Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I and III
Blood advances. 2021;5(1):262-273
Type I and III leukocyte adhesion deficiencies (LADs) are primary immunodeficiency disorders resulting in early death due to infections and additional bleeding tendency in LAD-III. The curative treatment of LAD-I and LAD-III is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). In this retrospective multicenter study, data were collected using the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry; we analyzed data from 84 LAD patients from 33 centers, all receiving an allo-HSCT from 2007 to 2017. The 3-year overall survival estimate (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 83% (74-92) for the entire cohort: 84% (75-94) and 75% (50-100) for LAD-I and LAD-III, respectively. We observed cumulative incidences (95% CI) of graft failure (GF) at 3 years of 17% (9%-26%) and grade II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) at 100 days of 24% (15%-34%). The estimate (95% CI) at 3 years for GF- and GVHD-II to IV-free survival as event-free survival (EFS) was 56% (46-69) for the entire cohort; 58% (46-72) and 56% (23-88) for LAD-I and LAD-III, respectively. Grade II to IV acute GVHD was a relevant risk factor for death (hazard ratio 3.6; 95% CI 1.4-9.1; P = .006). Patients' age at transplant =13 months, transplantation from a nonsibling donor, and any serological cytomegalovirus mismatch in donor-recipient pairs were significantly associated with severe acute GVHD and inferior EFS. The choice of busulfan- or treosulfan-based conditioning, type of GVHD prophylaxis, and serotherapy did not impact overall survival, EFS, or aGVHD. An intrinsic inflammatory component of LAD may contribute to inflammatory complications during allo-HSCT, thus providing the rationale for considering anti-inflammatory therapy pretreatment.
Impact of early candidemia on the long-term outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant in non-leukemic patients: an outcome analysis on behalf of IDWP-EBMT
Bone marrow transplantation. 2021
We assessed the incidence and outcome of early candidemia after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). The analysis included all first HSCTs performed from 2000 to 2015 in adult and pediatric patients with a non-leukemic disease and recorded in the EBMT registry. Overall survival (OS), non-relapse mortality (NRM), and relapse mortality (RM) were evaluated. Candidemia was diagnosed in 420 of 49,852 patients at a median time of 17 days post HSCT (range 0-100), the cumulative incidence being 0.85%. In 65.5% of episodes, candidemia occurred by day 30 after HSCT. The mortality rate by day 7 was 6.2%, whereas 100-day NRM was higher (HR 3.47, p?0.0001), and 100-day OS was lower (HR 3.22, p?0.0001) than that of patients without candidemia. After a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 5-year OS, NRM, and RM for patients with and without candidemia were 50.5% vs. 60.8%, p?0.0001, 28.2% vs.18.8%, p?0.0001, and 25.3% vs. 27.2%, p?=?0.4, respectively. In conclusion, in non-leukemic transplant patients, the occurrence of an early episode of candidemia is rare but it is still associated with a negative effect on the outcome.
Vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) after autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation
INTRODUCTION Our aim was to assess response and side effects of 4 doses of TBE vaccine to patients (pts) after allo- and autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT). PATIENTS Included were 104 pts with leukaemia, myeloma and lymphoma, median age 61 yrs. METHODS Vaccine (FSME-Immun®) was given at 9, 10, 12, and 21 months post-transplant. Serum samples were obtained before and after vaccinations. Healthy controls (n = 27) received 3 vaccinations. Assessments of TBE specific IgG antibodies were performed by Enzygnost anti-TBE ELISA test (Siemens, Sweden). RESULTS Antibody levels (>12 U/mL; "seropositivity") were seen in 77% and 80% of pts after allo- and autoSCT; IgG levels; 89 vs 94 U/mL. Ongoing chronic GvHD and immunosuppression (n = 29) was associated with sero-negativity in the last sample (p = 0.007). All controls (n = 27) developed protective antibody levels. CONCLUSIONS TBE vaccination was safe, and 4 doses starting 9 months post-SCT, induced seropositivity in a vast majority of pts.
Important factors associated with sick leave after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation-a 1-year prospective study
Journal of cancer survivorship : research and practice. 2021;:1-9
PURPOSE This study examines sick leave (SL) and factors associated with full-time SL 1 year after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in patients of working age from 2009 to 2016 (n = 122). METHODS Questionnaire data were collected on admission to the allo-HSCT unit, at 7 months and 1 year after allo-HSCT. Associations between factors and SL were analysed using logistic regression analyses. RESULTS One year after allo-HSCT, 76% of participants were on SL, with 36% on full-time SL. In univariable analyses, chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGvHD) (OR 3.07; 95% CI 1.34-7.07; p = 0.01), having symptoms of depression at 7 months (OR 4.81; 95% CI 1.69-13.69; p = 0.00) and low levels of vocational satisfaction at 7 months after treatment (OR 3.27; 95% CI 1.27-8.41; p = 0.01) were associated with full-time SL 1 year after allo-HSCT. cGvHD (OR 3.43; 95% CI 1.35-8.73; p = 0.01) and having symptoms of depression at 7 months after allo-HSCT (OR 3.37; 95% CI 1.2-11.58; p = 0.02) remained significant in multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION The majority of allo-HSCT survivors were on SL 1 year after treatment, and cGvHD, low vocational satisfaction and depressive symptoms were associated with full-time SL 1 year after allo-HSCT. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS Healthcare professionals need to be observant of and manage the consequences of cGvHD and patients' symptoms of depression in order to support them appropriately in their return-to-work process.
