Impact of early candidemia on the long-term outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant in non-leukemic patients: an outcome analysis on behalf of IDWP-EBMT
Bone marrow transplantation. 2021
We assessed the incidence and outcome of early candidemia after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). The analysis included all first HSCTs performed from 2000 to 2015 in adult and pediatric patients with a non-leukemic disease and recorded in the EBMT registry. Overall survival (OS), non-relapse mortality (NRM), and relapse mortality (RM) were evaluated. Candidemia was diagnosed in 420 of 49,852 patients at a median time of 17 days post HSCT (range 0-100), the cumulative incidence being 0.85%. In 65.5% of episodes, candidemia occurred by day 30 after HSCT. The mortality rate by day 7 was 6.2%, whereas 100-day NRM was higher (HR 3.47, p?0.0001), and 100-day OS was lower (HR 3.22, p?0.0001) than that of patients without candidemia. After a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 5-year OS, NRM, and RM for patients with and without candidemia were 50.5% vs. 60.8%, p?0.0001, 28.2% vs.18.8%, p?0.0001, and 25.3% vs. 27.2%, p?=?0.4, respectively. In conclusion, in non-leukemic transplant patients, the occurrence of an early episode of candidemia is rare but it is still associated with a negative effect on the outcome.
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for adult patients with t(4;11)(q21;q23) KMT2A/AFF1 B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first complete remission: impact of pretransplant measurable residual disease (MRD) status. An analysis from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the EBMT
Adult B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) with t(4;11)(q21;q23);KMT2A/AFF1 is a poor-prognosis entity. This registry-based study was aimed to analyze outcome of patients with t(4;11) BCP-ALL treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) in first complete remission (CR1) between 2000 and 2017, focusing on the impact of measurable residual disease (MRD) at the time of transplant. Among 151 patients (median age, 38) allotransplanted from either HLA-matched siblings or unrelated donors, leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS) at 2 years were 51% and 60%, whereas relapse incidence (RI) and non-relapse mortality (NRM) were 30% and 20%, respectively. These results were comparable to a cohort of contemporary patients with diploid normal karyotype (NK) BCP-ALL with equivalent inclusion criteria (n?=?567). Among patients with evaluable MRD pre-alloHSCT, a negative status was the strongest beneficial factor influencing LFS (hazard ratio [HR]?=?0.2, p?0.001), OS (HR?=?0.14, p?0.001), RI (HR?=?0.23, p?=?0.001), and NRM (HR?=?0.16, p?=?0.002), with a similar outcome to MRD-negative NK BCP-ALL patients. In contrast, among patients with detectable pretransplant MRD, outcome in t(4;11) BCP-ALL was inferior to NK BCP-ALL (LFS: 27% vs. 50%, p?=?0.02). These results support indication of alloHSCT in CR1 for t(4;11) BCP-ALL patients, provided a negative MRD status is achieved. Conversely, pre-alloHSCT additional therapy is warranted in MRD-positive patients.
Addition of lenalidomide to intensive treatment in younger and middle-aged adults with newly diagnosed AML: the HOVON-SAKK-132 trial
Blood advances. 2021;5(4):1110-1121
Lenalidomide, an antineoplastic and immunomodulatory drug, has therapeutic activity in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but definitive studies about its therapeutic utility have been lacking. In a phase 3 study, we compared 2 induction regimens in newly diagnosed patients age 18 to 65 years with AML: idarubicine-cytarabine (cycle 1) and daunorubicin and intermediate-dose cytarabine (cycle 2) without or with lenalidomide (15 mg orally on days 1-21). One final consolidation cycle of chemotherapy or autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) or allogeneic SCT (allo-SCT) was provided according to a prognostic risk and minimal residual disease (MRD)-adapted approach. Event-free survival (EFS; primary end point) and other clinical end points were assessed. A second random assignment in patients in complete response or in complete response with incomplete hematologic recovery after cycle 3 or auto-SCT involved 6 cycles of maintenance with lenalidomide (10 mg on days 1-21) or observation. In all, 392 patients were randomly assigned to the control group, and 388 patients were randomly assigned to lenalidomide induction. At a median follow-up of 41 months, the study revealed no differences in outcome between the treatments (EFS, 44% ± 2% standard error and overall survival, 54% ± 2% at 4 years for both arms) although in an exploratory post hoc analysis, a lenalidomide benefit was suggested in SRSF2-mutant AML. In relation to the previous Dutch-Belgian Hemato-Oncology Cooperative Group and Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (HOVON-SAKK) studies that used a similar 3-cycle regimen but did not pursue an MRD-guided approach, these survival estimates compare markedly more favorably. MRD status after cycle 2 lost prognostic value in intermediate-risk AML in the risk-adjusted treatment context. Maintenance with lenalidomide showed no apparent effect on relapse probability in 88 patients randomly assigned for this part of the study.
Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide versus antithymocyte globulin in patients with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors: A retrospective analysis from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
BACKGROUND Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Addition of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) or post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCY) to standard immunosuppressive agents reduces GVHD in different donor settings. METHODS We compared the outcomes of adults with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing allo-HSCT from HLA-identical sibling donors after the use of PTCY (n = 197) or ATG (n = 1913). RESULTS Patients in the PTCY group were younger than those in the ATG group (median age, 47 vs 54 years; P < .01). Peripheral blood was the most frequently used stem cell source, being significantly more frequent in the ATG group than in the PTCY group (95% vs 70% P < .01). The conditioning regimen was more frequently myeloablative in the PTCY group than in the ATG group (59% vs 48%; P < .01). Time to neutrophil engraftment was shorter in the ATG group than in the PTCY group (17 vs 20 days; P < .01). No differences were observed according to the other transplantation outcomes, except for chronic GVHD of all grades and extensive chronic GVHD at 2 years, which were significantly lower in the ATG group compared with the PTCY group (P < .02). CONCLUSION PTCY is feasible in an HLA-identical sibling setting, and despite similar outcomes, ATG may be associated with lower incidence of chronic GVHD.
Comparison of mycophenolate mofetil and calcineurin inhibitor versus calcineurin inhibitor-based graft-versus-host-disease prophylaxis for matched unrelated donor transplant in acute myeloid leukemia. A study from the ALWP of the EBMT
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
The association of Cyclosporine A (CsA) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has increased in the setting of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC). Nevertheless, the use of CsA or CsA+MMF has not been reported in a large and uniform cohort. We analyzed 497 patients with acute myeloid leukemia in complete remission (CR) who underwent matched unrelated donor (MUD) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). All patients received a fludarabine busulfan RIC regimen and anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) with either CsA alone or in combination with MMF. The cumulative incidence (CI) of grade II-IV acute GvHD was 27% (95% CI 21-33%) for CsA and 33% (95% CI 27-38%) for CsA+MMF (p?=?0.25). The 2-year CI of chronic GvHD was 38% (95% CI 31-45%) and 33% (95% CI 28-39%) for the CsA and the CsA+MMF group, respectively (p?=?0.26). On multivariate analysis, no statistically significant differences with respect to relapse incidence (RI), non-relapse mortality (NRM), leukemia-free survival (LFS), overall survival (OS), acute and chronic GvHD were found between the two groups, also when conducting a subgroup analysis in peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) recipients. Our results support the importance of randomized trial to identify patients who could benefit from the addition of MMF in MUD HSCT.
Patients who underwent a 10/10 MUD HSCT for acute myeloid leukaemia (n=497)
Cyclosporine A and mycophenolate mofetil (CsA + MMF, n=314)
Cyclosporine A alone (CsA, n=183)
The cumulative incidence (CI) of grade II-IV acute GvHD was 27% for CsA and 33% for CsA+MMF. The 2-year CI of chronic GvHD was 38% and 33% for the CsA and the CsA+MMF group, respectively. On multivariate analysis, no statistically significant differences with respect to relapse incidence (RI), non-relapse mortality (NRM), leukemia-free survival (LFS), overall survival (OS), acute and chronic GvHD were found between the two groups, also when conducting a subgroup analysis in peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) recipients.
Impact of patient: donor HLA disparity on reduced-intensity-conditioned allogeneic stem cell transplants from HLA mismatched unrelated donors for AML: from the ALWP of the EBMT
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) who lack a matched sibling or unrelated donor commonly undergo transplantation from a donor matched at 9/10 HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1 alleles, and it is unclear if a specific locus mismatch is preferable to any other. We therefore studied 937 patients with AML in complete remission transplanted using a reduced intensity conditioning regimen from an unrelated donor mismatched at a single allele. In a multivariate analysis, patient age, adverse karyotype and patient cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity were correlated with decreased leukaemia free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS). There was no significant difference in LFS or OS between patients transplanted from donors mismatched at HLA-A, -B, -C or -DRB1 in comparison to a HLA-DQB1 mismatched transplant. In a multivariate analysis, patients transplanted with a HLA-A mismatched donor had higher rates of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and non-relapse mortality (NRM) than patients transplanted with a HLA-DQB1 mismatched donor. Patient CMV seropositivity was associated with an increase in NRM and acute GVHD and reduced LFS and OS, regardless of donor CMV status. For CMV seropositive patients lacking a fully matched donor, alternative GVHD and CMV prophylaxis strategies should be considered.
