Antiemetic prophylaxis in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a multicenter survey of the Gruppo Italiano Trapianto Midollo Osseo (GITMO) transplant programs
Annals of hematology. 2020
A survey within hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) centers of the Gruppo Italiano Trapianto Midollo Osseo (GITMO) was performed in order to describe current antiemetic prophylaxis in patients undergoing HSCT. The multicenter survey was performed by a questionnaire, covering the main areas on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV): antiemetic prophylaxis guidelines used, antiemetic prophylaxis in different conditioning regimens, and methods of CINV evaluation. The survey was carried out in November 2016, and it was repeated 6 months after the publication of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC)/European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) specific guidelines on antiemetic prophylaxis in HSCT. The results show a remarkable heterogeneity of prophylaxis among the various centers and a significant difference between the guidelines and the clinical practice. In the main conditioning regimens, the combination of a serotonin3 receptor antagonist (5-HT3-RA) with dexamethasone and neurokin1 receptor antagonist (NK1-RA), as recommended by MASCC/ESMO guidelines, increased from 0 to 15% (before the publication of the guidelines) to 9-30% (after the publication of the guidelines). This study shows a lack of compliance with specific antiemetic guidelines, resulting mainly in under-prophylaxis. Concerted strategies are required to improve the current CINV prophylaxis, to draft shared common guidelines, and to increase the knowledge and the adherence to the current recommendations for CINV prophylaxis in the specific field of HSCT.
Occurrence of long-term effects after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children affected by acute leukemia receiving either busulfan or total body irradiation: results of an AIEOP (Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica) retrospective study
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Patients given allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) present an increased incidence of long-term toxicities that can be attributed to the preparative regimen. We retrospectively analyzed in a population of 670 children receiving allo-HSCT for acute leukemia the occurrence of different late effects in function of the choice made between total body irradiation (TBI) and busulfan, as part of the preparative regimen. In univariable analysis, we found that patients treated with TBI developed cataract in 24% of the cases compared with 4% in patients treated with BU (p = 0.0001) and that the incidence of secondary malignant neoplasia (SMN) was higher in patients treated with TBI (18%) as compared with those prepared to the allograft with a Bu-based regimen (0%) (p = 0.019). Conditioning regimen did not show a statistically significant correlation with the occurrence of all the other investigated late effects. In multivariable analysis, TBI remained associated with the occurrence of cataracts (Relative Risk: 0.33 p = 0.012) and secondary malignancies (Relative Risk 3.96 x 10e-6 p < 0.001); however, other variables, as GvHD and disease type, were also correlated with these long-term sequels, indicating that in our study population the preparative regimen is not the only factor influencing the incidence of these complications.
Enteral nutrition protects children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from blood stream infections
Nutrition journal. 2020;19(1):29
Enteral Nutrition (EN) is recommended as first line nutritional support for patients undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (allo-HSCT), but only few studies exist in the literature which compare EN to Parenteral Nutrition (PN) in the paediatric population.Forty-two consecutive paediatric patients undergoing allo-HSCT at our referral centre between January 2016 and July 2019 were evaluated. Post-transplant and nutritional outcomes of patients receiving EN for more than 7 days (EN group, n = 14) were compared with those of patients receiving EN for fewer than 7 days or receiving only PN (PN group, n = 28). In the EN group, a reduced incidence of Blood Stream Infections (BSI) was observed (p = 0.02) (n = 2 vs. n = 15; 14.3% vs. 53.6%). The type of nutritional support was also the only variable independently associated with BSI in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.03). Platelet engraftment was shorter in the PN group than in the EN group for a threshold of > 20*10(9)/L (p = 0.04) (23.1 vs 35.7 days), but this correlation was not confirmed with a threshold of > 50*10(9)/L. The Body Mass Index (BMI) and the BMI Z-score were no different in the two groups from admission to discharge.Our results highlight that EN is a feasible and nutritionally adequate method of nutritional support for children undergoing allo-HSCT in line with the present literature. Future functional studies are needed to better address the hypothesis that greater intestinal eubyosis maintained with EN may explain the observed reduction in BSI.
