Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for adult patients with t(4;11)(q21;q23) KMT2A/AFF1 B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first complete remission: impact of pretransplant measurable residual disease (MRD) status. An analysis from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the EBMT
Adult B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) with t(4;11)(q21;q23);KMT2A/AFF1 is a poor-prognosis entity. This registry-based study was aimed to analyze outcome of patients with t(4;11) BCP-ALL treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) in first complete remission (CR1) between 2000 and 2017, focusing on the impact of measurable residual disease (MRD) at the time of transplant. Among 151 patients (median age, 38) allotransplanted from either HLA-matched siblings or unrelated donors, leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS) at 2 years were 51% and 60%, whereas relapse incidence (RI) and non-relapse mortality (NRM) were 30% and 20%, respectively. These results were comparable to a cohort of contemporary patients with diploid normal karyotype (NK) BCP-ALL with equivalent inclusion criteria (n?=?567). Among patients with evaluable MRD pre-alloHSCT, a negative status was the strongest beneficial factor influencing LFS (hazard ratio [HR]?=?0.2, p?0.001), OS (HR?=?0.14, p?0.001), RI (HR?=?0.23, p?=?0.001), and NRM (HR?=?0.16, p?=?0.002), with a similar outcome to MRD-negative NK BCP-ALL patients. In contrast, among patients with detectable pretransplant MRD, outcome in t(4;11) BCP-ALL was inferior to NK BCP-ALL (LFS: 27% vs. 50%, p?=?0.02). These results support indication of alloHSCT in CR1 for t(4;11) BCP-ALL patients, provided a negative MRD status is achieved. Conversely, pre-alloHSCT additional therapy is warranted in MRD-positive patients.
Development and validation of a disease risk stratification system for patients with haematological malignancies: a retrospective cohort study of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry
The Lancet. Haematology. 2021;8(3):e205-e215
BACKGROUND Diagnosis and remission status at the time of allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) are the principal determinants of overall survival following transplantation. We sought to develop a contemporary disease-risk stratification system (DRSS) that accounts for heterogeneous transplantation indications. METHODS In this retrospective cohort study we included 55 histology and remission status combinations across haematological malignancies, including acute leukaemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic disorders. A total of 47?265 adult patients (aged =18 years) who received an allogeneic HSCT between Jan 1, 2012, and Dec 31, 2016, and were reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry were included. We divided EBMT patients into derivation (n=25?534), tuning (n=18?365), and geographical validation (n=3366) cohorts. Disease combinations were ranked in a multivariable Cox regression for overall survival in the derivation cohort, cutoff for risk groups were evaluated for the tuning cohort, and the selected system was tested on the geographical validation cohort. An independent single-centre US cohort of 660 patients transplanted between Jan 1, 2010, and Dec 31, 2015 was used to externally validate the results. FINDINGS The DRSS model stratified patients in the derivation cohort (median follow-up was 2·1 years [IQR 1·0-3·2]) into five risk groups with increasing mortality risk: low risk (reference group), intermediate-1 (hazard ratio for overall survival 1·26 [95% CI 1·17-1·36], p<0·0001), intermediate-2 (1·53 [1·42-1·66], p<0·0001), high (2·03 [1·86-2·22], p<0·0001), and very high (2·87 [2·63-3·13], p<0·0001). DRSS levels were also associated with a stepwise increase in risk across the tuning and geographical validation cohort. In the external validation cohort (median follow-up was 5·7 years [IQR 4·5-7·1]), the DRSS scheme separated patients into 4 risk groups associated with increasing risk of mortality: intermediate-2 risk (hazard ratio [HR] 1·34 [95% CI 1·04-1·74], p=0·025), high risk (HR 2·03 [95% CI 1·39-2·95], p=0·00023) and very-high risk (HR 2·26 [95% CI 1·62-3·15], p<0·0001) patients compared with the low risk and intermediate-1 risk group (reference group). Across all cohorts, between 64% and 65% of patients were categorised as having intermediate-risk disease by a previous prognostic system (ie, the disease-risk index [DRI]). The DRSS reclassified these intermediate-risk DRI patients, with 855 (6%) low risk, 7111 (51%) intermediate-1 risk, 5700 (41%) intermediate-2 risk, and 375 (3%) high risk or very high risk of 14?041 patients in a subanalysis combining the tuning and internal geographic validation cohorts. The DRI projected 2-year overall survival was 62·1% (95% CI 61·2-62·9) for these 14?041 patients, while the DRSS reclassified them into finer prognostic groups with overall survival ranging from 45·7% (37·4-54·0; very high risk patients) to 73·1% (70·1-76·2; low risk patients). INTERPRETATION The DRSS is a novel risk stratification tool including disease features related to histology, genetic profile, and treatment response. The model should serve as a benchmark for future studies. This system facilitates the interpretation and analysis of studies with heterogeneous cohorts, promoting trial-design with more inclusive populations. FUNDING The Varda and Boaz Dotan Research Center for Hemato-Oncology Research, Tel Aviv University.
