Maintenance Therapies for Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas After Autologous Transplantation: A Consensus Project of ASBMT, CIBMTR, and the Lymphoma Working Party of EBMT
JAMA oncology. 2019
Importance: Maintenance therapies are often considered as a therapeutic strategy in patients with lymphoma following autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT) to mitigate the risk of disease relapse. With an evolving therapeutic landscape, where novel drugs are moving earlier in therapy lines, evidence relevant to contemporary practice is increasingly limited. The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT), Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR), and European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) jointly convened an expert panel with diverse expertise and geographical representation to formulate consensus recommendations regarding the use of maintenance and/or consolidation therapies after auto-HCT in patients with lymphoma. Observations: The RAND-modified Delphi method was used to generate consensus statements where at least 75% vote in favor of a recommendation was considered as consensus. The process included 3 online surveys moderated by an independent methodological expert to ensure anonymity and an in-person meeting. The panel recommended restricting the histologic categories covered in this project to Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and follicular lymphoma. On completion of the voting process, the panel generated 22 consensus statements regarding post auto-HCT maintenance and/or consolidation therapies. The grade A recommendations included endorsement of: (1) brentuximab vedotin (BV) maintenance and/or consolidation in BV-naive high-risk HL, (2) rituximab maintenance in MCL undergoing auto-HCT after first-line therapy, (3) rituximab maintenance in rituximab-naive FL, and (4) No post auto-HCT maintenance was recommended in DLBCL. The panel also developed consensus statements for important real-world clinical scenarios, where randomized data are lacking to guide clinical practice. Conclusions and Relevance: In the absence of contemporary evidence-based data, the panel found RAND-modified Delphi methodology effective in providing a rigorous framework for developing consensus recommendations for post auto-HCT maintenance and/or consolidation therapies in lymphoma.
Survival Outcomes of Younger Patients With Mantle Cell Lymphoma Treated in the Rituximab Era
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2019;:Jco1800690
PURPOSE Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a B-cell lymphoma characterized by cyclin D1 expression. Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) consolidation after induction chemotherapy is often used for eligible patients; however, the benefit remains uncertain in the rituximab era. Herein we retrospectively assessed the impact of AHCT consolidation on survival in a large cohort of transplantation-eligible patients age 65 years or younger. PATIENTS AND METHODS We retrospectively studied transplantation-eligible adults age 65 years or younger with newly diagnosed MCL treated between 2000 and 2015. The primary objective was to assess for improved progression-free survival (PFS) with AHCT consolidation and secondarily to assess for improved overall survival (OS). Cox multivariable regression analysis and propensity score-weighted (PSW) analysis were performed. RESULTS Data were collected from 25 medical centers for 1,254 patients; 1,029 met inclusion criteria. Median follow-up for the cohort was 76 months. Median PFS and OS were 62 and 139 months, respectively. On unadjusted analysis, AHCT was associated with improved PFS (75 v 44 months with v without AHCT, respectively; P < .01) and OS (147 v 115 months with v without AHCT, respectively; P < .05). On multivariable regression analysis, AHCT was associated with improved PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.54; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.66; P < .01) and a trend toward improved OS (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.01; P = .06). After PSW analysis, AHCT remained associated with improved PFS (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.84; P < .05) but not improved OS (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.1; P = .2). CONCLUSION In this large cohort of younger, transplantation-eligible patients with MCL, AHCT consolidation after induction was associated with significantly improved PFS but not OS after PSW analysis. Within the limitations of a retrospective analysis, our findings suggest that in younger, fit patients, AHCT consolidation may improve PFS.
Efficacy of High-Dose Therapy and Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Gray Zone Lymphoma: a US Multicenter Collaborative Study
Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation. 2017
High-dose therapy (HDT) and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT) has been anecdotally prescribed in gray zone lymphoma (GZL), showing encouraging efficacy. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study aimed to assess outcomes after auto-HCT in 32 patients with GZL treated at 9 transplant centers in the United States. Median age of patients at transplantation was 38 (18-70) years and the majority were male (n=21, 66%). Median number of lines of therapy prior to transplantation was 2 (1-4). BEAM was the most commonly prescribed regimen (n=23, 72%). Median follow up for surviving patients was 34 (1-106) months. Median OS was not reached. The 3-year PFS and OS for all patients were 69% and 78%, respectively. Three-year PFS and OS was 100% for patients who received only 1 line of therapy prior to auto-HCT vs. 65% (PFS, p=0.25) and 75% (OS, p=0.39) for those receiving >1 line. Cumulative incidence of relapse/progression at 1-year and 3-year post-transplantation were 4% and 31%, respectively. The 3-year NRM was 0. These findings suggest that HDT and auto-HCT is an effective treatment in patients with GZL. Our findings would ideally require confirmation in a larger cohort of patients, preferably in the setting of large prospective multicenter RCTs. However, we acknowledge that such studies could be hard and improbable to conduct in GZL owing to its rarity. Alternatively, a multicenter prospective study, which includes tissue banking and a data registry, to help better understand the biology and natural history of the disease is warranted.