Myeloablative conditioning for allo-HSCT in pediatric ALL: FTBI or chemotherapy?-A multicenter EBMT-PDWP study
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Although most children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) receive fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI) as myeloablative conditioning (MAC) for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), it is an important matter of debate if chemotherapy can effectively replace FTBI. To compare outcomes after FTBI versus chemotherapy-based conditioning (CC), we performed a retrospective EBMT registry study. Children aged 2-18 years after MAC for first allo-HSCT of bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) from matched-related (MRD) or unrelated donors (UD) in first (CR1) or second remission (CR2) between 2000 and 2012 were included. Propensity score weighting was used to control pretreatment imbalances of the observed variables. 3.054 patients were analyzed. CR1 (1.498): median follow-up (FU) after FTBI (1.285) and CC (213) was 6.8 and 6.1 years. Survivals were not significantly different. CR2 (1.556): median FU after FTBI (1.345) and CC (211) was 6.2 years. Outcomes after FTBI were superior as compared with CC with regard to overall survival (OS), leukemia-free survival (LFS), relapse incidence (RI), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). However, we must emphasize the preliminary character of the results of this retrospective "real-world-practice" study. These findings will be prospectively assessed in the ALL SCTped 2012 FORUM trial.
Veno-occlusive Disease in HSCT Patients: Consensus-based Recommendations for Risk Assessment, Diagnosis, and Management by the GITMO Group
Variation in clinical practice affects veno-occlusive disease (VOD) management, mainly in patients who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Disputes about diagnostic criteria, treatment and prophylaxis, due to the lack of high-quality data, are at the base of this variability. With the aim of limiting inconsistency in clinical care, thus improving both patient outcomes and data collection reliability, the Italian Society of Stem cell transplant (GITMO) launched a collaborative effort to formulate recommendations based on integration of available evidence and expert's consensus. A systematic method, according to US National Institute of Health (NIH) guidelines and Italian National System for Guidelines, was used. Twenty-nine recommendations were approved with a strong (20) or weak (9) level of agreement, while 26 were rejected. In particular, the Panel pointed out the need to achieve an early diagnosis, encouraging the adoption of EBMT criteria and the prompt use of ultrasonography. Moreover, our experts strongly recommended in favour of prophylactic use of ursodeoxicolic acid (UDCA). As soon as a VOD diagnosis is established, treatment with defibrotide should be started for at least 21d. A number of areas of uncertainty, particularly concerning risk stratification and use of diagnostic tools such as elastography has been identified and discussed.
Early gut microbiota signature of aGvHD in children given allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for hematological disorders
BMC medical genomics. 2019;12(1):49
BACKGROUND The onset of acute Graft-versus-Host Disease (aGvHD) has been correlated with the gut microbiota (GM) composition, but experimental observations are still few, mainly involving cohorts of adult patients. In the current scenario where fecal microbiota transplantation has been used as a pioneer therapeutic approach to treat steroid-refractory aGvHD, there is an urgent need to expand existing observational studies of the GM dynamics in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT). Aim of the present study is to explore the GM trajectory in 36 pediatric HSCT recipients in relation to aGvHD onset. METHODS Thirty-six pediatric patients, from four transplantation centers, undergoing HSCT were enrolled in the study. Stools were collected at three time points: before HSCT, at time of engraftment and > 30 days following HSCT. Changes in the GM phylogenetic structure were studied by 16S rRNA gene Illumina sequencing and phylogenetic assignation. RESULTS Children developing gut aGvHD had a dysbiotic GM layout before HSCT occurred. This putative aGvHD-predisposing ecosystem state was characterized by (i) reduced diversity, (ii) lower Blautia content, (iii) increase in Fusobacterium abundance. At time of engraftment, the GM structure underwent a deep rearrangement in all patients but, regardless of the occurrence of aGvHD and its treatment, it reacquired a eubiotic configuration from day 30. CONCLUSIONS We found a specific GM signature before HSCT predictive of subsequent gut aGvHD occurrence. Our data may open the way to a GM-based stratification of the risk of developing aGvHD in children undergoing HSCT, potentially useful also to identify patients benefiting from prophylactic fecal transplantation.
