The safety and efficacy of a novel hypo-fractionated total marrow and lymphoid irradiation before allogeneic stem cell transplantation for lymphoma and acute leukemia
Clinical and translational radiation oncology. 2021;26:42-46
PURPOSE Total body irradiation (TBI) has been widely utilized as part of the conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but is associated with significant toxicities. Targeted TBI using helical Tomotherapy allows precise and homogeneous tumor coverage and excellent sparing of organs at risk. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of a novel hypo-fractionation strategy for patients receiving total marrow and involved lymphoid irradiation (TMLI) as part of the conditioning regimen before HSCT. METHODS AND MATERIALS 61 patients (7 acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), 33 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 18 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), 3 mixed acute leukemia (MAL)) received conditioning radiation treatment with TMLI (8 Gy to bone marrow, 10 Gy to involved field in 2 fractions per day) in conjunction with chemotherapy before transplantation. RESULTS The median age of 61 patients with TMLI was 24 (4-54) years. The prescribed dose covered the entire bone and involved target volume, and the dose of organs at risk (OAR) was reduced by 28%-78% of the prescription dose. Grade 1-2 nausea and vomiting occurred in 12 patients and grade 1-2 pain in 6 patients during radiotherapy. Fatigue occurred in 16 patients. 2 patients had diarrhea, enteritis, and 1 patient had fever. None of patient had grade 3-4 non-hematologic adverse reactions. Late (30 days after HSCT) grade 2 toxicities including reversible enteritis occurred in 3 patients. 5 patients developed infectious pneumonia. The 2 years progression-free survival (PFS) was 64.1% (95% CI: 0.16-0.22) and overall survival (OS) was 74.7% (95% CI: 0.19-0.24) for the 61 patients who had received their planned HSCT. The 2-year non-relapse mortality was significantly reduced to 5% in this patient cohort. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that hypo-fractionated TMLI (8 Gy to bone marrow, 10 Gy to involved field in a single day) as a conditioning regimen for lymphoma and acute leukemia was feasible and the clinical outcomes were acceptable.
[Optimization of ATG dose in haploid hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies]
Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi. 2020;41(7):557-563
Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy of different doses of rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) in haplo-HSCT in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Methods: Malignant hematological patients treated at our hospital from March 2013 to December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. These patients were divided into three groups as per three doses of ATG (6 mg/kg, 7.5 mg/kg, and 9 mg/kg) in the conditioning regimens. The transplant outcomes were compared in terms of the occurrence of acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) , infection, and survival. Results: ?Total 288 patients were enrolled in the study, including 182 men and 106 women, with a median age of 18 (6-62) years. Total 110 patients were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) , 128 with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) , 8 with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) , 28 with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) , and 14 with mixed cell leukemia (MAL) . There were 159 patients in the ATG-6 group, 72 in the ATG-7.5 group, and 57 in the ATG-9 group. The median follow-up time of post transplantation was 14 (0.2-74) months. ?The incidence of neutrophil engraftment (96.9% , 97.2% , and 96.5% , respectively) and platelet engraftment (92.5% , 87.5% , and 86% , respectively) did not significantly differ among the ATG-6, ATG-7.5, and ATG-9 groups (P=0.972, P=0.276) . The incidence of grades 2-4 acute GVHD was 14.5% , 11.1% , and 8.8% in the three groups, respectively (P=0.493) , chronic GVHD incidence in the three group was 8.8% , 14.3% and 12.0% , respectively (P=0.493) . The infection rates of CMV and EBV in the ATG-9 group (77.2% and 12.5% ) were significantly higher than those in the ATG-6 (43.3% and 3.5% ) , and ATG -7.5 group (44.4% and 1.5% ) (P<0.001 and P=0.033, respectively) . ?Among the three groups, there were no significant difference in the 3-year overall survival [68.5% (95% CI 60.3% -77.9% ) , 60.1% (95% CI 48.3% -74.8% ) , 64.7% (95% CI 51.9% -80.7% ) ], cumulative incidences of relapse [34.6% (95% CI 34.3% -35.1% ) , 38.0% (95% CI 37.3% -38.7% ) , 20.6% (95% CI 20.0% -21.3% ) ], disease-free survival [53.3% (95% CI 44.9% -63.4% ) , 51.9% (95% CI 41% -65.8% ) , 63.9% (95% CI 51.9% -78.7% ) ] and non-relapse mortality [24.2% (95% CI 23.8% -24.5% ) , 26.0% (95% CI 25.4% -26.6% ) , 23.6% (95% CI 26.3% -28.2% ) ] (P=0.648, P=0.165, and P=0.486 and P=0.955) . Conclusion: Low dose (6 mg/kg) of rATG may increase the risk of grade ?-? aGVHD, and a high dose (9 mg/kg) of ATG could significantly increase the risk of CMV and EBV infection. Median dose (7.5 mg/kg) of ATG is expected to reduce the incidence of moderate to severe aGVHD and viral infections without increasing the mortality.
