Acute GVHD prophylaxis plus ATLG after myeloablative allogeneic haemopoietic peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation from HLA-identical siblings in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia in remission: final results of quality of life and long-term outcome analysis of a phase 3 randomised study
The Lancet. Haematology. 2019;6(2):e89-e99
BACKGROUND We previously showed that human anti-T-lymphocyte globulin (ATLG) plus ciclosporin and methotrexate given to patients with acute leukaemia in remission, having allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation with peripheral blood stem cells from an HLA-identical sibling donor after myeloablative conditioning, significantly reduced 2-year chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) incidence and severity, without increasing disease relapse and infections, and improves cGVHD-free and relapse-free survival (cGRFS). The aim of an extended follow-up study was the assessment of long-term outcomes, which are, in this context, scarcely reported in the literature. We report unpublished data on quality of life (QoL) from the original study and the results of a follow-up extension. METHODS In the original open-label study, patients with acute myeloid and lymphoblastic leukaemia in first or subsequent remission, having sibling HLA-identical allogeneic peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation, were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive ATLG plus standard GVHD prophylaxis with ciclosporin and short-term methotrexate (ATLG group) or standard GVHD prophylaxis without ATLG (non-ATLG group). Conditioning regimens were cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg with either total body irradiation (12 Gy) or busulfan (12.8 mg/kg intravenously or 16 mg/kg orally), with or without etoposide (30-60 mg/kg). Randomisation was stratified according to centre and disease risk. The primary endpoint was cumulative incidence of cGVHD at 2 years. The primary and secondary endpoints, excluding QoL, have been published. QoL, assessed using European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-HDC29 questionnaires, was an unpublished secondary endpoint, which we now report here. A follow-up extension was then done, with the primary endpoint cumulative incidence of cGVHD. Enrolment has been completed for both studies. The original trial (number, NCT00678275) and follow-up extension (number, NCT03042676) are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. FINDINGS In the original study, from Dec 14, 2006, to Feb 2, 2012, 161 patients were enrolled and 155 were randomly assigned to either the ATLG group (n=83) or to the non-ATLG group (n=72). In the follow-up study, which started on Feb 7, 2017, and was completed on June 30, 2017, 61 patients were included in the ATLG group and 53 were included in the non-ATLG group. Global health status showed a more favourable time course in the ATLG group compared with the non-ATLG group (p=0.02; treatment by visit interaction). ATLG was descriptively superior to non-ATLG at 24 months for physical function (points estimate -14.8 [95% CI -26.4 to -3.1]; p=0.014) and social function (-19.1 [-38.0 to -0.2]; p=0.047), gastrointestinal side-effects (8.8 [2.5-15.1]; p=0.008) and effect on family (13.5 [1.2-25.8]; p=0.032). Extended follow-up (median 5.9 years [IQR 1.7-7.9]) confirmed a lower 5-year cGVHD incidence (30.0% [95% CI 21.4-41.9] vs 69.1% [59.1-80.1]; analysis for entire follow-up, p<0.001), no increase in relapses (35.4% [26.4-47.5] vs 22.5% [14.6-34.7]; p=0.09), improved cGRFS (34.3% [24.2-44.5] vs 13.9% [7.1-22.9]; p=0.005), and fewer patients still in immunosuppression (9.6% vs 28.3%; p=0.017) in the ATLG group compared with the non-ATLG group. 5-year overall survival, relapse-free survival, and non-relapse mortality did not differ significantly between groups. INTERPRETATION The addition of ATLG to standard GVHD prophylaxis improves the probability of surviving without disease relapse and cGVHD after myeloablative peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling donor for patients with acute leukaemia in remission. Further additional benefits are better QoL and shorter immunosuppressive treatment compared with standard GVHD prophylaxis without ATLG. Therefore, in this setting, ATLG plus standard GVHD prophylaxis should be preferred over the standard GVHD prophylaxis alone. FUNDING Neovii Biotech.
