Myeloablative conditioning for allo-HSCT in pediatric ALL: FTBI or chemotherapy?-A multicenter EBMT-PDWP study
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Although most children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) receive fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI) as myeloablative conditioning (MAC) for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), it is an important matter of debate if chemotherapy can effectively replace FTBI. To compare outcomes after FTBI versus chemotherapy-based conditioning (CC), we performed a retrospective EBMT registry study. Children aged 2-18 years after MAC for first allo-HSCT of bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) from matched-related (MRD) or unrelated donors (UD) in first (CR1) or second remission (CR2) between 2000 and 2012 were included. Propensity score weighting was used to control pretreatment imbalances of the observed variables. 3.054 patients were analyzed. CR1 (1.498): median follow-up (FU) after FTBI (1.285) and CC (213) was 6.8 and 6.1 years. Survivals were not significantly different. CR2 (1.556): median FU after FTBI (1.345) and CC (211) was 6.2 years. Outcomes after FTBI were superior as compared with CC with regard to overall survival (OS), leukemia-free survival (LFS), relapse incidence (RI), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). However, we must emphasize the preliminary character of the results of this retrospective "real-world-practice" study. These findings will be prospectively assessed in the ALL SCTped 2012 FORUM trial.
Ruxolitinib for Glucocorticoid-Refractory Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease
The New England journal of medicine. 2020
BACKGROUND Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major limitation of allogeneic stem-cell transplantation; not all patients have a response to standard glucocorticoid treatment. In a phase 2 trial, ruxolitinib, a selective Janus kinase (JAK1 and JAK2) inhibitor, showed potential efficacy in patients with glucocorticoid-refractory acute GVHD. METHODS We conducted a multicenter, randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial comparing the efficacy and safety of oral ruxolitinib (10 mg twice daily) with the investigator's choice of therapy from a list of nine commonly used options (control) in patients 12 years of age or older who had glucocorticoid-refractory acute GVHD after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. The primary end point was overall response (complete response or partial response) at day 28. The key secondary end point was durable overall response at day 56. RESULTS A total of 309 patients underwent randomization; 154 patients were assigned to the ruxolitinib group and 155 to the control group. Overall response at day 28 was higher in the ruxolitinib group than in the control group (62% [96 patients] vs. 39% ; odds ratio, 2.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65 to 4.22; P<0.001). Durable overall response at day 56 was higher in the ruxolitinib group than in the control group (40% [61 patients] vs. 22% ; odds ratio, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.43 to 3.94; P<0.001). The estimated cumulative incidence of loss of response at 6 months was 10% in the ruxolitinib group and 39% in the control group. The median failure-free survival was considerably longer with ruxolitinib than with control (5.0 months vs. 1.0 month; hazard ratio for relapse or progression of hematologic disease, non-relapse-related death, or addition of new systemic therapy for acute GVHD, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.60). The median overall survival was 11.1 months in the ruxolitinib group and 6.5 months in the control group (hazard ratio for death, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.15). The most common adverse events up to day 28 were thrombocytopenia (in 50 of 152 patients [33%] in the ruxolitinib group and 27 of 150 [18%] in the control group), anemia (in 46 [30%] and 42 [28%], respectively), and cytomegalovirus infection (in 39 [26%] and 31 [21%]). CONCLUSIONS Ruxolitinib therapy led to significant improvements in efficacy outcomes, with a higher incidence of thrombocytopenia, the most frequent toxic effect, than that observed with control therapy. (Funded by Novartis; REACH2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02913261.).
Lymphocyte counts may predict a good response to mesenchymal stromal cells therapy in graft versus host disease patients
PloS one. 2019;14(6):e0217572
Steroid-resistant GvHD is one of the most significant causes of mortality following allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT). Treatment with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) seems to be a promising solution, however the results from clinical studies are still equivocal. Better selection of candidate patients and improving monitoring of patients following MSC administration can increase treatment effectiveness. In order to determine which characteristics can be used to predict a good response and better monitoring of patients, blood samples were taken prior to therapy, one week and one month after therapy, from 26 allogeneic HSCT patients whom contracted GvHD and were treated with MSCs. Samples were examined for differential blood counts, bilirubin levels and cell surface markers. Serum cytokine levels were also measured. We found that the level of lymphocytes, in particular T and NK cells, may predict a good response to therapy. A better response was observed among patients who expressed low levels of IL-6 and IL-22, Th17 related cytokines, prior to therapy. Patients with high levels of bilirubin prior to therapy showed a poorer response. The results of this study may facilitate early prediction of success or failure of the treatment, and subsequently, will improve selection of patients for MSC therapy.