Comparing the outcomes between TMLI and non-TMLI conditioning regimens for adult high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a single-center experience
Leukemia & lymphoma. 2020;:1-9
This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the outcomes of adult patients with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with either total marrow and lymphoid irradiation (TMLI)-containing or non-TMLI conditioning regimen. Seventy adult patients with high-risk ALL who received allo-HSCT were enrolled in this study and divided into two groups based on the conditioning regimen type (TMLI group: n = 29 and non-TMLI group: n = 41). We noted significant statistical differences in the 1-year estimated cumulative incidence of relapse (25% vs. 46.5%, p = 0.018), the 1-year estimated overall survival (73.1% vs. 52.6%, p = 0.033) and disease-free survival (65.2% vs. 48.2%, p = 0.026) but found no considerable difference in transplant-related mortality (12% vs. 13.4%, p = 0.619) between patients in the TMLI and non-TMLI groups. The TMLI-containing regimen is safe and alternative for patients with high-risk ALL undergoing allo-HSCT.
Outcomes after late bone marrow and very early central nervous system relapse of childhood B-Acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group phase III study AALL0433
Outcomes after relapse of childhood B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) are poor, and optimal therapy is unclear. Children's Oncology Group study AALL0433 evaluated a new platform for relapsed ALL. Between March 2007 and October 2013 AALL0433 enrolled 275 participants with late bone marrow or very early isolated central nervous system (iCNS) relapse of childhood B-ALL. Patients were randomized to receive standard versus intensive vincristine dosing; this randomization closed due to excess peripheral neuropathy in 2010. Patients with matched sibling donors received allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) after the first three blocks of therapy. The prognostic value of minimal residual disease (MRD) was also evaluated in this study. The 3-year event free and overall survival (EFS/OS) for the 271 eligible patients were 63.6% +/- 3.0% and 72.3% +/- 2.8% respectively. MRD at the end of Induction-1 was highly predictive of outcome, with 3-year EFS/OS of 84.9 +/- 4.0% and 93.8 +/- 2.7% for patients with MRD <0.1%, vs. 53.7 +/- 7.8% and 60.6 +/- 7.8% for patients with MRD ≥0.1% (p<0.0001). Patients who received HCT vs. chemotherapy alone had an improved 3-year disease-free survival (77.5 +/- 6.2% vs. 66.9 +/- 4.5%, p=0.03) but not OS (81.5 +/- 5.8% for HCT vs. 85.8 +/- 3.4% for chemotherapy, p=0.46). Patients with early iCNS relapse fared poorly, with a 3-year EFS/OS of 41.4% +/- 9.2% and 51.7% +/- 9.3%, respectively. Infectious toxicities of the chemotherapy platform were significant. The AALL0433 chemotherapy platform is efficacious for late bone marrow relapse of B-ALL, but with significant toxicities. The MRD threshold of 0.1% at the end of Induction-1 was highly predictive of outcome. The optimal role for HCT for this patient population remains uncertain. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT# 00381680).