Outcome of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Adult Patients with Philadelphia Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in the Era of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors. A Registry-Based Study of the Italian Blood and Marrow Transplantation Society (Gitmo)
Patients with acute myeloid and lymphoblastic leukaemia in first or subsequent remission, undergoing sibling HLA-identical allogeneic peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation.
ATLG plus standard GVHD prophylaxis with ciclosporin and short-term methotrexate (ATLG Group, n=83)
Standard GVHD prophylaxis without ATLG (non-ATLG group, n=72)
Global health status showed a more favourable time course in the ATLG group compared with the non-ATLG group. ATLG was descriptively superior to non-ATLG at 24 months for physical function and social function, gastrointestinal side-effects and effect on. Extended follow-up confirmed a lower 5-year cGVHD incidence , no increase in relapses, improved cGRFS, and fewer patients still in immunosuppression in the ATLG group compared with the non-ATLG group. 5-year overall survival, relapse-free survival, and non-relapse mortality did not differ significantly between groups.
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2019
PURPOSE We performed a nationwide registry-based analysis to describe the clinical outcome of adults patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) who underwent an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) after a TKI-based treatment. PATIENTS AND RESULTS A total of 441 patients were included in the study. The median age at HSCT was 44 years (range 18-70). All the 441 patients (100%) received TKI before the HSCT (performed between 2005 and 2016). Of these patients, 404 (92%) were in cytologic complete remission (CR), while the remaining 37 (8%) had an active disease at the time of HSCT. Molecular minimal residual disease (MRD) was negative in 147 patients (36%) at the time of HSCT. The donor was unrelated in 46% of cases. The prevalent source of stem cells was peripheral blood (70%). The conditioning regimen was myeloablative in 82% of cases (TBI-based in 50%) and included ATG in 51% of cases. With a median follow-up after HSCT of 39.4 months (range: 1-145), the overall survival (OS) probability at 1, 2 and 5 years was 69.6%, 61.1% and 50.3%, respectively, with a median OS of 62 months. Progression-free survival (PFS) at 1, 2 and 5 years was 60.2%, 52.1% and 43.7%, respectively. OS and PFS were significantly better in patients with CR and MRD-negative at the time of transplant compared with those of patients with CR but MRD-positive (50% OS not reached vs. 36 months, P=0.015; 50% PFS not reached vs. 26 months, P=0.003). The subgroup of MRD-negative patients both at HSCT and at 3 months after HSCT had a better outcome (5 years OS rate 70%). Conversely, the 37 patients who underwent a HSCT with active Ph+ ALL had a median OS and PFS of 7 and 5 months, respectively. The 5 years cumulative incidence of relapse was significantly lower in MRD-negative patients (19.5% vs. 35.4%, P=0.001). The non-relapse mortality (NRM) after 1, 2 and 5 years was 19.1% (95%CI: 15.5-22.9), 20.7% (95%CI: 17-24.7) and 24.1% (95%CI: 20-28.5), respectively. The NRM was significantly lower with a mEBMT risk score of 0-2 compared with mEBMT risk score of ≥ 3 (15% vs. 25%, P=0,016). CONCLUSIONS The median OS for Ph+ ALL patients who underwent a TKI-based treatment followed by an allograft, in recent years at the GITMO Centers, was 62 months. Evaluation of the mEBMT risk score can be useful to predict NRM. Our data confirm that HSCT is a potentially curative treatment for Ph+ ALL with an excellent outcome for the subgroup of patients MRD-negative both at HSCT and at 3 months after HSCT (5 year OS 70%).
