The European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) consensus recommendations for donor selection in haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation
Bone marrow transplantation. 2019
The number of HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplants continues to increase worldwide due to recent improvements in outcomes, allowing more patients with hematological malignancies and non-malignant disorders to benefit from this procedure and have a chance to cure their disease. Despite these encouraging results, questions remain as multiple donors are usually available for transplantation, and choosing the best HLA-haploidentical donor for transplantation remains a challenge. Several approaches to haploidentical transplantation have been developed over time and, based on the graft received, can be grouped as follows: T-cell depleted haploidentical transplants, either complete or partial, or with T-cell replete grafts, performed with post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, or G-CSF-primed bone marrow graft and enhanced GVHD prophylaxis. Carefully selecting the donor can help optimize transplant outcomes for recipients of haploidentical donor transplants. Variables usually considered in the donor selection include presence of donor-specific antibodies in the recipient, donor age, donor/recipient gender and ABO combinations, and immunogenic variables, such as natural killer cell alloreactivity or KIR haplotype. Here we provide a comprehensive review of available evidence for selecting haploidentical donors for transplantation, and summarize the recommendations from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) on donor selection for different transplant platforms.
A unique schedule of palonosetron, ondansetron, and dexamethasone for the prevention of delayed nausea and vomiting in patients receiving myeloablative chemotherapy
Journal of oncology pharmacy practice : official publication of the International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practitioners. 2018;:1078155218790345
Myeloablative chemotherapy administered prior to autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) is associated with a significant amount of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). We conducted a phase II trial to assess the safety, efficacy, and impact on quality of life when palonosetron (PAL) 0.25 mg combined with dexamethasone were given on the final or only day of myeloablative chemotherapy for auto-SCT. The primary end point of this study was the incidence of achieving a delayed CINV complete response defined as no emetic episode and no use of rescue medications during the 24-120 h period post chemotherapy. Eighty-five patients were enrolled in the study and received PAL. A delayed CINV complete response was achieved in 15% of patients. A multivariate analysis demonstrated no associated differences between age, gender, diagnosis, or regimen. By day 5 after PAL, the mean nausea severity was 0.91 +/- 2.45 vs. 0.09 +/- 1.58 at baseline (p = 0.012). Quality of life measurements demonstrated similar quality of life between baseline and day 3. By day 6 however, nausea alone had a statistically significant impact on quality of life. In our study, PAL controlled nausea severity and sustained quality of life, but further strategies are needed to control delayed CINV associated with the auto-SCT process.
Haploidentical Transplantation with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide for High-Risk Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation. 2017;23(2):318-324
Haploidentical transplantation performed with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy)-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis has been associated with favorable outcomes for patients with acute myeloid leukemia and lymphomas. However, it remains unclear if such approach is effective for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We analyzed outcomes of 109 consecutively treated ALL patients 18 years of age and older at 5 institutions. The median age was 32 years and the median follow-up for survivors was 13 months. Thirty-two patients were in first complete remission (CR1), while the rest were beyond CR1. Neutrophil engraftment occurred in 95% of the patients. The cumulative incidences of grades II to IV and III and IV acute GVHD at day 100 after transplantation were 32% and 11%, respectively, whereas chronic GVHD, nonrelapse mortality, relapse rate, and disease-free survival (DFS) at 1 year after transplantation were 32%, 21%, 27%, and 51%, respectively. Patients in CR1 had 52% DFS at 3 years. These results suggest that haploidentical transplants performed with PTCy-based GVHD prophylaxis provide a very suitable alternative to HLA-matched transplantations for patients with ALL.