[Optimization of ATG dose in haploid hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies]
Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi. 2020;41(7):557-563
Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy of different doses of rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) in haplo-HSCT in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Methods: Malignant hematological patients treated at our hospital from March 2013 to December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. These patients were divided into three groups as per three doses of ATG (6 mg/kg, 7.5 mg/kg, and 9 mg/kg) in the conditioning regimens. The transplant outcomes were compared in terms of the occurrence of acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) , infection, and survival. Results: ?Total 288 patients were enrolled in the study, including 182 men and 106 women, with a median age of 18 (6-62) years. Total 110 patients were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) , 128 with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) , 8 with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) , 28 with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) , and 14 with mixed cell leukemia (MAL) . There were 159 patients in the ATG-6 group, 72 in the ATG-7.5 group, and 57 in the ATG-9 group. The median follow-up time of post transplantation was 14 (0.2-74) months. ?The incidence of neutrophil engraftment (96.9% , 97.2% , and 96.5% , respectively) and platelet engraftment (92.5% , 87.5% , and 86% , respectively) did not significantly differ among the ATG-6, ATG-7.5, and ATG-9 groups (P=0.972, P=0.276) . The incidence of grades 2-4 acute GVHD was 14.5% , 11.1% , and 8.8% in the three groups, respectively (P=0.493) , chronic GVHD incidence in the three group was 8.8% , 14.3% and 12.0% , respectively (P=0.493) . The infection rates of CMV and EBV in the ATG-9 group (77.2% and 12.5% ) were significantly higher than those in the ATG-6 (43.3% and 3.5% ) , and ATG -7.5 group (44.4% and 1.5% ) (P<0.001 and P=0.033, respectively) . ?Among the three groups, there were no significant difference in the 3-year overall survival [68.5% (95% CI 60.3% -77.9% ) , 60.1% (95% CI 48.3% -74.8% ) , 64.7% (95% CI 51.9% -80.7% ) ], cumulative incidences of relapse [34.6% (95% CI 34.3% -35.1% ) , 38.0% (95% CI 37.3% -38.7% ) , 20.6% (95% CI 20.0% -21.3% ) ], disease-free survival [53.3% (95% CI 44.9% -63.4% ) , 51.9% (95% CI 41% -65.8% ) , 63.9% (95% CI 51.9% -78.7% ) ] and non-relapse mortality [24.2% (95% CI 23.8% -24.5% ) , 26.0% (95% CI 25.4% -26.6% ) , 23.6% (95% CI 26.3% -28.2% ) ] (P=0.648, P=0.165, and P=0.486 and P=0.955) . Conclusion: Low dose (6 mg/kg) of rATG may increase the risk of grade ?-? aGVHD, and a high dose (9 mg/kg) of ATG could significantly increase the risk of CMV and EBV infection. Median dose (7.5 mg/kg) of ATG is expected to reduce the incidence of moderate to severe aGVHD and viral infections without increasing the mortality.
Comparing the outcomes between TMLI and non-TMLI conditioning regimens for adult high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a single-center experience
Leukemia & lymphoma. 2020;:1-9
This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the outcomes of adult patients with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with either total marrow and lymphoid irradiation (TMLI)-containing or non-TMLI conditioning regimen. Seventy adult patients with high-risk ALL who received allo-HSCT were enrolled in this study and divided into two groups based on the conditioning regimen type (TMLI group: n = 29 and non-TMLI group: n = 41). We noted significant statistical differences in the 1-year estimated cumulative incidence of relapse (25% vs. 46.5%, p = 0.018), the 1-year estimated overall survival (73.1% vs. 52.6%, p = 0.033) and disease-free survival (65.2% vs. 48.2%, p = 0.026) but found no considerable difference in transplant-related mortality (12% vs. 13.4%, p = 0.619) between patients in the TMLI and non-TMLI groups. The TMLI-containing regimen is safe and alternative for patients with high-risk ALL undergoing allo-HSCT.
Clinical study using mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of patients with severe COVID-19
Frontiers of Medicine. 2020;:1-10
The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 was identified in December 2019. The symptoms include fever, cough, dyspnea, early symptom of sputum, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is the immediate treatment used for patients with severe cases of COVID-19. Herein, we describe two confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Wuhan to explore the role of MSC in the treatment of COVID-19. MSC transplantation increases the immune indicators (including CD4 and lymphocytes) and decreases the inflammation indicators (interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein). High-flow nasal cannula can be used as an initial support strategy for patients with ARDS. With MSC transplantation, the fraction of inspired O(2) (FiO(2)) of the two patients gradually decreased while the oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) and partial pressure of oxygen (PO(2)) improved. Additionally, the patients' chest computed tomography showed that bilateral lung exudate lesions were adsorbed after MSC infusion. Results indicated that MSC transplantation provides clinical data on the treatment of COVID-19 and may serve as an alternative method for treating COVID-19, particularly in patients with ARDS.