Thiotepa, Etoposide, Cyclophosphamide, Cytarabine, and Melphalan (TECAM) Conditioning Regimen for Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Lymphoma
Clinical lymphoma, myeloma & leukemia. 2018
BACKGROUND High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is the current standard of care for relapsed non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Conditioning regimens with high-dose carmustine have been associated with idiopathic pneumonitis syndrome. We, therefore, created a modified alternative TECAM conditioning regimen, consisting of etoposide, thiotepa, cytarabine, cyclophosphamide, and melphalan. PATIENTS AND METHODS We retrospectively analyzed our cohort of 212 NHL and HL patients, who had undergone ASCT with the TECAM conditioning regimen from 2000 to 2013. Although toxicity and engraftment were analyzed for all 212 patients, the survival analysis was performed for the 2 largest groups of patients, those with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and those with HL (n = 127) to minimize heterogeneity. RESULTS The 3-year overall survival among the DLBCL and HL patients was 0.618 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.490-0.722) and 0.828 (95% CI, 0.701-0.904), respectively. Stage IV disease at transplantation was a statistically significant poor prognostic factor. Higher Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status and progressive disease at transplantation were found to be borderline significant. No idiopathic pneumonitis syndrome cases were reported in our cohort. Six patients died of treatment-related toxicity during the first 100 days. The 3-year progression-free survival was 0.5 (95% CI, 0.37-0.61) for HL patients and 0.49 (95% CI, 0.36-0.60) for DLBCL patients. CONCLUSION Our results are encouraging and justify evaluation of TECAM versus BEAM (carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan) in a prospective multicenter study in a large homogenous patient population.
Augmented myeloablative conditioning with thiotepa in acute myeloid leukemia - improved outcomes with similar toxicity
Leukemia & lymphoma. 2018;:1-8
Myeloablative doses of busulfan (Bu) with fludarabine (Flu) have reduced toxicity, however, limited by an increased relapse rate. We aimed to improve outcome of Flu-Bu regimen by augmentation with thiotepa (TT) (10 mg/kg). Eighty-nine patients with AML, 44 patients conditioned with Flu-Bu (group 1), and 45 patients augmented with TT (Flu-Bu-TT, group 2), were retrospectively analyzed. Primary objectives were toxicity and outcomes. Major toxicities were comparable: mucositis (p = 1.0), sepsis (p = .7), severe venocclusive disease of liver (VOD) (p = 1.0), and non-relapse mortality (NRM) (22 vs. 22%, p = .7). Five-year disease-free survival was significantly better in group 2 compared to group 1 (62 vs. 38%, p = .02). Five-year overall survival (OS) showed trend toward benefit in group 2 (62 vs. 42%, p = .06). Lower relapse rate in group 2 (14 vs. 46%, p = .005) contributed to better outcomes. Augmented regimen has better disease-free survival (DFS) (mainly due to reduced relapse rate) and similar toxicities as compared to Flu-Bu. Key points Assessing the addition of TT to myeloablative conditioning (Flu, Bu) in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplant for acute myeloid leukemia with regard to relapse rate, disease-free survival and toxicity. Addition of thiotepa improves disease-free survival and shows trend toward benefit in overall survival, by reducing relapses without additional toxicity.
Fludarabine-based reduced toxicity yet myeloablative conditioning is effective and safe particularly in patients with high-risk thalassemia undergoing allogeneic transplantation
Pediatric blood & cancer. 2018;:e27312
INTRODUCTION Thalassemia major (TM) is an inherited disorder caused by ineffective erythropoiesis. At the present time, allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is a curative option. Conventional busulfan and cyclophosphamide based myeloablative conditioning regimens are limited by increased toxicity, especially in high-risk patients. Replacement of cyclophosphamide with fludarabine has reduced toxicity and nonrelapse mortality (NRM), thus improving outcomes. We analyzed long-term data of our fludarabine-based myeloablative, reduced toxicity protocol, specifically in high-risk patients. METHODS We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 47 consecutive patients with TM undergoing allo-SCT from matched donors, using the fludarabine-based regimen (reduced toxicity regimen). The median age of the cohort was 10 years. Thirty-eight patients (80%) were in the high-risk and nine patients (20%) were in the low-risk category. The primary aim of this analysis was thalassemia-free survival (TFS). RESULTS The rejection rate was 11% within high-risk patients with NRM of 2%. With a median follow-up period of 7 years (1-15 years), the 10-year TFS in the entire cohort was 87%, and the overall survival (OS) was 97%. The 10-year TFS and OS among the low-risk and high-risk groups were 90% versus 84%, respectively (P = 0.45) and 100% versus 96%, respectively (P = 0.5), and both subsets of patients did equally well. CONCLUSION In conclusion, replacement of high-dose cyclophosphamide with fludarabine is well tolerated with minimal regimen-related toxicity and acceptable rejection rates, especially in high-risk patients.
Outcome of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in dyskeratosis congenita
British journal of haematology. 2018
Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a genetic multisystem disorder with frequent involvement of the bone marrow. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only definitive cure to restore haematopoiesis, even though it cannot correct other organ dysfunctions. We collected data on the outcome of HSCT in the largest cohort of DC (n = 94) patients ever studied. Overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) at 3 years after HSCT were 66% and 62%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed better outcomes in patients aged less than 20 years and in patients transplanted from a matched, rather than a mismatched, donor. OS and EFS curves tended to decline over time. Early lethal events were infections, whereas organ damage and secondary malignancies appeared afterwards, even a decade after HSCT. A non-myeloablative conditioning regimen appeared to be most advisable. Organ impairment present before HSCT seemed to favour the development of chronic graft-versus-host disease and T-B immune deficiency appeared to enhance pulmonary fibrosis. According to the present data, HSCT in DC is indicated in cases of progressive marrow failure, whereas in patients with pre-existing organ damage, this should be carefully evaluated. Further efforts to investigate treatment alternatives to HSCT should be encouraged.