The great challenge of managing recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation combined with COVID-19
Bone Marrow Transplantation. 2020
Higher Reported Lung Dose Received during Total Body Irradiation for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia is Associated with Inferior Survival: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. 2019
PURPOSE To examine the relationship between lung radiation dose and survival outcomes in children undergoing total body irradiation (TBI)-based hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) on Children's Oncology Group (COG) trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS TBI (1200 or 1320 cGy given twice daily in 6 or 8 fractions) was used as part of 3 HSCT preparative regimens; allowing institutional flexibility regarding TBI techniques, including lung shielding. Lung doses as reported by each participating institution were calculated for different patient setups, with and without shielding, with a variety of dose calculation techniques. The association between lung dose and transplant-related mortality (TRM), relapse-free (RFS) and overall-survival (OS) was examined using Cox proportional hazard regression model controlling for the following variables: TBI dose rate, TBI fields, patient position during TBI, donor type, and pre-HSCT minimal residual disease (MRD) level. RESULTS From a total of 143 eligible patients127 had lung doses available for this analysis. The TBI techniques were heterogeneous. The mean lung dose was reported as 904.5cGy (SD +/-232.3). Patients treated with lateral fields were more likely to receive lung doses ≥800cGy (p<0.001). Lung dose ≥800cGy influence on TRM was not significant (HR 1.78; p=0.21). On univariate analysis, lung dose ≥800cGy was associated with inferior RFS (HR 1.76; p=0.04) and OS (HR 1.85; p=0.03); in the multivariate analysis, OS maintained statistical significance (HR 1.85; p=0.04). CONCLUSION The variability in TBI techniques result in an uncertainty with reported lung doses. Lateral fields were associated with higher lung dose, hence better be avoided. Patients treated with lung dose <800 cGy in this study had better outcome. This approach is currently been investigated in COG AALL1331 study. Additionally, the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC) Group is evaluating effects of TBI techniques on lung doses using a phantom.
Children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (n=143)
TBI (1200 or 1320 cGy given twice daily in 6 or 8 fractions), given with or without shielding, using heterogeneous TBI techniques.
Lung doses as reported by each participating institution were calculated for different patient setups.
The mean lung dose was reported as 904.5cGy. Patients treated with lateral fields were more likely to receive lung doses >/=800cGy. Lung dose >/=800cGy influence on TRM was not significant. On univariate analysis, lung dose >/=800cGy was associated with inferior RFS and OS; in the multivariate analysis, OS maintained statistical significance. The variability in TBI techniques resulted in an uncertainty with reported lung doses. Patients treated with lung dose <800 cGy had better outcome.
Anti-CD19 CAR-T Therapy Bridging to Allo-HSCT for Relapsed/refractory B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: An Open-Label Pragmatic Clinical Trial
American journal of hematology. 2019
Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T-cell (CAR-T) therapy is effective and safe for patients with relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (r/r B-ALL), but its value has been limited in terms of long-term leukemia-free survival. New strategies that can help CAR-T therapy achieve lasting effect are urgently warranted. This non-randomized interventional pragmatic clinical trial aimed to explore whether consolidative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) could improve the long-term prognosis of the minimal residual disease-negative complete remission (MRD(-) CR) patients after CAR-T therapy. In the first stage, 58 r/r B-ALL patients received split doses of CAR-T cells after lymphodepleting chemotherapy, and 51 (87.9%) achieved CR. In the second stage, 21/47 MRD(-) CR patients without previous allo-HSCT and contraindications or other restrictions, on their own accord, received consolidative allo-HSCT within three months after CAR-T therapy. There was no difference in overall survival (OS) between the MRD(-) CR patients who received allo-HSCT and those who didn't, but event-free survival (EFS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) were significantly prolonged by allo-HSCT in the subgroups with either high (≥ 5%) pre-infusion bone marrow MRD assessed by flow cytometry (BM-FCM-MRD) or poor prognostic markers (P < 0.05). However, no difference was found in EFS and RFS for patients with pre-infusion BM-FCM-MRD < 5% and without poor prognostic markers (P > 0.05). To conclude, CAR-T therapy bridging to allo-HSCT is a safe and effective therapeutic strategy for r/r B-ALL patients, and may prolong their EFS and RFS, especially when they have high pre-infusion BM-FCM-MRD or poor prognostic markers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