Adults with haematological malignancies who received an allogeneic HSCT reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry (n=47,265)
Disease Risk Stratification System (DRSS)
Disease Risk Index (DRI)
The DRSS scheme separated patients into 4 risk groups associated with increasing risk of mortality: intermediate-2 risk (hazard ratio [HR] 1·34), high risk (HR 2·03]) and very-high risk (HR 2·26) patients compared with the low risk and intermediate-1 risk group (reference group). Across all cohorts, between 64% and 65% of patients were categorised as having intermediate-risk disease by a previous prognostic system (ie, the disease-risk index [DRI]). The DRSS reclassified these intermediate-risk DRI patients, with 855 (6%) low risk, 7111 (51%) intermediate-1 risk, 5700 (41%) intermediate-2 risk, and 375 (3%) high risk or very high risk of 14,041 patients in a subanalysis combining the tuning and internal geographic validation cohorts. The DRI projected 2-year overall survival was 62·1% for these 14,041 patients, while the DRSS reclassified them into finer prognostic groups with overall survival ranging from 45·7% (37·4-54·0; very high risk patients) to 73·1% (70·1-76·2; low risk patients).
How Do We Manage Hematopoietic Cell Transplant during the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic?
Acta Haematologica. 2021;:1-7
Patients receiving a hematopoietic cell transplant are thought to be at increased risk of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus infectious disease 2019. Transplant activities at our center continue, and notably, no patient has been infected with SARS-CoV-2. Indeed, social distancing, masking, and education for patients and donors are major pillars of prevention. We recommend potential transplant recipients and donors to be tested for SARS-CoV-2 with qRT-PCR, serum antibody detection, and a lung CT scan pretransplant. If possible, stem cells from HLA-matched unrelated donors by local processing laboratories should be cryopreserved and shipped before initiating pretransplant conditioning. An alternative HLA-haplotype-matched related donor should be identified and evaluated as a backup. The interval immediately after discharge is the time of greatest risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection because of travel and exposure to infected persons. We recommend self-isolation and minimal contact with family members. Nonessential clinic visits should be deferred or substituted with telemedicine consultations if possible. These recommendations are based on our experience at a major transplant center in China. Although some recommendations are evidence based, other recommendations are not and warrant validation in controlled trials.
Prognostic impact of early-versus-late responses to different induction regimens in patients with myeloma undergoing autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation: results from the CALM study by the CMWP of the EBMT
European journal of haematology. 2021
BACKGROUND In autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT)-eligible myeloma patients, prolonged induction does not necessarily improve the depth of response. METHOD We analysed 1,222 ASCT patients who were classified based on (1) the interval between induction and stem cell collection, (2) the type of induction regimen: BID (Bortezomib, IMiDs and Dexamethasone), Bortezomib-based, or CTD (Cyclophosphamide, Thalidomide and Dexamethasone), and (3) the time to best response (Early i.e. best response within 4 or 5 months, depending on the regimen vs Late; Good i.e. VGPR or better vs Poor) RESULTS The length of induction treatment required to achieve a Good response did not affect PFS (p=0.65) or OS (p=0.61) post-ASCT. The three types of regimen resulted in similar outcomes: median PFS 31, 27.7 and 30.8 months (p=0.31), and median OS 81.7, 92.7, and 77.4 months, respectively (p=0.83). On multivariate analysis, neither the type nor the duration of the induction regimen affected OS and PFS, except for Early Good Responders who had a better PFS compared to Early Poor Responders (HR = 1.21, p value = 0.02). However, achieving a Good response at induction was associated with a better response (= VGPR) post-transplant CONCLUSION The kinetics of response did not affect outcomes.