Allogeneic transplantation provides durable remission in a subset of DLBCL patients relapsing after autologous transplantation
British Journal of Haematology. 2016;174(2):235-48
For diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients progressing after autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation (autoHCT), allogeneic HCT (alloHCT) is often considered, although limited information is available to guide patient selection. Using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) database, we identified 503 patients who underwent alloHCT after disease progression/relapse following a prior autoHCT. The 3-year probabilities of non-relapse mortality, progression/relapse, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 30, 38, 31 and 37% respectively. Factors associated with inferior PFS on multivariate analysis included Karnofsky performance status (KPS) <80, chemoresistance, autoHCT to alloHCT interval <1-year and myeloablative conditioning. Factors associated with worse OS on multivariate analysis included KPS<80, chemoresistance and myeloablative conditioning. Three adverse prognostic factors were used to construct a prognostic model for PFS, including KPS<80 (4 points), autoHCT to alloHCT interval <1-year (2 points) and chemoresistant disease at alloHCT (5 points). This CIBMTR prognostic model classified patients into four groups: low-risk (0 points), intermediate-risk (2-5 points), high-risk (6-9 points) or very high-risk (11 points), predicting 3-year PFS of 40, 32, 11 and 6%, respectively, with 3-year OS probabilities of 43, 39, 19 and 11% respectively. In conclusion, the CIBMTR prognostic model identifies a subgroup of DLBCL patients experiencing long-term survival with alloHCT after a failed prior autoHCT. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
NCCN Guidelines Insights: Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas, Version 3.2016
Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. 2016;14(9):1067-79
Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) represent a relatively uncommon heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) with an aggressive clinical course and poor prognosis. Anthracycline-based multiagent chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy followed by first-line consolidation with high-dose therapy followed by autologous stem cell rescue (HDT/ASCR) is the standard approach to most of the patients with newly diagnosed PTCL. Relapsed or refractory disease is managed with second-line systemic therapy followed by HDT/ASCR or allogeneic stem cell transplant, based on the patient's eligibility for transplant. In recent years, several newer agents have shown significant activity in patients with relapsed or refractory disease across all 4 subtypes of PTCL. These NCCN Guideline Insights highlight the important updates to the NCCN Guidelines for NHL, specific to the management of patients with relapsed or refractory PTCL. Copyright © 2016 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.
Long-term impact of prior rituximab therapy and early lymphocyte recovery on auto-SCT outcome for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
Bone Marrow Transplant. 2012;47(1):82-7
Early lymphocyte recovery following auto-SCT for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) has been reported to be associated with improved outcome. The significance of early lymphocyte recovery following a stem cell transplant in NHL subtype diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in the rituximab era remains unclear. Patients who underwent an auto-SCT at our institution for DLBCL during the time period 1998-2008 (n=115) were included in the study. Patient characteristics were well-balanced in both rituximab naive and rituximab-exposed groups. Prior rituximab therapy did not affect lymphocyte recovery on day 14 or day 28. Lymphocyte recovery on day 14 and day 28 and prior rituximab had no impact on survival after auto-SCT for DLBCL, despite early benefit. Other factors such as age, stage at presentation, number of salvage regimens, mobilization procedure, conditioning regimen, pre-transplant radiation therapy and pre-transplant disease status had no impact on survival. Our data showed that the survival benefit with early lymphocyte recovery and prior rituximab seen in previous reports may be lost with longer follow-up. Prior rituximab therapy does not appear to influence the lymphocyte count at days 14 and 28 following auto-SCT. Our findings suggest that future trials should consider manipulating the immune system as a post transplant intervention to improve long-term outcome.