IDA-intensified hematopoietic cell transplantation improves relapse and survival of high-risk acute leukemia patients with minimal residual disease
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2018
The optimal conditioning regimen of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for high-risk patients with minimal residual disease (MRD) remains controversial. We studied the results in 98 high-risk acute leukemia patients being transplanted with idarubicin (IDA)-intensified conditioning regimens between 2012 January and 2017 January. Among these patients, 31 (31.6%) had more than 5% marrow blasts at time of transplantation. 67 patients were in morphologic remission and MRD negative status at time of conditioning was achieved in 39 (39.8%) patients, whereas 28 (28.6%) remained carriers of any other positive MRD level in the bone marrow. Three-year relapse estimates of patients with MRD-positive remission was 22.0%, which was remarkably lower than patients with active disease (45.4%, p=0.027), but approximate to that of patients in MRD-negative remission (15.5%, p=0.522). There were no significant differences in terms of 3-year estimated overall survival (3y-OS) and disease-free survival (3y-DFS) between MRD-positive remission and MRD-negative remission groups (71.4% vs 79.1%, p=0.562; 67.9% vs 76.9%, p=0.634). Moreover, the estimated 3y-OS and 3y-DFS of patients in MRD-positive remission were significantly better than those in patients with active disease (71.4% vs 41.9%, p=0.033; 67.9% vs 38.7%, p=0.037). These data indicate that IDA-intensified conditioning allo-HSCT could overcome the negative prognostic impact of MRD.
Haploidentical versus matched donor stem cell transplantation for patients with hematological malignancies: a systemic review and meta-analysis
Bone marrow transplantation. 2018
We compared the safety and efficacy of haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT) to matched donor SCT (matched-SCT) in treating hematological malignancies. The Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched through 21 June 2017 using the search term "(hematological disease) AND matched AND (haploidentical OR haplo-identical OR haplo identical OR haplo transplantation OR haplo transplant OR haplo-SCT OR haplo-HSCT OR haplo-HCT)." Twenty-five studies enrolling 11,359 patients (haplo-SCT: 2677; matched-SCT: 8682) were included. The primary outcomes were acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), non-relapse mortality, and 1-year cumulative incidence of relapse. Haplo-SCT was associated with similar risks as matched-SCT for all primary endpoints. Subgroup analysis of patients who received a matched-SCT from a related donor revealed that patients who received haplo-SCT had a lower risk of acute GVHD. Among patients who received reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC), those who received haplo-SCT had a higher risk of acute grade II-IV GVHD and non-relapse mortality than did patients who received a matched-SCT from a related or unrelated donor. Haplo-SCT should continue to be considered as a safe and effective transplant option when a matched donor is unavailable, but it may not be suitable for patients who receive RIC.
Idarubicin-intensified haploidentical HSCT with GvHD prophylaxis of ATG and basiliximab provides comparable results to sibling donors in high-risk acute leukemia
Bone Marrow Transplantation. 2017;52(9):1253-1260
We designed a novel haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) system using idarubicin (IDA) intensified conditioning regimens and combination of antithymocyte globulin and basiliximab for GvHD prophylaxis. The outcomes of 110 high-risk acute leukemia patients undergoing haplo-HSCT were compared with 69 contemporaneous high-risk patients receiving HLA-matched sibling transplantation using uniform IDA-intensified regimens. The relapse incidence of haplo-HSCT was 23.4%, and 3-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) achieved 62.9%, 59.1%, respectively. The cumulative incidences of II-IV and III-IV aGvHD were 28.6 and 14.3%, while limited and extensive cGvHD were 19.4, 13.8%. All these results were equivalent to those of concurrent identical sibling transplantation. Three-year OS and DFS for patients in advance stage reached 48.5, 47.3%. Furthermore, the relapse, 3-year OS of positive minimal residual disease (MRD) patients did not differ from negative MRD patients (18.9% vs 11.5%, 63.6% vs 69.6%), indicating our intensified haplo-HSCT technique could circumvent the dismal prognosis of MRD. These data provide reinforcing evidence that our haplo-HSCT system could dramatically improve the survival of high-risk acute leukemia with low relapse and acceptable transplantation-related mortality, and might be a promising therapeutic option for high-risk patients.