Use of chimerism analysis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: Belgian guidelines and review of the current literature
Acta clinica Belgica. 2020;:1-9
Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative treatment option in both adult and pediatric patients with malignant and non-malignant hematological diseases. Chimerism analysis, which determines the donor or recipient origin of hematopoietic cells in HSCT recipients, is an essential aspect of post-HSCT follow-up.Objectives: To review the current literature and develop Belgian consensus guidelines for the use of chimerism analysis in the standard of care after allogeneic HSCT.Methods: Non-systematic review of the literature in consultancy with the members of the BHS transplantation committee.Results: Clinical application with regards to prediction of graft failure or relapse as well as cell source are reviewed. A consensus guideline on the use of chimerism analysis after HSCT is presented.Conclusion: Monitoring of the dynamics or kinetics of a patient's chimerism status by serial analysis at fixed time points, as well as on suspicion of relapse or graft failure, is needed to monitor engraftment levels, as well as disease control and possible relapse.
Panobinostat and decitabine prior to donor lymphocyte infusion in allogeneic stem cell transplantation
Blood advances. 2020;4(18):4430-4437
Outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is adversely affected by relapse to a considerable degree. To exploit the graft-versus-leukemia effect more effectively, we assessed the feasibility of early initiation of epigenetic therapy with panobinostat and decitabine after allo-HSCT and before donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) in poor-risk patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or refractory anemia with excess blasts with International Prognostic Scoring System score =1.5. A total of 140 poor-risk patients with AML aged 18 to 70 years were registered, and 110 proceeded to allo-HSCT. Three dose levels were evaluated for dose-limiting toxicities, including panobinostat monotherapy 20 mg at days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of a 4-week cycle (PNB mono group) and panobinostat combined with either decitabine 20 mg/m2 (PNB/DAC20 group) or decitabine 10 mg/m2 (PNB/DAC10 group) at days 1 to 3 of every 4-week cycle. After phase 1, the study continued as phase 2, focusing on completion of protocol treatment and treatment outcome. PNB mono and PNB/DAC10 were feasible, whereas PNB/DAC20 was not related to prolonged cytopenia. Sixty of 110 patients who underwent transplantation were eligible to receive their first DLI within 115 days after allo-HSCT. Grade 3 and 4 adverse events related to panobinostat and decitabine were observed in 23 (26%) of the 87 patients, and they received epigenetic therapy. Cumulative incidence of relapse was 35% (standard error [SE] 5), and overall survival and progression-free survival at 24 months were 50% (SE 5) and 49% (SE 5). Post-allo-HSCT epigenetic therapy with panobinostat alone or in combination with low-dose decitabine is feasible and is associated with a relatively low relapse rate. The trial was registered at the European Clinical Trial Registry, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu, as ECT2012-003344-74.
ATIR101 administered after T-cell-depleted haploidentical HSCT reduces NRM and improves overall survival in acute leukemia
Overcoming graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) without increasing relapse and severe infections is a major challenge after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). ATIR101 is a haploidentical, naive cell-enriched T-cell product, depleted of recipient-alloreactive T cells to minimize the risk of GvHD and provide graft-versus-infection and -leukemia activity. Safety and efficacy of ATIR101 administered after T-cell-depleted haploidentical HSCT (TCD-haplo + ATIR101) without posttransplant immunosuppressors were evaluated in a Phase 2, multicenter study of 23 patients with acute leukemia and compared with an observational cohort undergoing TCD-haplo alone (n = 35), matched unrelated donor (MUD; n = 64), mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD; n = 37), and umbilical cord blood (UCB; n = 22) HSCT. The primary endpoint, 6-month non-relapse mortality (NRM), was 13% with TCD-haplo + ATIR101. One year post HSCT, TCD-haplo + ATIR101 resulted in lower NRM versus TCD-haplo alone (P = 0.008). GvHD-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) was higher with TCD-haplo + ATIR101 versus MMUD and UCB (both P < 0.03; 1-year rates: 56.5%, 27.0%, and 22.7%, respectively) and was not statistically different from MUD (1 year: 40.6%). ATIR101 grafts with high third-party reactivity were associated with fewer clinically relevant viral infections. Results suggest that haploidentical, selective donor-cell depletion may eliminate requirements for posttransplant immunosuppressors without increasing GvHD risk, with similar GRFS to MUD. Following these results, a randomized Phase 3 trial versus posttransplant cyclophosphamide had been initiated.
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation in AML with t(6;9)(p23;q34);DEK-NUP214 shows a favourable outcome when performed in first complete remission
British journal of haematology. 2020
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) with t(6;9)(p23;q34) is a poor-risk entity, commonly associated with FLT3-ITD (internal tandem duplication). Allogeneic stem-cell tranplantation (allo-SCT) is recommended, although studies analysing the outcome of allo-SCT in this setting are lacking. We selected 195 patients with t(6;9) AML, who received a first allo-SCT between 2000 and 2016 from the EBMT (European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation) registry. Disease status at time of allo-SCT was the strongest independent prognostic factor, with a two-year leukaemia-free survival and relapse incidence of 57% and 19% in patients in CR1 (first complete remission), 34% and 33% in CR2 (second complete remission), and 24% and 49% in patients not in remission, respectively (P < 0.001). This study, which represents the largest one available in t(6;9) AML, supports the recommendation to submit these patients to allo-SCT in CR1.