Conditioning intensity before allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a quality control audit
British journal of haematology. 2021
Addition of lenalidomide to intensive treatment in younger and middle-aged adults with newly diagnosed AML: the HOVON-SAKK-132 trial
Blood advances. 2021;5(4):1110-1121
Lenalidomide, an antineoplastic and immunomodulatory drug, has therapeutic activity in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but definitive studies about its therapeutic utility have been lacking. In a phase 3 study, we compared 2 induction regimens in newly diagnosed patients age 18 to 65 years with AML: idarubicine-cytarabine (cycle 1) and daunorubicin and intermediate-dose cytarabine (cycle 2) without or with lenalidomide (15 mg orally on days 1-21). One final consolidation cycle of chemotherapy or autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) or allogeneic SCT (allo-SCT) was provided according to a prognostic risk and minimal residual disease (MRD)-adapted approach. Event-free survival (EFS; primary end point) and other clinical end points were assessed. A second random assignment in patients in complete response or in complete response with incomplete hematologic recovery after cycle 3 or auto-SCT involved 6 cycles of maintenance with lenalidomide (10 mg on days 1-21) or observation. In all, 392 patients were randomly assigned to the control group, and 388 patients were randomly assigned to lenalidomide induction. At a median follow-up of 41 months, the study revealed no differences in outcome between the treatments (EFS, 44% ± 2% standard error and overall survival, 54% ± 2% at 4 years for both arms) although in an exploratory post hoc analysis, a lenalidomide benefit was suggested in SRSF2-mutant AML. In relation to the previous Dutch-Belgian Hemato-Oncology Cooperative Group and Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (HOVON-SAKK) studies that used a similar 3-cycle regimen but did not pursue an MRD-guided approach, these survival estimates compare markedly more favorably. MRD status after cycle 2 lost prognostic value in intermediate-risk AML in the risk-adjusted treatment context. Maintenance with lenalidomide showed no apparent effect on relapse probability in 88 patients randomly assigned for this part of the study.
Myeloablative Conditioning for Allogeneic Transplantation Results in Superior Disease-Free Survival for Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes with Low/Intermediate, but not High Disease Risk Index: A CIBMTR Study: Superior DFS with MAC compared to RIC HCT in AML/MDS with low/intermediate risk DRI
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2020
Myeloablative (MAC) as compared to reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) is generally associated with lower relapse risk after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, disease specific risk factors in AML/MDS can further inform when MAC vs. RIC may yield differential outcomes. We analyzed HCT outcomes stratified by the disease risk index (DRI) in 4387 adults (age 40-65 years) to identify the impact of conditioning intensity. In the low/intermediate risk DRI cohort, RIC was associated with lower non-relapse mortality (NRM) (HR=0.74, 95% CI 0.62-0.88; p<0.001), but significantly higher relapse risk (HR=1.54, 95% CI 1.35-1.76; p<0.001) and thus inferior disease-free survival (DFS) (HR=1.19, 95% CI 1.07-1.33; p=0.001). In the high/very high risk DRI cohort, RIC resulted in marginally lower NRM (HR=0.83, 95% CI 0.68-1.00; p=0.051), and significantly higher relapse risk (HR=1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.41; p=0.002) leading to similar DFS using either RIC or MAC. These data support MAC over RIC as the preferred conditioning intensity for AML/MDS with low/intermediate risk DRI, but similar benefit to RIC in high/very high risk DRI. Novel MAC regimens with less toxicity could benefit all, but more potent anti-neoplastic approaches are needed for the high/very high risk DRI group.
Adult patients aged 40-65 years with acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (AML/MDS) (n=4387)
Reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) and low/intermediate risk (n=999), RIC and high/very high risk (n=728)
Myeloablative conditioning (MAC) and low/intermediate risk (n=1539), MAC and high/very high risk (n=1121)
In the low/intermediate risk disease risk index (DRI) cohort, RIC was associated with lower non-relapse mortality (NRM) , but significantly higher relapse risk and thus inferior disease-free survival (DFS). In the high/very high risk DRI cohort, RIC resulted in marginally lower NRM, and significantly higher relapse risk leading to similar DFS using either RIC or MAC.
Patient preferences for allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: how much benefit is worthwhile from the patient's perspective?
Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer. 2020
Oncological studies have shown that patients consider small benefits sufficient to make adjuvant chemotherapy worthwhile. We sought to determine the minimal survival benefits that patients considered enough to legitimate allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) and the factors associated with patient preferences. One hundred eighty-four patients having previously received allogeneic HCT at our centre were included and completed a questionnaire exploring patient expectations elicited by time trade-off scenarios as well as quality of life (QoL), symptoms of graft-versus host disease (GvHD) and sociodemographic characteristics. The majority of patients considered a minimal survival benefit of at least 5 (38.6%) or 10 years (41.9%) sufficient to justify HCT, with less than 5% considering survival < 1 year sufficient to warrant HCT. In terms of minimal cure rate, a cumulative 14.8% of patients accepted cure rates below 30% and 30.6% rates below 50%. Likelihood-ratio tests were significant for the effect of age at transplant on expected minimal survival (p = 0.007) and cure rates (p = 0.0001); that is, younger patients at HCT were more likely to accept smaller survival and cure rates. Pre-transplant risk score, QoL, GvHD score and sociological factors did not seem to influence patients' expectations. In conclusion, patient expectations of treatment were much higher than what had been reported in oncological studies. Patients who experienced HCT considered a survival superior to 1 year and cure rates above 50% sufficient to make it worthwhile. Younger patients were more likely to accept smaller benefits; no other predictors for preferences could be detected.
Incidence of CMV Replication and the Role of Letermovir Primary/Secondary Prophylaxis in the Early Phase After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation - A Single Centre Study
Anticancer research. 2020;40(10):5909-5917
BACKGROUND/AIM: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication may cause life-threatening complications after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The aim of the study was to characterize CMV events, and the outcome of letermovir (LTV) CMV prophylaxis. PATIENTS AND METHODS In this retrospective analysis of patients treated with an allo-HSCT between 2010 and 2020, we determined plasma CMV events, as well as associated risk factors. RESULTS We identified 423 patients who had undergone allo-HSCT between 2010 and 2020. CMV DNAemia was found in 130/423 (30.7%) of patients. CMV reactivation rate was significantly higher in patients with acute graft-versus-host disease, HLA mismatch, and CMV IgG seropositivity of donors and recipients. Among 42 patients receiving LTV prophylaxis those, 5 (11.9%) showed CMV DNAemia under LTV versus 87/353 (24.6%) in a control group. CONCLUSION Despite the development of better approaches with weekly monitoring and early treatment initiation, CMV reactivations play an important role after allo-HSCT.
Upper and/or Lower Respiratory Tract Infection Caused by Human Coronavirus After Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation
Bone Marrow Transplantation. 2020;55(SUPPL 1):108-109
Clinical considerations on posaconazole administration and therapeutic drug monitoring in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients
Medical mycology. 2020
There is a paucity of data on posaconazole (PCZ) dosing and therapeutic-drug-monitoring (TDM) in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients (allogeneic-HCTr). This was a 3-year retrospective multicenter study (January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2018) in adult allogeneic-HCTr who received PCZ (intravenously, IV and/or as delayed-release tablet, DRT) as prophylaxis or treatment for =7 consecutive days (D) with at least 1-PCZ-level available using data of the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study. The primary objective was to describe the distribution of PCZ-level and identify predictors of therapeutic PCZ-level and associations between PCZ-dosing and PCZ-level. A total of 288 patients were included: 194 (67.4%) and 94 (32.6%) received PCZ as prophylaxis and treatment, respectively, for a median of 90 days (interquartile range, IQR: 42-188.5). There were 1944 PCZ-level measurements performed, with a median PCZ level of 1.3 mg/L (IQR: 0.8-1.96). PCZ-level was <0.7 mg/L in 383/1944 (19.7%) and <1.0 mg/L in 656/1944 (33.7%) samples. PCZ-level was <0.7 mg/L in 260/1317 (19.7%) and <1.0 mg/L in 197/627 (31.4%) in patients who received PCZ-prophylaxis versus treatment, respectively. There were no significant differences in liver function tests between baseline and end-of-treatment. There were nine (3.1%) breakthrough invasive fungal infections (bIFI), with no difference in PCZ levels between patients with or without bIFI. Despite a very intensive PCZ-TDM, PCZ-levels remain below target levels in up to one-third of allogeneic-HCTr. Considering the low incidence of bIFI observed among patients with PCZ levels in the targeted range, our data challenge the clinical utility of routine universal PCZ-TDM.
