and 2-year event-free survival was 43%. The 180-day cumulative incidence (CuI) of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 14%, and the 2-year CuI was 27%. The 2-year CuI of relapse was 30%. Of 78 patients who were alive and had their weight recorded on day 180, weight loss predicted subsequent NRM (subdistribution hazard ratio, 1.0; 95% CI, 1-1.13; P = .048). In conclusion, haploidentical BMT with PTCy is feasible and relatively safe in septuagenarians. Although early, 6-month NRM was relatively low at 14%, but overall NRM continued to climb to 27% at 2 years, at least in part because of late deaths that appeared to be somewhat age related. Further studies to elucidate predictors of NRM are warranted.
Consecutive patients older than 70 years with haematological malignancies (n=93)
Haploidentical BMT with post-transplant cyclophosphamide GvHD prophylaxis
The 2-year overall survival was 53%, and 2-year event-free survival was 43%. The 180-day cumulative incidence (CuI) of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 14%, and the 2-year CuI was 27%. The 2-year CuI of relapse was 30%. Of 78 patients who were alive and had their weight recorded on day 180, weight loss predicted subsequent NRM.
Allogeneic Haploidentical Blood or Marrow Transplantation with Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2019
Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (alloBMT) remains the only treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with curative potential. While post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) reduces alloBMT toxicity by decreasing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), its effect on CLL alloBMT outcomes is unknown. We studied 64 consecutive CLL patients undergoing non-myeloablative (NMA) haploidentical alloBMT at Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center. The 4-year overall survival (OS) was 52% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 40-68%) and progression free survival (PFS) was 37% (95% CI: 26-54%) for all 64 patients undergoing alloBMT. In total, 6 patients suffered from engraftment failure. PTCy prophylaxis was associated with a modest cumulative GVHD incidence: 27% (95% CI: 15-38%) 1-year grade II-IV acute GVHD, and 17% (95% CI: 7-26%) 2-year chronic GVHD. We demonstrate NMA haploidentical alloBMT with PTCy is a safe and effective treatment option.
Early Fever after Haploidentical BMT Correlates with Class II HLA-Mismatching and Myeloablation but not Outcomes
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2018
Non-infectious fevers are common early after T-cell replete HLA-haploidentical (haplo) peripheral blood transplants and have been associated with cytokine release syndrome and overall mortality. However, less is known regarding the incidence and associations of early fever after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy). We hypothesized that early fever would be associated with myeloablative conditioning (MAC), because of its relative increase in tissue damage augmenting antigen-presentation, and Class II HLA-mismatching, due recognition of antigen-presenting cells by CD4(+) T-cells. In 672 recipients of MAC HLA-matched related donor (MRD) (n=183), MAC HLA-matched unrelated (MUD) (n=115), MAC haplo (n=79), or nonmyeloablative (NMA) haplo (n=295) T-cell replete BMT with PTCy, we retrospectively analyzed early non-infectious fever defined as temperature of ≥ 38.3 once or ≥ 38.0 twice or more on days 1-6. Fever occurred in 13% after MAC MRD, 23% after MAC MUD, 44% after NMA haplo, and 84% after MAC haplo BMT (p<.0001). Survival outcomes did not differ between patients with and without early fever. In NMA haplo BMT, mismatch in the graft-versus-host direction at HLA-DRB1 or -DPB1 (but not HLA-A, -B, -Cw, or -DQB1), was associated with early fever compared with no mismatches at these loci (p<.0001 and p=.02, respectively). In multivariable modeling, -DRB1 or -DPB1 mismatch and higher CD3(+) graft cell dose were significantly associated with early fever. Early fever is more common after haplo compared with HLA-matched BMT. Fever is associated with myeloablation, -DRB1 or -DPB1 mismatching, and higher CD3(+) graft cell dose, but not survival.
Comparable composite endpoints after HLA-matched and HLA-haploidentical transplantation with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide
Composite endpoints that not only encompass mortality and relapse, but other critical post-transplant events such as graft-versus-host disease, are being increasingly utilized to quantify survival without significant morbidity after allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation. High-dose, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide reduces severe graft-versus-host disease with allogeneic marrow transplantation, making composite endpoints after this management particularly interesting. We retrospectively analyzed 684 adults with hematologic malignancies who received T-cell-replete bone marrow grafts and cyclophosphamide after myeloablative HLA-matched related (n=192) or unrelated (n=120), or non-myeloablative HLA-haploidentical (n=372) donor transplantation. The median follow up was 4 (range, 0.02-11.4) years. Graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival was defined as the time after transplantation without grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease, chronic graft-versus-host disease requiring systemic treatment, relapse, or death. Chronic graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival was defined as the time after transplantation without moderate or severe chronic graft-versus-host disease, relapse, or death. One-year graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival and chronic graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival estimates were, respectively, 47% (95% CI: 41-55%) and 53% (95% CI: 46-61%) after myeloablative HLA-matched related, 42% (95% CI: 34-52%) and 52% (95% CI: 44-62%) after myeloablative HLA-matched unrelated, and 45% (95% CI: 40-50%) and 50% (95% CI: 45-55%) after non-myeloablative HLA-haploidentical donor transplantation. In multivariable models, there were no differences in graft-versus-host disease-free, or chronic graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival after either myeloablative HLA-matched unrelated or non-myeloablative HLA-haploidentical, compared with myeloablative HLA-matched related donor transplantation. Although limited by inclusion of dissimilar cohorts, we found that post-transplantation cyclophosphamide-based platforms yield comparable composite endpoints across conditioning intensity, donor type, and HLA match.
Grade II Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease and Higher Nucleated Cell Graft Dose Improve Progression-Free Survival after HLA Haploidentical Transplant with Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide
Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation. 2017
Compared with standard graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis platforms, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) after T cell-replete HLA-haploidentical (haplo) bone marrow transplantation (BMT) reduces the risk of grades III to IV acute (a) and chronic (c) GVHD but maintains similar rates of grade II aGVHD. Given that mild GVHD has been associated with reduced treatment failure in HLA-matched BMT, we evaluated the risk factors for and effects of GVHD on survival in 340 adults with hematologic malignancies who engrafted after nonmyeloablative haplo-BMT with PTCy, mycophenolate mofetil, and tacrolimus. The cumulative incidence at 100 days of grade II and grades III to IV aGVHD were 30% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25% to 35%) and 2% (95% CI, 1% to 4%), respectively. The 1-year cumulative incidence of cGVHD was 10% (95% CI, 7% to 13%). In landmark analyses at 100 days, the 4-year probabilities of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were significantly different, at 48% (95% CI, 41% to 56%) and 39% (95% CI, 32% to 47%) for patients without grades II to IV aGVHD, compared with 63% (95% CI, 53% to 73%) and 59% (95% CI, 50% to 71%) for patients with grade II aGVHD (P=.05 and P=.009). In multivariable modeling, when compared with patients who never experienced GVHD, the hazard ratio (HR) for OS and PFS in patients with grade II aGVHD was .78 (95% CI, .54 to 1.13; P=.19) and .69 (95% CI, .48 to .98; P=.04). Higher nucleated cell graft dose was also associated with improved OS and PFS (HR, .88 [95% CI, .78 to 1.00; P=.05] and HR, .89 [95% CI, .79 to 1.0; P=.05], respectively) and decreased risk of grades III to IV aGVHD (subdistribution HR, .66; 95% CI, .46 to .96; P=.03). PTCy reduces grades III to IV aGVHD and cGVHD but retains similar incidence of grade II aGVHD, the development of which improves PFS. Higher nucleated cell graft dose goals may also improve survival after nonmyeloablative haplo-BMT with PTCy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.