[Optimization of ATG dose in haploid hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies]
Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi. 2020;41(7):557-563
Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy of different doses of rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) in haplo-HSCT in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Methods: Malignant hematological patients treated at our hospital from March 2013 to December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. These patients were divided into three groups as per three doses of ATG (6 mg/kg, 7.5 mg/kg, and 9 mg/kg) in the conditioning regimens. The transplant outcomes were compared in terms of the occurrence of acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) , infection, and survival. Results: ?Total 288 patients were enrolled in the study, including 182 men and 106 women, with a median age of 18 (6-62) years. Total 110 patients were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) , 128 with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) , 8 with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) , 28 with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) , and 14 with mixed cell leukemia (MAL) . There were 159 patients in the ATG-6 group, 72 in the ATG-7.5 group, and 57 in the ATG-9 group. The median follow-up time of post transplantation was 14 (0.2-74) months. ?The incidence of neutrophil engraftment (96.9% , 97.2% , and 96.5% , respectively) and platelet engraftment (92.5% , 87.5% , and 86% , respectively) did not significantly differ among the ATG-6, ATG-7.5, and ATG-9 groups (P=0.972, P=0.276) . The incidence of grades 2-4 acute GVHD was 14.5% , 11.1% , and 8.8% in the three groups, respectively (P=0.493) , chronic GVHD incidence in the three group was 8.8% , 14.3% and 12.0% , respectively (P=0.493) . The infection rates of CMV and EBV in the ATG-9 group (77.2% and 12.5% ) were significantly higher than those in the ATG-6 (43.3% and 3.5% ) , and ATG -7.5 group (44.4% and 1.5% ) (P<0.001 and P=0.033, respectively) . ?Among the three groups, there were no significant difference in the 3-year overall survival [68.5% (95% CI 60.3% -77.9% ) , 60.1% (95% CI 48.3% -74.8% ) , 64.7% (95% CI 51.9% -80.7% ) ], cumulative incidences of relapse [34.6% (95% CI 34.3% -35.1% ) , 38.0% (95% CI 37.3% -38.7% ) , 20.6% (95% CI 20.0% -21.3% ) ], disease-free survival [53.3% (95% CI 44.9% -63.4% ) , 51.9% (95% CI 41% -65.8% ) , 63.9% (95% CI 51.9% -78.7% ) ] and non-relapse mortality [24.2% (95% CI 23.8% -24.5% ) , 26.0% (95% CI 25.4% -26.6% ) , 23.6% (95% CI 26.3% -28.2% ) ] (P=0.648, P=0.165, and P=0.486 and P=0.955) . Conclusion: Low dose (6 mg/kg) of rATG may increase the risk of grade ?-? aGVHD, and a high dose (9 mg/kg) of ATG could significantly increase the risk of CMV and EBV infection. Median dose (7.5 mg/kg) of ATG is expected to reduce the incidence of moderate to severe aGVHD and viral infections without increasing the mortality.
Comparing the outcomes between TMLI and non-TMLI conditioning regimens for adult high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a single-center experience
Leukemia & lymphoma. 2020;:1-9
This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the outcomes of adult patients with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with either total marrow and lymphoid irradiation (TMLI)-containing or non-TMLI conditioning regimen. Seventy adult patients with high-risk ALL who received allo-HSCT were enrolled in this study and divided into two groups based on the conditioning regimen type (TMLI group: n = 29 and non-TMLI group: n = 41). We noted significant statistical differences in the 1-year estimated cumulative incidence of relapse (25% vs. 46.5%, p = 0.018), the 1-year estimated overall survival (73.1% vs. 52.6%, p = 0.033) and disease-free survival (65.2% vs. 48.2%, p = 0.026) but found no considerable difference in transplant-related mortality (12% vs. 13.4%, p = 0.619) between patients in the TMLI and non-TMLI groups. The TMLI-containing regimen is safe and alternative for patients with high-risk ALL undergoing allo-HSCT.