Allogeneic stem cell transplant in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and karnofsky performance status score less than or equal to 80%: A study from the acute leukemia working party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT)
Cancer medicine. 2020
Limited data are currently available on the outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) with a reduced performance status. We herein present the results of a registry study on 2,936 AML patients undergoing allo-SCT in first remission (CR1) with a Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score less than or equal to 80%. Two-year leukemia-free survival (LFS), overall survival (OS) and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-free, and relapse-free survival (GRFS) rates were 54%, 59%, and 41%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, patients with a KPS score = 80% had lower non-relapse mortality (NRM) and superior OS in comparison to patients with a KPS score <80% (p < 0.001). In the subgroup of patients with a KPS score =80%, a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen was associated with an increased risk of relapse (p = 0.002) and lower GRFS (p < 0.001) compared to myeloablative conditioning (MAC). Differently, in patients with a KPS score <80%, a RIC regimen resulted in lower NRM (p < 0.001), whereas relapse incidence did not differ, thus leading to an improved GRFS (p = 0.008) as compared to MAC. A transplant from a matched sibling donor (MSD) was associated with a reduced incidence of grade III-IV acute GVHD (p < 0.01) and NRM (p < 0.01) in comparison to other donor types. In conclusion, allo-SCT appears feasible in AML patients with a jeopardized KPS score. Survival is significantly affected by the conditioning intensity, which should be adjusted according to the severity of KPS impairment.
Underdiagnosed veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) as a major cause of multi-organ failure in acute leukemia transplant patients: an analysis from the EBMT Acute Leukemia Working Party
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) is a complex, potentially fatal therapy featuring a myriad of complications. Triggering event(s) of such complications vary significantly, but often a so-called "multi-organ failure" (MOF) is reported as the leading cause of death. The identification of the exact trigger of MOF is critical towards early and disease-specific intervention to improve outcome. We examined data from 202 alloHCT patients reported to have died of MOF from the EBMT registry aiming to determine their exact cause of death focusing on veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) due to its life-threatening, often difficult to capture yet preventable nature. We identified a total of 70 patients (35%) for whom VOD/SOS could be considered as trigger for MOF and leading cause of death, among which 48 (69%) were previously undiagnosed. Multivariate analysis highlighted history of hepatic comorbidity or gentuzumab use and disease status beyond CR1 as the only significant factors predictive of VOD/SOS incidence (OR?=?6.6; p?=?0.001 and OR?=?3.3; p?=?0.004 respectively). VOD/SOS-related MOF was widely under-reported, accounting for 27% of deaths attributed to MOF of unknown origin without a previous VOD/SOS diagnosis. Our results suggest most missed cases developed late VOD/SOS beyond 21 days post-alloHCT, highlighting the importance of the newly revised EBMT criteria.
Evaluation of six different types of sequential conditioning regimens for allogeneic stem cell transplantation in relapsed/refractory acute myelogenous leukemia - a study of the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the EBMT
Leukemia & lymphoma. 2020;:1-11
The Acute Leukemia Working Party (ALWP) of the EBMT assessed the outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) in patients with relapsed/refractory AML (r/rAML) evaluating six sequential conditioning regimens (SR) groups. A total of 2132 patients were included. LFS at 2 years was 28.9%, 33.6%, 35.3%, 20.6%, 24.4%, and 27% for the FLAMSA-TBI4, FLAMSA-Chemo, Mel-Flu-TBI8, Mel-Treo-Flu, Thio-ETO-Cy-Bu2-Flu, and Clo-ARAC-(Bu2/TBI4)-Cy groups, respectively. In patients <55 years of age Mel-Flu-TBI8 had the best LFS, which was statistically significant only in comparison to the Mel-Treo-Flu group, while in patients =55 years LFS was best with FLAMSA-Chemo without significant differences compared to FLAMSA-TBI4 and Mel-Flu-TBI8. Furthermore, best NRM rates were obtained with the two FLAMSA regimens groups. Our study suggests that in younger (<55 years) patients a more intense regimen might be used whereas in older (=55 years) patients the focus might be more on tolerability.
Comparable outcomes of haploidentical transplant with TBF conditioning versus matched unrelated donor with fludarabine/busulfan conditioning for acute myeloid leukemia
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
We compared transplant outcomes of 708 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients receiving haploidentical allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation using thiotepa/busulfan/fludarabine (TBF) conditioning with posttransplant cyclophosphamide (ptCy), to 2083 patients receiving matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplantation using fludarabine/busulfan (FB) conditioning and in vivo T-cell depletion. For intermediate cytogenetic risk AML transplanted in first complete remission (CR1), multivariate analysis revealed that haplo-TBF significantly increased nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (HR 2.1; p?=?0.0006) but did not affect relapse incidence (RI), leukemia-free survival (LFS), overall survival (OS), or graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS). For high cytogenetic risk AML transplanted in CR1, haplo-TBF significantly increased NRM (HR?=?2.7; p?=?0.02), decreased RI (HR?=?0.45; p?=?0.03) but had no influence on LFS, OS, or GRFS. For AML transplanted in CR2, haplo-TBF significantly increased NRM (HR?=?2.36; p?=?0.008), decreased RI (HR?=?0.38; p?=?0.005), but had no influence on LFS, OS, or GRFS. Finally, for AML patients transplanted with active disease, haplo-TBF had no influence on transplant outcomes. In conclusion, compared to MUD-FB, haplo-TBF increased NRM, reduced RI in high-risk AML in CR, resulting in similar LFS, OS, and GRFS. These results comparing two different approaches support the use of a haploidentical family donor for high-risk AML patients lacking a matched sibling donor.
Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (n=2791)
Haploidentical transplantation with thiotepa/busulfan/fludarabine (haplo-TBF) conditioning (n=708)
Matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplantation (n=2083)
For intermediate cytogenetic risk AML transplanted in first complete remission (CR1), multivariate analysis revealed that haplo-TBF significantly increased nonrelapse mortality (NRM) but did not affect relapse incidence (RI), leukemia-free survival (LFS), overall survival (OS), or graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS). For high cytogenetic risk AML transplanted in CR1, haplo-TBF significantly increased NRM, decreased RI but had no influence on LFS, OS, or GRFS. For AML transplanted in CR2, haplo-TBF significantly increased NRM, decreased RI but had no influence on LFS, OS, or GRFS. Finally, for AML patients transplanted with active disease, haplo-TBF had no influence on transplant outcomes.
Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide versus antithymocyte globulin in patients with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors: A retrospective analysis from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
BACKGROUND Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Addition of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) or post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCY) to standard immunosuppressive agents reduces GVHD in different donor settings. METHODS We compared the outcomes of adults with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing allo-HSCT from HLA-identical sibling donors after the use of PTCY (n = 197) or ATG (n = 1913). RESULTS Patients in the PTCY group were younger than those in the ATG group (median age, 47 vs 54 years; P < .01). Peripheral blood was the most frequently used stem cell source, being significantly more frequent in the ATG group than in the PTCY group (95% vs 70% P < .01). The conditioning regimen was more frequently myeloablative in the PTCY group than in the ATG group (59% vs 48%; P < .01). Time to neutrophil engraftment was shorter in the ATG group than in the PTCY group (17 vs 20 days; P < .01). No differences were observed according to the other transplantation outcomes, except for chronic GVHD of all grades and extensive chronic GVHD at 2 years, which were significantly lower in the ATG group compared with the PTCY group (P < .02). CONCLUSION PTCY is feasible in an HLA-identical sibling setting, and despite similar outcomes, ATG may be associated with lower incidence of chronic GVHD.
Evaluation of Trends and Prognosis Over Time in Patients with AML Relapsing After Allogeneic Hematopoeitic Cell Transplant Reveals Improved Survival for Young Patients in Recent Years
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2020
PURPOSE Relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) post allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation (allo-HCT) has a dismal prognosis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN To assess prognosis of patients with recurrent-AML post allo-HCT over time, we analyzed EBMT-registry data of 8162 adult AML patients who relapsed between 2000 and 2018 after allo-HCT performed in first complete-remission from matched-sibling, unrelated or haploidentical-donors. RESULTS The 2-year overall-survival (OS) from relapse was 17%. For 3630 patients <50 years of age, the 2-year OS continuously increased from 16% between 2000-2004 to 18% for 2005-2009, 21% for 2010-2014 and 26% for 2015-2018 (p=0.001). Improvement over time was noted both after relapse within and beyond 6 months from allo-HCT. On multivariate-analysis among patients <50y, OS was positively-affected by a later year of relapse (baseline: 2000-2004; HR 0.82, p<0.02 for 2010-2014; HR=0.72, p=0.0002 for 2015-2018), good performance-status, favorable cytogenetics, and longer time from transplant to relapse, but negatively affected by increasing age. In contrast, among 4532 patients >50y, the year of relapse has no influence on OS (16% for 2000-2004, 14% for 2015-2018; p=0.56). Regarding treatment, encouraging results were observed after second allo-HCT, which was performed within 2 years after relapse in 17% of the entire cohort, resulting in a 2-year OS of 30.7%. CONCLUSION outcome after post-transplant relapse among younger patients has improved significantly in recent years, likely reflecting, among other factors, the efficacy of post-transplant salvage including second allo-HCT.