Nonmyeloablative Alternative Donor Transplantation for Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: From the LWP-EBMT, Eurocord, and CIBMTR
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2020;:Jco1902408
PURPOSE To compare the outcomes of patients with Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma undergoing nonmyeloablative haploidentical or unrelated cord blood (UCB) hematopoietic cell transplantation. PATIENTS AND METHODS We retrospectively studied 740 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 283, 38%) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 457, 62%) age 18-75 years who received transplantations from 2009 to 2016. Data were reported to the Lymphoma Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Eurocord, or Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. Of the 526 patients who received haploidentical transplantation, 68% received bone marrow and 32% received peripheral blood. All patients received a uniform transplantation conditioning regimen (2 Gy of total-body irradiation, cyclophosphamide, and fludarabine) and graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis (calcineurin inhibitor and mycophenolate). In addition, patients who received a haploidentical transplantation received posttransplantation cyclophosphamide. RESULTS Compared with haploidentical bone marrow and peripheral-blood transplantations and adjusted for age, lymphoma subtype, and disease status, survival was lower after UCB transplantation (hazard ratio [HR], 1.55; P = .001; and HR, 1.59; P = .005, respectively). Similarly, progression-free survival was lower after UCB transplantations compared with haploidentical bone marrow and peripheral-blood transplantations (HR, 1.44; P = .002; and HR, 1.86; P < .0001), respectively. The 4-year overall and progression-free survival rates after UCB transplantation were 49% and 36%, respectively, compared with 58% and 46% after haploidentical bone marrow transplantation and 59% and 52% after peripheral-blood transplantation, respectively. Lower survival was attributed to higher transplantation-related mortality after UCB transplantation compared with haploidentical bone marrow and peripheral-blood transplantation (HR, 1.91; P = .0001; and HR, 2.27; P = .0002, respectively). CONCLUSION When considering HLA-mismatched transplantation for Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the data support haploidentical related donor transplantation over UCB transplantation.
patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 283, 38%) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 457, 62%) age 18-75 years who received alternative donor transplantations from 2009 to 2016 (n=740)
Haploidentical transplantation from bone marrow or peripheral blood (n=526)
Unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCB, n=214)
Compared with haploidentical bone marrow and peripheral-blood transplantations and adjusted for age, lymphoma subtype, and disease status, survival was lower after UCB transplantation (hazard ratio [HR], 1.55 and HR, 1.5, respectively). Similarly, progression-free survival was lower after UCB transplantations compared with haploidentical bone marrow and peripheral-blood transplantations (HR, 1.44; and HR, 1.86), respectively. The 4-year overall and progression-free survival rates after UCB transplantation were 49% and 36%, respectively, compared with 58% and 46% after haploidentical bone marrow transplantation and 59% and 52% after peripheral-blood transplantation, respectively. Lower survival was attributed to higher transplantation-related mortality after UCB transplantation compared with haploidentical bone marrow and peripheral-blood transplantation (HR, 1.91 and HR, 2.27 respectively).
Myeloablative conditioning for allo-HSCT in pediatric ALL: FTBI or chemotherapy?-A multicenter EBMT-PDWP study
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Although most children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) receive fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI) as myeloablative conditioning (MAC) for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), it is an important matter of debate if chemotherapy can effectively replace FTBI. To compare outcomes after FTBI versus chemotherapy-based conditioning (CC), we performed a retrospective EBMT registry study. Children aged 2-18 years after MAC for first allo-HSCT of bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) from matched-related (MRD) or unrelated donors (UD) in first (CR1) or second remission (CR2) between 2000 and 2012 were included. Propensity score weighting was used to control pretreatment imbalances of the observed variables. 3.054 patients were analyzed. CR1 (1.498): median follow-up (FU) after FTBI (1.285) and CC (213) was 6.8 and 6.1 years. Survivals were not significantly different. CR2 (1.556): median FU after FTBI (1.345) and CC (211) was 6.2 years. Outcomes after FTBI were superior as compared with CC with regard to overall survival (OS), leukemia-free survival (LFS), relapse incidence (RI), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). However, we must emphasize the preliminary character of the results of this retrospective "real-world-practice" study. These findings will be prospectively assessed in the ALL SCTped 2012 FORUM trial.