Ruxolitinib add-on in corticosteroid-refractory graft-vs-host disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: Results from a retrospective study on 38 Chinese patients
World journal of clinical cases. 2020;8(6):1065-1073
BACKGROUND Graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Some patients have steroid-refractory (SR) GVHD. AIM: To evaluate the effect and safety of ruxolitinib add-on in the treatment of patients with SR acute (a) and chronic (c) GVHD. METHODS We retrospectively analyzed 38 patients administered ruxolitinib add-on to standard immunosuppressive therapy for SR-aGVHD or SR-cGVHD following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Ruxolitinib was administered 5-10 mg/d depending on disease severity, patient status, and the use of anti-fungal drugs. Overall response rate, time to best response, malignancy relapse rate, infection rate, and treatment-related adverse events were assessed. RESULTS The analysis included 10 patients with SR-aGVHD (grade III/IV, n = 9) and 28 patients with SR-cGVHD (moderate/severe, n = 24). For the SR-aGVHD and SR-cGVHD groups, respectively: Median number of previous GVHD therapies was 2 (range: 1-3) and 2 (1-4); median follow-up was 2.5 (1.5-4) and 5 (1.5-10) mo; median time to best response was 1 (0.5-2.5) and 3 (1-9.5) mo; and overall response rate was 100% (complete response: 80%) and 82.1% (complete response: 10.7%) with a response observed in all GVHD-affected organs. The malignancy relapse rates for the SR-aGVHD and SR-cGVHD groups were 10.0% and 10.7%, respectively. Reactivation rates for cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and varicella-zoster virus, respectively, were 30.0%, 10.0%, and 0% for the SR-aGVHD group and 0%, 14.3%, and 7.1% for the SR-cGVHD group. CONCLUSION Ruxolitinib add-on was effective and safe as salvage therapy for SR-GVHD.
Low Non-Relapse Mortality after HLA Matched Related Two-Step Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation using Cyclophosphamide (CY) for Graft versus Host Disease Prophylaxis and the Potential Impact of Non-CY-Exposed T Cells on Outcomes
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2020
The use of cyclophosphamide (CY) for bidirectional tolerization of recipient and donor T cells is associated with reduced rates of graft versus host disease (GVHD) and non-relapse mortality (NRM) after human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, recurrent disease remains the primary barrier to long term survival. We extended our two-step approach to HLA matched related HSCT using a radiation-based myeloablative conditioning regimen combined with a high dose of T cells in an attempt to reduce relapse rates while maintaining the beneficial effects of CY tolerization. After conditioning, patients received their grafts in two components. First, a fixed dose of 2x10(8)/kg T cells was infused, followed 2 days later by CY. Second, a CD34-selected graft containing a small residual amount of non-CY exposed T cells, median dose of 2.98x10(3)/kg, was administered. Forty-six patients with hematological malignancies were treated. Despite the myeloablative conditioning regimen and use of high doses of T cells, at 1 and 5 years, the cumulative incidences (CI) of grades 2-4 acute and chronic GVHD, and NRM were very low at 13%, 9% and 4.3% respectively. This contributed to a high overall survival (OS) rate of 89.1% at 1 year and 65.8% at 5 years. Relapse was the primary cause of mortality with a CI of 23.9% at 1 year and 45.7% at 5 years. In a post hoc analysis, relapse rates were significantly lower in patients receiving greater than versus less than the group median of non-CY exposed, residual T cells in the CD34 product, 19.3% versus 58.1% (p=0.009) without concomitant increase in NRM. In its current form, this two-step regimen was highly tolerable but strategies to reduce relapse, potentially the addition of T cells not exposed to CY, are needed.
The great challenge of managing recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation combined with COVID-19
Bone Marrow Transplantation. 2020
Reduced-intensity versus Myeloablative Conditioning Regimens for Younger Adults with Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of Cancer. 2020;11(17):5223-5235
Background: Historically, reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) was recommended to be performed for older patients who were considered ineligible for myeloablative conditioning (MAC) before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, the evidence regarding the optimal conditioning intensity in younger patients with AML or MDS is weak and contradictory. Methods: PubMed, Medline, Embase, and other online sources were searched from the initial period to February 25, 2020. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to estimate pooling effects. Results: Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about conditioning intensity involving 633 patients were included. There were no significant differences of 1/2/4/5 years progression-free survival (PFS) and relapse incidence (RI) between two conditioning intensities. Overall survival (OS) was similar at 1/2/4 years, but patients receiving RIC had a higher OS at 5 years. Additionally, RIC were associated with lower non-relapse mortality, less grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and lower incidence of chronic GVHD compared with MAC regimens. Subgroup analysis showed similar OS and RI for AML patients, and there was a trend towards lower NRM and grade II-IV aGVHD in RIC group. Available data for MDS indicated that OS, PFS, and RI were comparable. For intermediate-risk patients, there was no evidence that RIC is inferior to MAC. However, for high-risk patients, MAC tends to perform better. Conclusions: Based on the above results, it might be concluded that RIC is a feasible treatment option for adults with AML or MDS younger than 66 years, particularly those with intermediate-risk disease. Future RCTs incorporating of risk stratifications are warranted to guide the optimal decision under certain conditions.