Autologous stem cell transplantation for primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma: long-term outcome and role of post-transplant radiotherapy. A report of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Bone marrow transplantation. 2018
The purpose of this retrospective registry study was to investigate the outcome of autoSCT for primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL) in the rituximab era, including the effects of eventual post-transplant radiotherapy (RT) consolidation. Patients with PMBCL aged between 18 and 70 years who were treated with a first autoSCT between 2000 and 2012 and registered with the EBMT were eligible. Eighty-six patients with confirmed PMBCL and the full data set required for this analysis were evaluable. Sixteen patients underwent autoSCT in remission after first-line therapy (CR/PR1), 44 patients were transplanted with chemosensitive relapsed or primary refractory disease (CR/PR >1), and 24 patients were chemorefractory at the time of autoSCT. With a median follow-up of 5 years, 3-year estimates of relapse incidence, progression-free survival, and overall survival were 6%, 94%, and 100% for CR/PR1; 31%, 64%, and 85% for CR/PR >1; and 52%, 39%, and 41% for REF, respectively. Whilst there was no significant benefit of post-transplant RT in the CR/PR >1 group, RT could completely prevent disease recurrence post d100 in the refractory group. In conclusion, autoSCT with or without consolidating RT is associated with excellent outcome in chemoimmunotherapy-sensitive PMBCL, whereas its benefits seem to be limited in chemoimmunotherapy-refractory disease.
Thiotepa-based conditioning versus total body irradiation as myeloablative conditioning prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A matched-pair analysis from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
American Journal of Hematology. 2017;92(10):997-1003
The optimal conditioning regimen to employ before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is still undecided, and while cyclophosphamide/total body irradiation (Cy/TBI) is the most commonly used myeloablative regimen, there are concerns regarding long-term toxicity for patients conditioned with this regimen. Thiotepa-based conditioning is an emerging radiation-free regimen with recent publications indicative of comparable clinical outcomes to TBI-based conditioning. In this analysis of the acute leukemia working party of the EBMT, we performed a retrospective matched-pair analysis, evaluating the outcome of adult patients with ALL who received thiotepa-based conditioning (n=180) with those receiving Cy/TBI conditioning (n=540). The 2-year leukemia-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates of both conditioning regimens were comparable, 33% for thiotepa [95% confidence interval (CI): 26.4-42.8] versus 39% for Cy/TBI (95% CI: 34.8-44.5] (P=.33) and 46.5% [95% CI: 38.6-56.1] versus 48.8% [95% CI: 44.2-54] (P=.9), respectively. There was no significant difference between the two regimens in the incidence of either acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) or chronic GVHD. Multivariate analysis demonstrated increased relapse incidence for thiotepa conditioning compared to Cy/TBI (HR=1.78, 95% CI, 1.07-2.95; P=.03) which did not affect OS. Our results indicate that thiotepa-based conditioning may not be inferior to Cy/TBI for adult patients with ALL.
Thiotepa-based conditioning for allogeneic stem cell transplantation in acute lymphoblastic leukemia-A survey from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
American Journal of Hematology. 2017;92(1):18-22
In this study, we analyzed a thiotepa-based conditioning regimen for allogeneic stem cell transplantation in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, using the EBMT database. A total of 323 patients were identified. The median age was 43 years. Disease status at transplant was first complete remission (CR1) in 48.9%, CR2 in 21.7%, CR3 in 6.2%, while 23.2% of the patients had an active disease at the time of transplant. This was performed from a HLA-matched sibling (49.8%) or a matched-unrelated donor (51.2%). The incidence of acute graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD) (grade > II) was 26.6%, while chronic GvHD occurred in 35.9% of the patients at 1 year (24.6% with extensive disease). With a median follow-up of 16.8 months, the nonrelapse mortality was 12.4 and 25.3% at 100 days and 1 year, respectively. The relapse incidence at 1 year was 33.3% with no difference for patients in CR1 (27%). The one-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS) were 57 and 66%, respectively for the entire cohort and 50 and 66%, respectively in patients in CR1. Thiotepa/busulfan +/- melphalan (n = 213) in comparison to thiotepa/other (n = 110) conditioning regimen resulted in higher relapse incidence at 1 year (34.9 vs. 30.3%, P = 0.016) and lower LFS (38.8 vs. 45.9%, P = 0.0203), while nonrelapse mortality (23.8 vs. 26.3%, n.s.) and OS (59.6 vs. 51.1%, P = 0.109) did not differ. This large study suggests that a thiotepa-based conditioning for allogeneic transplantation in acute lymphoblastic leukemia is feasible and effective, with the main outcomes being comparable to those achieved with other regimens. Am. J. Hematol. 92:18-22, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.