The conditional survival analysis of relapsed DLBCL after autologous transplant: a subgroup analysis of LY.12 and CORAL
Blood advances. 2020;4(9):2011-2017
The conditional survival of patients after frontline therapy for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) approaches that of the general population once patients have survived disease free for 2 years. We sought to determine the conditional survival of patients among patients with relapsed de novo DLBCL successfully undergoing an autologous stem-cell transplant (ASCT) after first relapse. A total of 478 patients with de novo DLBCL, relapsed after 1 treatment from the Collaborative Trial in Relapsed Aggressive Lymphoma (CORAL) and LY.12, were included. Patients were followed prospectively after ASCT for a median of 5.3 and 8.2 years, respectively. Individual patient data were analyzed for event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were estimated using French and Canadian life tables. The EFS estimates declined with each year of follow-up after ASCT and were 50.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 43.7% to 56.3%) and 43.4% (95% CI: 36.7% to 49.9%) at 5 years in CORAL and LY.12, respectively. The rate of death stabilized once patients achieved at least 4 years of EFS. Compared with the age- and sex-matched population, the SMR was significantly higher until 5 years after ASCT, when values were no longer statistically significant. Patients undergoing ASCT for relapsed DLBCL continue to have a higher rate of death at least until they have survived event free for 5 years. These observations can help to determine endpoints for future clinical trials in this population and for patient counseling. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00078949.
Impact of detectable measurable residual disease on umbilical cord blood transplantation
American journal of hematology. 2020
The impact of measurable residual disease (MRD) on cord blood transplantation (CBT) outcomes has remained debated. To address this issue, we assessed the impact of measurable MRD at CBT on outcomes in large cohort of patients with acute leukemia. Inclusion criteria included adult patients with acute myeloid (AML) or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), CBT as first allo-HCT in first or second complete remission (CR) at transplantation, and known MRD status at the time of CBT. Data from 506 patients were included in the analysis. Among them, 317 patients had AML and 189 had ALL. Positive MRD was reported in 169 (33%) patients while the remaining 337 patients were MRD negative at CBT. At 2 years, relapse incidence was 18% in patients with MRD negativity versus 33% in those with MRD positivity at transplantation (P<0.001). Two-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS) were 57% and 60%, respectively, in MRD negative patients, versus 38% (P<0.001) and 48% (P=0.004), respectively, in those with MRD positivity. There was no interaction between the impact of MRD on OS and LFS and diagnosis (i.e. ALL versus AML), single or double CBT, and reduced-intensity or myeloablative conditioning. On multivariate analysis, MRD positivity was associated with a higher risk of relapse (HR=1.8, P=0.003), comparable non-relapse mortality (P=0.44), worse LFS (HR=1.4, P=0.008) and a trend towards worse OS (HR=1.3, P=0.065). In conclusion, these data suggest that novel strategies that are aiming to achieve MRD negativity at CBT are needed for leukemic patients with positive MRD pre-CBT. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Changes in patients population and characteristics of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma: an analysis of the Lymphoma Working Party of the EBMT
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Indications for autologous (auto-HCT) and allogeneic transplantation (allo-HCT) in relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (rrHL) have been long established. The expectation is that long-term outcomes have significantly improved over time with increased experience in these procedures. The objective of this study was to assess whether this is the case and to identify further areas of improvement. A total of 13,639 adult patients receiving an auto-HCT or allo-HCT for rrHL were reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) over a 25-year period. Regarding auto-HCT, recipients are younger, interval between diagnosis and transplant shorter, peripheral blood has become the universal stem cell source and the use of total body irradiation is almost non-existent in recent years. Allo-HCT is currently mostly used as a second transplant; recipients are younger, fitter and less frequently, chemorefractory. Reduced intensity conditioning protocols have vastly replaced myeloablative protocols. Increasing numbers of haplo-HCT have been reported. Both in auto-HCT and allo-HCT, NRM, PFS and OS have significantly improved but relapse remains the main cause of treatment failure. A better selection of patients and improvements in the supportive care has resulted in a reduction in the NRM. Relapse after HCT remains unchanged and further research is needed.
Idelalisib exposure before allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with follicular lymphoma: an EBMT survey
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Autologous stem cell transplantation for HIV-associated lymphoma in the antiretroviral and rituximab era: a retrospective study by the EBMT Lymphoma Working Party
Bone marrow transplantation. 2019
The present study aimed at describing the outcome of patients with HIV-associated lymphomas following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (autoHCT) in the rituximab and combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) era. Eligible for this retrospective study were HIV-positive patients with lymphoma who received autoHCT between 2007 and 2013. A total of 118 patients were included with a median age of 45 years (range 24-66). Underlying diagnoses were diffuse large B cell lymphoma in 47%, Hodgkin lymphoma in 24%, Burkitt lymphoma in 18%, and plasmablastic lymphoma in 7% of patients. Disease status at autoHCT was complete remission in 44%, partial remission (PR) in 38%, and less than PR in 18% of the patients. With a median follow-up of 4 years, 3-year non-relapse mortality, incidence of relapse, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 10%, 27%, 63% and 66%, respectively. By multivariate analysis, disease status less than PR but not CD4+ cell count at the time of autoHCT was a significant predictor of unfavorable PFS and OS. In conclusion, in the era of cART and chemoimmunotherapy, the outcome of autoHCT for HIV-related lymphoma is driven by lymphoma-dependent risk factors rather than by characteristics of the HIV infection.