Anti-CD19 CAR-T Therapy Bridging to Allo-HSCT for Relapsed/refractory B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: An Open-Label Pragmatic Clinical Trial
American journal of hematology. 2019
Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T-cell (CAR-T) therapy is effective and safe for patients with relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (r/r B-ALL), but its value has been limited in terms of long-term leukemia-free survival. New strategies that can help CAR-T therapy achieve lasting effect are urgently warranted. This non-randomized interventional pragmatic clinical trial aimed to explore whether consolidative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) could improve the long-term prognosis of the minimal residual disease-negative complete remission (MRD(-) CR) patients after CAR-T therapy. In the first stage, 58 r/r B-ALL patients received split doses of CAR-T cells after lymphodepleting chemotherapy, and 51 (87.9%) achieved CR. In the second stage, 21/47 MRD(-) CR patients without previous allo-HSCT and contraindications or other restrictions, on their own accord, received consolidative allo-HSCT within three months after CAR-T therapy. There was no difference in overall survival (OS) between the MRD(-) CR patients who received allo-HSCT and those who didn't, but event-free survival (EFS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) were significantly prolonged by allo-HSCT in the subgroups with either high (≥ 5%) pre-infusion bone marrow MRD assessed by flow cytometry (BM-FCM-MRD) or poor prognostic markers (P < 0.05). However, no difference was found in EFS and RFS for patients with pre-infusion BM-FCM-MRD < 5% and without poor prognostic markers (P > 0.05). To conclude, CAR-T therapy bridging to allo-HSCT is a safe and effective therapeutic strategy for r/r B-ALL patients, and may prolong their EFS and RFS, especially when they have high pre-infusion BM-FCM-MRD or poor prognostic markers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
IDA-intensified hematopoietic cell transplantation improves relapse and survival of high-risk acute leukemia patients with minimal residual disease
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2018
The optimal conditioning regimen of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for high-risk patients with minimal residual disease (MRD) remains controversial. We studied the results in 98 high-risk acute leukemia patients being transplanted with idarubicin (IDA)-intensified conditioning regimens between 2012 January and 2017 January. Among these patients, 31 (31.6%) had more than 5% marrow blasts at time of transplantation. 67 patients were in morphologic remission and MRD negative status at time of conditioning was achieved in 39 (39.8%) patients, whereas 28 (28.6%) remained carriers of any other positive MRD level in the bone marrow. Three-year relapse estimates of patients with MRD-positive remission was 22.0%, which was remarkably lower than patients with active disease (45.4%, p=0.027), but approximate to that of patients in MRD-negative remission (15.5%, p=0.522). There were no significant differences in terms of 3-year estimated overall survival (3y-OS) and disease-free survival (3y-DFS) between MRD-positive remission and MRD-negative remission groups (71.4% vs 79.1%, p=0.562; 67.9% vs 76.9%, p=0.634). Moreover, the estimated 3y-OS and 3y-DFS of patients in MRD-positive remission were significantly better than those in patients with active disease (71.4% vs 41.9%, p=0.033; 67.9% vs 38.7%, p=0.037). These data indicate that IDA-intensified conditioning allo-HSCT could overcome the negative prognostic impact of MRD.
Idarubicin-intensified haploidentical HSCT with GvHD prophylaxis of ATG and basiliximab provides comparable results to sibling donors in high-risk acute leukemia
Bone Marrow Transplantation. 2017;52(9):1253-1260
We designed a novel haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) system using idarubicin (IDA) intensified conditioning regimens and combination of antithymocyte globulin and basiliximab for GvHD prophylaxis. The outcomes of 110 high-risk acute leukemia patients undergoing haplo-HSCT were compared with 69 contemporaneous high-risk patients receiving HLA-matched sibling transplantation using uniform IDA-intensified regimens. The relapse incidence of haplo-HSCT was 23.4%, and 3-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) achieved 62.9%, 59.1%, respectively. The cumulative incidences of II-IV and III-IV aGvHD were 28.6 and 14.3%, while limited and extensive cGvHD were 19.4, 13.8%. All these results were equivalent to those of concurrent identical sibling transplantation. Three-year OS and DFS for patients in advance stage reached 48.5, 47.3%. Furthermore, the relapse, 3-year OS of positive minimal residual disease (MRD) patients did not differ from negative MRD patients (18.9% vs 11.5%, 63.6% vs 69.6%), indicating our intensified haplo-HSCT technique could circumvent the dismal prognosis of MRD. These data provide reinforcing evidence that our haplo-HSCT system could dramatically improve the survival of high-risk acute leukemia with low relapse and acceptable transplantation-related mortality, and might be a promising therapeutic option for high-risk patients.