Enteral Nutrition in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic SCT Promotes the Recovery of Gut Microbiome Homeostasis
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the first-line immunotherapy to treat several hematologic disorders, although it can be associated with many complications reducing the survival rate, such as acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) and infections. Given the fundamental role of the gut microbiome (GM) for host health, it is not surprising that a suboptimal path of GM recovery following HSCT may compromise immune homeostasis and/or increase the risk of opportunistic infections, with an ultimate impact in terms of aGvHD onset. Traditionally, the first nutritional approach in post-HSCT patients is parenteral nutrition (PN), which is associated with several clinical adverse effects, supporting enteral nutrition (EN) as a preferential alternative. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of EN vs. PN on the trajectory of compositional and functional GM recovery in pediatric patients undergoing HSCT. The GM structure and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production profiles were analyzed longitudinally in twenty pediatric patients receiving HSCT-of which, ten were fed post-transplant with EN and ten with total PN. According to our findings, we observed the prompt recovery of a structural and functional eubiotic GM layout post-HSCT only in EN subjects, thus possibly reducing the risk of systemic infections and GvHD onset.
Clinical utility of measuring Epstein-Barr virus-specific cell-mediated immunity after HSCT in addition to virological monitoring: results from a prospective study
Medical microbiology and immunology. 2019
Lack of virus-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is associated with worse viral infection outcome in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We aimed to evaluate the role of immunological monitoring of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in addition to virological one in 33 adult and 18 pediatric allogeneic HSCT recipients. Virological monitoring of infection was performed on whole blood samples by a quantitative real-time PCR assay. Immunological monitoring was performed by Enzyme-linked ImmunoSPOT assay, evaluating EBV-specific CMI, at fixed time-points and when EBV DNAemia was ≥ 10,000 copies/mL. Fifty-one percent of patients developed a post-transplant EBV infection and reduced-intensity conditioning regimen was the only factor associated to infection (P = 0.023). Lack of EBV-specific CMI during active EBV infection was associated with a greater severity of infection. Patients without EBV-specific CMI showed higher median peak level of EBV DNAemia than patients with EBV-specific CMI (P = 0.014), and consequently received more frequently, at EBV DNAemia peak, anti-CD20 therapy (0 versus 54.5%, P = 0.002). No patients with EBV-specific CMI versus 27.2% without EBV-specific CMI developed EBV-related complications (P = 0.063), including two lethal EBV-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders. Combined immunological and virological measurements could improve EBV infection management in HSCT, anticipating the beginning of preemptive treatment from the EBV DNAemia peak to the finding of the lack of EBV-specific CMI.
CMV and EBV DNA Kinetics in Whole Blood and Plasma of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2018
Currently, no consensus has been reached on the optimal blood compartment to be used for surveillance of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNAemia. Although several comparative studies have been performed correlating CMV and EBV DNA loads in whole blood (WB) vs plasma, to our knowledge, no studies have ever analyzed the kinetics of both viruses in the two blood compartments. In this retrospective non-interventional multicenter cohort study the kinetics of CMV and EBV DNA in 121 hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients (HSCTR) have been investigated by analyzing in parallel 569 and 351 paired samples from 80 and 58 sequential episodes of CMV and EBV DNAemia, respectively. Unlike previous studies, a single automated molecular method, CE marked and FDA approved for use in quantifying CMV and EBV DNA in both plasma and WB was used. Furthermore, the complete viral replication kinetics of all episodes (including both the ascending and the descending phase of the active infection) was examined in each patient. The previously observed overall correlation between CMV DNA levels in WB and plasma was confirmed (Spearman's r = .85; P < .001). However, though WB and plasma CMV DNAemia reached peak simultaneously, in the ascending phase the median CMV DNA levels in plasma were about 1 log10 lower than WB. Furthermore, in patients who received pre-emptive therapy, CMV DNA showed a delayed decrease in plasma as compared to WB. A lower correlation between EBV DNA levels in plasma versus WB was shown (Spearman's r = .61; P < .001). EBV DNA kinetics was not consistent in the two blood compartments, mostly due to the lower positivity in plasma. Indeed, in 19% of episodes EBV DNA was negative at the time of EBV DNA peak in WB. Our results suggest a preferential use of WB for surveillance of CMV and EBV infection in HSCTR.
Risk factors associated with development and mortality by invasive fungal diseases in pediatric allogeneic stem cell transplantation. A pediatric subgroup analysis of data from a prospective study of the Gruppo Italiano Trapianto di Midollo Osseo (GITMO)
Bone marrow transplantation. 2018