Tear Proteomic Predictive Biomarker Model for Ocular Graft Versus Host Disease Classification
Translational vision science & technology. 2020;9(9):3
PURPOSE Diagnosis of ocular graft-versus-host disease (oGVHD) is hampered by a lack of clinically-validated biomarkers. This study aims to predict disease severity on the basis of tear protein expression in mild oGVHD. METHODS Forty-nine patients with and without chronic oGVHD after AHCT were recruited to a cross-sectional observational study. Patients were stratified using NIH guidelines for oGVHD severity: NIH 0 (none; n = 14), NIH 1 (mild; n = 9), NIH 2 (moderate; n = 16), and NIH 3 (severe; n = 10). The proteomic profile of tears was analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Random forest and penalized logistic regression were used to generate classification and prediction models to stratify patients according to disease severity. RESULTS Mass spectrometry detected 785 proteins across all samples. A random forest model used to classify patients by disease grade achieved F1-measure values for correct classification of 0.95 (NIH 0), 0.8 (NIH 1), 0.74 (NIH 2), and 0.83 (NIH 3). A penalized logistic regression model was generated by comparing patients without oGVHD and those with mild oGVHD and applied to identify potential biomarkers present early in disease. A panel of 13 discriminant markers achieved significant diagnostic accuracy in identifying patients with moderate-to-severe disease. CONCLUSIONS Our work demonstrates the utility of tear protein biomarkers in classifying oGVHD severity and adds further evidence indicating ocular surface inflammation as a main driver of oGVHD clinical phenotype. TRANSLATIONAL RELEVANCE Expression levels of a 13-marker tear protein panel in AHCT patients with mild oGVHD may predict development of more severe oGVHD clinical phenotypes.
The Global State of Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Multiple Myeloma: An Analysis of the Worldwide Network of Blood and Marrow Transplantation (WBMT) Database and the Global Burden of Disease Study
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2020
BACKGROUND Multiple myeloma (MM), is a plasma cell neoplasm characterized by destructive bony lesions, anemia, and renal impairment. Access to effective therapy is limited globally. We report the rates and utilization of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) globally from 2006-2015 to better characterize access to HCT for patients with MM. METHODS This was an analysis of a retrospective survey of Worldwide Network of Blood and Marrow Transplant sites, conducted annually between 2006-2015. Incidence estimates were from the Global Burden of Disease study. Outcome measures included total number of autologous and allogeneic HCTs by world regions, and percentage of newly diagnosed MM patients who underwent HCT, calculated by the number of transplants per region in calendar year / gross annual incidence of MM per region. RESULTS From 2006-2015, the number of autologous HCT performed worldwide for MM increased by 107%. Utilization of autologous HCT was highest in Northern America and European regions, increasing from 13% to 24% in Northern America, and an increase from 15% to 22% in Europe. In contrast, the utilization of autologous HCT was lower in the Africa/Mediterranean region, with utilization only changing from 1.8% in 2006 to 4% in 2015. The number of first allogeneic HCT performed globally for MM declined after a peak in 2012 by -3% since 2006. DISCUSSION Autologous HCT utilization for MM has increased worldwide in high-income regions but remains poorly utilized in Africa and the East Mediterranean. More work is needed to improve access to HCT for MM patients, especially in low to middle income countries.
Seasonal human coronaviruses respiratory tract infection in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
The Journal of infectious diseases. 2020
BACKGROUND Little is known about characteristics of seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) (NL63, 229E, OC43 and HKU1) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS this is a collaborative Spanish and European bone marrow transplantation groups retrospective multicentre study, which included allo-HCT recipients (adults and children) with upper and/or lower respiratory tract disease (U/LRTD) caused by seasonal HCoV diagnosed through multiplex PCR assays from January 2012 to January 2019. RESULTS We included 402 allo-HCT recipients who developed 449 HCoV U/LRTD episodes. Median age of recipients was 46 years (range 0.3-73.8 years). HCoV episodes were diagnosed at a median of 222 days after transplantation. The most common HCoV subtype was OC43 (n=170, 38%). LRTD involvement occurred in 121 episodes (27%). HCoV infection frequently required hospitalization (18%), oxygen administration (13%) and intensive care unit (ICU) admission (3%). Three-month overall mortality after HCoV detection was 7% in the whole cohort and 16% in those with LRTD. We identified 3 conditions associated with higher mortality in recipients with LRTD absolute lymphocyte count <0.1 x10 9/mL [hazard ratio (HR), 10.8], corticosteroid (HR 4.68) and ICU admission (HR 8.22) (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS Seasonal HCoV after allo-HCT may involve the LRTD in many instances, leading to a significant morbidity.