PTCy-based haploidentical vs matched related or unrelated donor reduced-intensity conditioning transplant for DLBCL
Blood advances. 2019;3(3):360-369
This study retrospectively compared long-term outcomes of nonmyeloablative/reduced intensity conditioning (NMC/RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) from a haploidentical family donor (haplo-HCT) using posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) with those of matched sibling donor (MSD) and matched unrelated donor (MUD) with or without T-cell depletion (TCD+/TCD-) in patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Adult patients with DLBCL who had undergone their first NMC/RIC allo-HCT between 2008 and 2015 were included. Recipients of haplo-HCT were limited to those receiving graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with PTCy. GVHD prophylaxis in MSD was limited to calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based approaches without in vivo TCD, while MUD recipients received CNI-based prophylaxis with or without TCD. Outcome analyses for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), nonrelapse mortality (NRM), and disease relapse/progression were calculated. A total of 1438 patients (haplo, 132; MSD, 525; MUD TCD+, 403; and MUD TCD-, 378) were included. Patients with haplo donors were significantly older, had a better performance status and had more frequently received total body irradiation-based conditioning regimens and bone marrow grafts than MSD and MUD TCD+ or TCD-. 3-year OS, PFS, NRM and relapse/progression incidence after haplo-HCT was 46%, 38%, 22%, and 41%, respectively, and not significantly different from outcomes of matched donor transplants on multivariate analyses. Haplo-HCT was associated with a lower cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD compared with MSD, MUD TCD+/TCD-. NMC/RIC haplo-HCT with PTCy seems to be a valuable alternative for patients with DLBCL considered for allo-HCT but lacking a matched donor.
Long-term outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for myelofibrosis
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant remains the only curative treatment for myelofibrosis. Most post-transplantation events occur during the first 2 years and hence we aimed to analyze the outcome of 2-year disease-free survivors. 1055 patients with myelofibrosis transplanted between 1995 and 2014 and registered in the registry of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation were included. Survival was compared to the matched general population to determine excess mortality and the risk factors that are associated. In the 2-year survivors, Disease-free survival was 64% (60-68%) and Overall Survival was 74% (71-78%) at 10 years, better in younger individuals and in women. Excess mortality was 14% (8-21%) in patients < 45 years and 33% (13-53%) in patients ≥ 65 years. The main cause of death was relapse of the primary disease. Graft versus Host Disease before 2 years decreased the risk of relapse. Multivariable analysis of excess mortality showed that age, male sex recipient, secondary myelofibrosis and no GVHD prior to the 2-year landmark increased the risk of excess mortality. This is the largest study to date analyzing long-term outcome in patients with myelofibrosis undergoing transplant. Overall it shows a good survival in patients alive and in remission at 2-years but the occurrence of late complications, including late relapses, infectious complications and secondary malignancies highlights the importance of screening and monitoring of long-term survivors.
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients with relapsed/refractory systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma. A retrospective analysis of the Lymphoma Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Bone marrow transplantation. 2019
Information regarding the curative role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) in systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (sALCL) is scarce. We analyzed the results of allo-HCT in patients with relapsed/refractory sALCL with special emphasis on the role of brentuximab vedotin (BV) as a bridge to allo-HCT. Forty-four patients (24 females, median age 38 years) with sALCL were included. Twenty-three patients (52%) received BV before allo-HCT; BV-treated patients were more heavily pretreated (≥3 lines of therapy in 74% vs. 38%, p = 0.04). Twenty-three patients (52%) were in complete remission (CR) at allo-HCT. Three-year nonrelapse mortality and incidence of relapse (IR) after allo-HCT were 7% and 40%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 39 (12-69) months for survivors, 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival were 53% and 74%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that heavily pretreated patients and those not in CR had a higher IR and a lower PFS. The use of BV before transplant did not impact on any of the outcomes. Allo-HCT is a curative therapeutic strategy in a significant proportion of patients with relapsed/refractory sALCL; BV does not seem to modify transplant-related outcomes but might be able to render more patients candidates for this curative treatment.