Impact of t-cell depletion strategies on outcomes following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for idiopathic aplastic anemia: A study on behalf of the european blood and marrow transplant (ebmt) saa working party
American journal of hematology. 2018
We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 1837 adults and children with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) who underwent matched sibling donor (MSD) and matched unrelated donor (MUD) haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) between 2000 and 2013. Patients were grouped by transplant conditioning containing either ATG (n=1283), alemtuzumab (n=261) or no serotherapy (NS) (n=293). The risks of chronic GvHD were significantly reduced when ATG or alemtuzumab were compared to no serotherapy (p=0.021 and p=0.003, respectively). Acute GVHD was significantly reduced in favor of alemtuzumab compared to ATG (P=0.012) and no serotherapy (p < 0.001). By multivariate analysis, when compared to ATG, alemtuzumab was associated with a lower risk of developing acute (OR 0.262; 95% CI 0.14-0.47; p<0.001) and chronic GVHD (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.35 - 0.94; p=0.027). OS was significantly better in ATG and alemtuzumab patients compared with no serotherapy (p=0.010 and p=0.025). Our data shows inclusion of serotherapy in MSD and MUD HSCT for patients with SAA reduces chronic GVHD and provides a survival advantage over patients not receiving serotherapy. Notably, alemtuzumab reduced the risk of acute and chronic GvHD compared to ATG and indicates that alemtuzumab might be the serotherapy of choice for MSD and MUD transplants for SAA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Transplant results in adults with Fanconi anaemia
British Journal of Haematology. 2018;180(1):100-109
The outcomes of adult patients transplanted for Fanconi anaemia (FA) have not been well described. We retrospectively analysed 199 adult patients with FA transplanted between 1991 and 2014. Patients were a median of 16 years of age when diagnosed with FA, and underwent transplantation at a median age of 23 years. Time between diagnosis and transplant was shortest (median 2 years) in those patients who had a human leucocyte antigen identical sibling donor. Fifty four percent of patients had bone marrow (BM) failure at transplantation and 46% had clonal disease (34% myelodysplasia, 12% acute leukaemia). BM was the main stem cell source, the conditioning regimen included cyclophosphamide in 96% of cases and fludarabine in 64%. Engraftment occurred in 82% (95% confidence interval [CI] 76-87%), acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) grade II-IV in 22% (95% CI 16-28%) and the incidence of chronic GvHD at 96 months was 26% (95% CI 20-33). Non-relapse mortality at 96 months was 56% with an overall survival of 34%, which improved with more recent transplants. Median follow-up was 58 months. Patients transplanted after 2000 had improved survival (84% at 36 months), using BM from an identical sibling and fludarabine in the conditioning regimen. Factors associated with improved outcome in multivariate analysis were use of fludarabine and an identical sibling or matched non-sibling donor. Main causes of death were infection (37%), GvHD (24%) and organ failure (12%). The presence of clonal disease at transplant did not significant impact on survival. Secondary malignancies were reported in 15 of 131 evaluable patients.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Twenty years of the Italian Fanconi Anemia Registry: where we stand and what remains to be learned
The natural history of Fanconi anemia remains hard to establish because of its rarity and its heterogeneous clinical presentation; since 1994, the Italian Fanconi Anemia Registry has collected clinical, epidemiological and genetic data of Italian Fanconi Anemia patients. This registry includes 180 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of Fanconi anemia who have either been enrolled prospectively, at diagnosis, or later on. After enrollment, follow-up data were periodically collected to assess the clinical course, possible complications and long-term survival; the median follow up was 15.6 years. The main goal of the study was to describe the natural history of Fanconi anemia, focusing on the following variables: family history, disease presentation, development of hematological manifestations, development of malignancies, occurrence of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and survival. Typical morphological and/or hematological abnormalities and/or growth retardation were the most common manifestations at diagnosis; the majority of patients (77%) exhibited hematological abnormalities at the initial presentation, and almost all (96%) eventually developed hematological manifestations. More than half of the patients (57%) underwent a bone-marrow transplant. The occurrence of cancer was quite rare at diagnosis, whereas the cumulative incidence of malignancies at 10, 20 and 30 years was 5%, 8% and 22%, respectively, for hematological cancers and 1%, 15% and 32%, respectively, for solid tumors. Overall survival at 10, 20 and 30 years were 88%, 56% and 37%, respectively; the main causes of death were cancer, complications of the hematological presentation and complications of transplantation. These data clearly confirm the detrimental outcome of Fanconi anemia, with no major improvement in the past decades. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.