Chimerism evaluation in measurable residual disease-suspected cells isolated by flow cell sorting as a reliable tool for measurable residual disease verification in acute leukemia patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Cytometry. Part B, Clinical cytometry. 2020
BACKGROUND The presence of minimal/measurable residual disease (MRD) before or after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is known as a predictor of poor outcome in patients with acute myeloid (AML) or lymphoblastic (ALL) leukemia. When performed with multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC), assessment of residual leukemic cells after HSCT may be limited by therapy-induced shifts in the immunophenotype (e.g., loss of surface molecules used for therapeutic targeting). However, in such cases, questionable cells can be isolated and tested for hematopoietic chimerism to clarify their origin. METHODS Questionable cell populations were detected during the MFC-based MRD monitoring of 52 follow-up bone marrow samples from 37 patients diagnosed with T cell neoplasms (n =14), B cell precursor ALL (n = 16), AML (n = 7). These cells (suspected leukemic or normal) were isolated by flow cell sorting and tested for hematopoietic chimerism by RTQ-PCR. RESULTS The origin of cells was successfully identified in 96.15% of cases (n = 50), which helped to validate the results of MFC-based MRD monitoring. CONCLUSIONS We believe that a combination of MFC, cell sorting, and chimerism testing may help confirm or disprove MRD presence in complicated cases after HSCT.
Myeloablative conditioning for allo-HSCT in pediatric ALL: FTBI or chemotherapy?-A multicenter EBMT-PDWP study
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Although most children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) receive fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI) as myeloablative conditioning (MAC) for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), it is an important matter of debate if chemotherapy can effectively replace FTBI. To compare outcomes after FTBI versus chemotherapy-based conditioning (CC), we performed a retrospective EBMT registry study. Children aged 2-18 years after MAC for first allo-HSCT of bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) from matched-related (MRD) or unrelated donors (UD) in first (CR1) or second remission (CR2) between 2000 and 2012 were included. Propensity score weighting was used to control pretreatment imbalances of the observed variables. 3.054 patients were analyzed. CR1 (1.498): median follow-up (FU) after FTBI (1.285) and CC (213) was 6.8 and 6.1 years. Survivals were not significantly different. CR2 (1.556): median FU after FTBI (1.345) and CC (211) was 6.2 years. Outcomes after FTBI were superior as compared with CC with regard to overall survival (OS), leukemia-free survival (LFS), relapse incidence (RI), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). However, we must emphasize the preliminary character of the results of this retrospective "real-world-practice" study. These findings will be prospectively assessed in the ALL SCTped 2012 FORUM trial.