Reduced-intensity versus Myeloablative Conditioning Regimens for Younger Adults with Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of Cancer. 2020;11(17):5223-5235
Background: Historically, reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) was recommended to be performed for older patients who were considered ineligible for myeloablative conditioning (MAC) before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, the evidence regarding the optimal conditioning intensity in younger patients with AML or MDS is weak and contradictory. Methods: PubMed, Medline, Embase, and other online sources were searched from the initial period to February 25, 2020. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to estimate pooling effects. Results: Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about conditioning intensity involving 633 patients were included. There were no significant differences of 1/2/4/5 years progression-free survival (PFS) and relapse incidence (RI) between two conditioning intensities. Overall survival (OS) was similar at 1/2/4 years, but patients receiving RIC had a higher OS at 5 years. Additionally, RIC were associated with lower non-relapse mortality, less grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and lower incidence of chronic GVHD compared with MAC regimens. Subgroup analysis showed similar OS and RI for AML patients, and there was a trend towards lower NRM and grade II-IV aGVHD in RIC group. Available data for MDS indicated that OS, PFS, and RI were comparable. For intermediate-risk patients, there was no evidence that RIC is inferior to MAC. However, for high-risk patients, MAC tends to perform better. Conclusions: Based on the above results, it might be concluded that RIC is a feasible treatment option for adults with AML or MDS younger than 66 years, particularly those with intermediate-risk disease. Future RCTs incorporating of risk stratifications are warranted to guide the optimal decision under certain conditions.
[The clinical observation of serum specific biomarkers in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease]
Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi. 2019;40(11):948-952
Objective: Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a major long-term complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) . It is important to study the changes of serum biomarkers expression in patients for early diagnosis and treatment. Methods: The expression levels of five serum protein markers (IL-1b, IL-16, CXCL9, CCL19, CCL17) in patients with or without cGVHD after allo-HSCT were detected by liquid suspension microarray. Results: Compared with the control group without cGVHD, the expression levels of CXCL9 and CCL17 in serum of patients with cGVHD were significantly increased (P<0.05) . CCL17 was correlated with the severity of cGVHD (P<0.001) . CXCL9 was significantly increased in the serum of patients with skin lesion (P<0.01) , and CCL17 was significantly expressed in cGVHD patients with liver as the target organ (P<0.01) . Conclusion: The combination of CXCL9 and CCL17 can be used as serum biomarkers of cGVHD, which has certain reference value in assisting the diagnosis and evaluation of cGVHD severity.
Anti-CD19 CAR-T Therapy Bridging to Allo-HSCT for Relapsed/refractory B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: An Open-Label Pragmatic Clinical Trial
American journal of hematology. 2019
Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T-cell (CAR-T) therapy is effective and safe for patients with relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (r/r B-ALL), but its value has been limited in terms of long-term leukemia-free survival. New strategies that can help CAR-T therapy achieve lasting effect are urgently warranted. This non-randomized interventional pragmatic clinical trial aimed to explore whether consolidative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) could improve the long-term prognosis of the minimal residual disease-negative complete remission (MRD(-) CR) patients after CAR-T therapy. In the first stage, 58 r/r B-ALL patients received split doses of CAR-T cells after lymphodepleting chemotherapy, and 51 (87.9%) achieved CR. In the second stage, 21/47 MRD(-) CR patients without previous allo-HSCT and contraindications or other restrictions, on their own accord, received consolidative allo-HSCT within three months after CAR-T therapy. There was no difference in overall survival (OS) between the MRD(-) CR patients who received allo-HSCT and those who didn't, but event-free survival (EFS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) were significantly prolonged by allo-HSCT in the subgroups with either high (≥ 5%) pre-infusion bone marrow MRD assessed by flow cytometry (BM-FCM-MRD) or poor prognostic markers (P < 0.05). However, no difference was found in EFS and RFS for patients with pre-infusion BM-FCM-MRD < 5% and without poor prognostic markers (P > 0.05). To conclude, CAR-T therapy bridging to allo-HSCT is a safe and effective therapeutic strategy for r/r B-ALL patients, and may prolong their EFS and RFS, especially when they have high pre-infusion BM-FCM-MRD or poor prognostic markers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Unrelated donor peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for patients with beta-thalassaemia major based on a novel conditioning regimen
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2019
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT) is the only available curative treatment for patients with beta-thalassemia major (beta-TM). However, the problem of finding a suitable sibling donor (SD) with well-matched human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) is still a major obstacle to curing these patients. With the progress in high-resolution HLA typing technology and supportive care, outcomes after allo-HSCT from a HLA-well-matched unrelated donor (UD) now approach those of well-matched SDs. However, UD-HSCT is hampered by an increased risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and transplant-related mortality (TRM). Here we report the outcome of transplantation in beta-TM patients using a novel WZ-14-TM transplant protocol, based on cyclophosphamide, intravenous busulfan, fludarabine, and antithymocyte globulin, in our center. Forty-eight patients between 2 and 11 years of age with beta-TM received HLA-well-matched UD peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) following the WZ-14-TM protocol. All of the transplanted patients achieved donor engraftment. The incidences of grade II-IV acute and chronic GVHD were 8.3% and 8.3%, respectively. The overall survival (OS) and thalassaemia-free survival (TFS) rates were both 100%. This encouraging result suggests that the WZ-14-TM protocol is a feasible and safe conditioning regime for beta-TM patients undergoing UD-HSCT.
Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation for multiple myeloma: a systematic review and meta-analysis from 2007 to 2017
Cancer cell international. 2018;18:62
Background: Despite recent advances, multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable. However, the appearance of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) through graft-versus-myeloma effect provides a potential way to cure MM to some degree. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the outcome of patients receiving allo-SCT and identified a series of prognostic factors that may affect the outcome of allo-SCT. Patients/methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from 2007.01.01 to 2017.05.03 using the keywords 'allogeneic' and 'myeloma'. Results: A total of 61 clinical trials involving 8698 adult patients were included. The pooled estimates (95% CI) for overall survival (OS) at 1, 2, 3 and 5 years were 70 (95% CI 56-84%), 62 (95% CI 53-71%), 52 (95% CI 44-61%), and 46 (95% CI 40-52%), respectively; for progression-free survival were 51 (95% CI 38-64%), 40 (95% CI 32-48%), 34 (95% CI 27-41%), and 27 (95% CI 23-31%), respectively; and for treatment-related mortality (TRM) were 18 (95% CI 14-21%), 21 (95% CI 17-25%), 20 (95% CI 13-26%), and 27 (95% CI 21-33%), respectively. Additionally, the pooled 100-day TRM was 12 (95% CI 5-18%). The incidences of grades II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and chronic GVHD were 34 (95% CI 30-37%) and 51 (95% CI 46-56%), respectively. The incidences of relapse rate (RR) and death rate were 50 (95% CI 45-55%) and 51 (95% CI 45-57%), respectively. Importantly, disease progression was the most major cause of death (48%), followed by TRM (44%). The results failed to show an apparent benefit of allo-SCT for standard risk patients, compared with tandem auto-SCT. In contrast, all 14 trials in our study showed that patients with high cytogenetic risk after allo-SCT had similar OS and PFS compared to those with standard risk, suggesting that allo-SCT may overcome the adverse prognosis of high cytogenetic risk. Conclusion: Due to the lack of consistent survival benefit, allo-SCT should not be considered as a standard of care for newly diagnosed and relapsed standard-risk MM patients. However, for patients with high-risk MM who have a poor long-term prognosis, allo-SCT may be a strong consideration in their initial course of therapy or in first relapse after chemotherapy, when the risk of disease progression may outweigh the transplant-related risks. A large number of prospective randomized controlled trials were needed to prove the benefits of these therapeutic options.
Effect of absolute monocyte count post-transplant on the outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant with busulfan and cyclophosphamide conditioning
Leukemia research. 2018;69:60-65
Peripheral monocytes have recently been evaluated as a prognostic factor in different types of hematological malignancies. This study assessed the prognostic value of absolute monocyte count (AMC) post-transplant on the clinical outcomes of 59 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who had undergone myeloablative conditioning (MAC) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) with busulfan and cyclophosphamide (Bu/Cy). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with a high AMC (≥0.57x10(9)/L) on post-transplant day (PTD) 15 had a significantly worse overall survival (OS) compared to patients with a low AMC (<0.57x10(9)/L) on PTD 15 (P=.0049). Univariate Cox proportional hazard analyses revealed that only high AMC on PTD 15 was a poor prognostic factor for OS (P=.008) and post-relapse survival (P=.030). We conclude that AMC≥0.57x10(9)/L on PTD 15 is associated with more deaths in patients with AML who have undergone MAC allo-HSCT with Bu/Cy.
Rotavirus Infection in Pediatric Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients: Clinical Course and Experience Using Nitazoxanide and Enterally Administered Immunoglobulins
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 2018;37(2):176-181
BACKGROUND Rotaviruses may produce prolonged and severe disease in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. Nitazoxanide and enterally administered human immunoglobulins are potential therapeutic options. This retrospective study describes the clinical course of rotavirus infection in pediatric allogeneic HCT recipients and a single-center experience with nitazoxanide and oral immunoglobulins as potential treatment options. METHODS We identified 36 patients who had positive stool rotavirus antigen assays after allogeneic HCT from May 30, 2012, to July 31, 2015. Clinical, microbiologic and treatment data were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS Forty-nine discrete episodes of rotavirus infection were identified among these 36 patients for a cumulative incidence of 19.7%. For these 49 episodes, the median day to infection after HCT was day 82, and the median duration of diarrhea was 17.5 days (range 4-122). Nitazoxanide and enteral immunoglobulins were prescribed for 41 episodes. The median duration of clinical symptoms after initiation of nitazoxanide was 11 days (range 2-85), 23 days (range 10-107) after enteral immunoglobulins and 26 days (range 6-90) after a combination of nitazoxanide and enteral immunoglobulins (P = 0.1). No adverse effects of either treatment were documented, but efficacy could not be assessed in this patient population. CONCLUSIONS In pediatric HCT recipients, the clinical illness produced by rotaviruses is prolonged compared with otherwise healthy children. Nitazoxanide appears safe, but its efficacy for this indication requires further study.