Allogeneic transplantation for Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia with posttransplantation cyclophosphamide
Blood advances. 2020;4(20):5078-5088
Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (alloBMT) is standard of care for adults with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) in first complete remission (CR1). The routine pretransplant and posttransplant use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has dramatically improved outcomes, but the optimal conditioning regimen, donor type, and TKI remain undefined. The bone marrow transplant database at Johns Hopkins was queried for adult patients with de novo Ph+ ALL who received alloBMT using posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) as a component of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis from 2008 to 2018. Among transplants for Ph+ ALL, 69 (85%) were performed in CR1, and 12 (15%) were performed in second or greater remission (CR2+). The majority of transplants (58%) were HLA haploidentical. Nearly all patients (91.4%) initiated TKI posttransplant. For patients in CR1, the 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) was 66%. The use of nonmyeloablative conditioning, absence of measurable residual disease (MRD) according to flow cytometry at transplant, and the use of dasatinib vs imatinib at diagnosis were associated with improved overall survival (OS) and RFS. Neither donor type nor recipient age ≥60 years affected RFS. When analyzing all transplants, alloBMT in CR1 (vs CR2+) and the absence of pretransplant MRD were associated with improved RFS. Most relapses were associated with the emergence of kinase domain mutations. The cumulative incidence of grade 3 to 4 acute GVHD at 1 year was 9%, and moderate to severe chronic GVHD at 2 years was 8%. Nonmyeloablative alloBMT with PTCy for Ph+ ALL in an MRD-negative CR1 after initial treatment with dasatinib yields favorable outcomes.
A prospective study of peri-transplant sorafenib for FLT3-ITD AML patients undergoing allogeneic transplantation
Adults with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) undergoing allogeneic transplantation (n=76)
Myeloablative conditioning in first complete remission (CR1 MAC, n=26); Non-myeloablative conditioning in first complete remission (CR1 NMAC, n=43)
Patients in second or subsequent remission (CR2+, n=12)
For patients in CR1, the 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) was 66%. The use of nonmyeloablative conditioning, absence of measurable residual disease (MRD) according to flow cytometry at transplant, and the use of dasatinib vs imatinib at diagnosis were associated with improved overall survival (OS) and RFS. Neither donor type nor recipient age ≥60 years affected RFS. When analyzing all transplants, alloBMT in CR1 (vs CR2+) and the absence of pretransplant MRD were associated with improved RFS. Most relapses were associated with the emergence of kinase domain mutations. The cumulative incidence of grade 3 to 4 acute GVHD at 1 year was 9%, and moderate to severe chronic GVHD at 2 years was 8%.
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2019
FLT3-ITD mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a therapeutic challenge. FLT3 inhibition in the setting of minimal residual disease and a new immune system via allogeneic transplantation offers a promise of improved survival for these patients. We performed a prospective study of patients with FLT3-ITD AML undergoing allogeneic transplant was conducted to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and outcome of sorafenib administered peri-transplant. Sorafenib dosing was individualized, starting at 200 mg BID, and titrated based on tolerability or toxicities until a tolerable dose was identified. Forty-four patients, with a median age of 52, undergoing allogeneic transplant were started on sorafenib in the peri-transplant period (21 pre-transplant). The median duration of post-transplant follow up is 27.6 months (range, 5.2-60.4). Overall survival was 76% at both 24 and 36 months. Event-free survival at 24 and 36 months was 74% and 64%, respectively. Ten patients died in the post-transplant period, with six deaths due to relapsed leukemia and four from transplant-associated toxicity. Tolerable doses ranged from 200 mg QOD to 400 mg BID with similar exposure. Correlative studies evaluating FLT3 inhibition via a plasma inhibitory activity assay showed consistent inhibition of FLT3 at all tolerability-determined dosing levels. Sorafenib is well tolerated in the peri-transplant setting irrespective of the conditioning intensity or the donor source. Our findings indicate that sorafenib dosing can be individualized in the post-transplantation setting according to patient tolerability. This approach results in effective in vivo FLT3 inhibition and yields encouraging survival results.
Comparable composite endpoints after HLA-matched and HLA-haploidentical transplantation with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide
Composite endpoints that not only encompass mortality and relapse, but other critical post-transplant events such as graft-versus-host disease, are being increasingly utilized to quantify survival without significant morbidity after allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation. High-dose, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide reduces severe graft-versus-host disease with allogeneic marrow transplantation, making composite endpoints after this management particularly interesting. We retrospectively analyzed 684 adults with hematologic malignancies who received T-cell-replete bone marrow grafts and cyclophosphamide after myeloablative HLA-matched related (n=192) or unrelated (n=120), or non-myeloablative HLA-haploidentical (n=372) donor transplantation. The median follow up was 4 (range, 0.02-11.4) years. Graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival was defined as the time after transplantation without grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease, chronic graft-versus-host disease requiring systemic treatment, relapse, or death. Chronic graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival was defined as the time after transplantation without moderate or severe chronic graft-versus-host disease, relapse, or death. One-year graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival and chronic graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival estimates were, respectively, 47% (95% CI: 41-55%) and 53% (95% CI: 46-61%) after myeloablative HLA-matched related, 42% (95% CI: 34-52%) and 52% (95% CI: 44-62%) after myeloablative HLA-matched unrelated, and 45% (95% CI: 40-50%) and 50% (95% CI: 45-55%) after non-myeloablative HLA-haploidentical donor transplantation. In multivariable models, there were no differences in graft-versus-host disease-free, or chronic graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival after either myeloablative HLA-matched unrelated or non-myeloablative HLA-haploidentical, compared with myeloablative HLA-matched related donor transplantation. Although limited by inclusion of dissimilar cohorts, we found that post-transplantation cyclophosphamide-based platforms yield comparable composite endpoints across conditioning intensity, donor type, and HLA match.