COVID-19 and Stem Cell Transplantation;Results from the Prospective Survey By the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) and the Spanish Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and Cell Therapy Group (GETH)
Intercontinental study on pre-engraftment and post-engraftment Gram-negative rods bacteremia in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients: Risk factors and association with mortality
The Journal of infection. 2020
OBJECTIVES We present here data on Gram-negative rods bacteremia (GNRB) rates, risk factors and associated mortality. METHODS Data on GNRB episodes were prospectively collected in 65 allo-/67 auto-HSCT centers in 24 countries (Europe, Asia, Australia). In patients with and without GNRB, we compared: demography, underlying disease, HSCT-related data, center` fluoroquinolone prophylaxis (FQP) policy and accreditation status, and involvement of infection control team (ICT). RESULTS The GNRB cumulative incidence among 2818 allo-HSCT was: pre-engraftment (pre-eng-allo-HSCT), 8.4 (95% CI 7-9%), post-engraftment (post-eng-allo-HSCT), 5.8% (95%CI: 5-7%); among 3152 auto-HSCT, pre-eng-auto-HSCT, 6.6% (95%CI: 6-7%), post-eng-auto-HSCT, 0.7% (95%CI: 0.4-1.1%). GNRB, especially MDR, was associated with increased mortality. Multivariate analysis revealed the following GNRB risk factors: (a) pre-eng-allo-HSCT: south-eastern Europe center location, underlying diseases not at complete remission, and cord blood source; (b) post-eng-allo-HSCT: center location not in northwestern Europe; underlying non-malignant disease, not providing FQP and never accredited. (c) pre-eng-auto-HSCT: older age, autoimmune and malignant (vs. plasma cell) disease, and ICT absence. CONCLUSIONS Benefit of FQP should be explored in prospective studies. Increased GNRB risk in auto-HSCT patients transplanted for autoimmune diseases is worrying. Infection control and being accredited are possibly protective against bacteremia. GNRB are associated with increased mortality.
Haplotype Motif-Based Models for KIR-Genotype Informed Selection of Hematopoietic Cell Donors Fail to Predict Outcome of Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes or Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Frontiers in immunology. 2020;11:584520
Results from registry studies suggest that harnessing Natural Killer (NK) cell reactivity mediated through Killer cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) could reduce the risk of relapse after allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (HCT). Several competing models have been developed to classify donors as KIR-advantageous or disadvantageous. Basically, these models differ by grouping donors based on distinct KIR-KIR-ligand combinations or by haplotype motif assignment. This study aimed to validate different models for unrelated donor selection for patients with Myelodysplatic Syndromes (MDS) or secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia (sAML). In a joint retrospective study of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) and the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) registry data from 1704 patients with secondary AML or MDS were analysed. The cohort consisted mainly of older patients (median age 61 years) with high risk disease who had received chemotherapy-based reduced intensity conditioning and anti-thymocyte globulin prior to allogeneic HCT from well-matched unrelated stem cell donors. The impact of the predictors on Overall Survival (OS) and relapse incidence was tested in Cox regression models adjusted for patient age, a modified disease risk index, performance status, donor age, HLA-match, sex-match, CMV-match, conditioning intensity, type of T-cell depletion and graft type. KIR genes were typed using high-resolution amplicon-based next generation sequencing. In univariable and multivariable analyses none of the models predicted OS and the risk of relapse consistently. Our results do not support the hypothesis that optimizing NK-mediated alloreactivity is possible by KIR-genotype informed selection of HLA-matched unrelated donors. However, in the context of allogeneic transplantation, NK-cell biology is complex and only partly understood. KIR-genes are highly diverse and current assignment of haplotype motifs based on the presence or absence of selected KIR genes is over-simplistic. As a consequence, further research is highly warranted and should integrate cutting edge knowledge on KIR genetics, and NK-cell biology into future studies focused on homogeneous groups of patients and treatment modalities.
Use of letermovir in off-label indications: Infectious Diseases Working Party of European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation retrospective study
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Letermovir (LMV) is licensed for prophylaxis of CMV infection in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant adult CMV-seropositive patients. Due to its favorable safety profile, LMV brings potential for use in other clinical situations, outside the approved indication. The objective of the study was to analyze the efficacy and safety of the use of LMV in off-label indications in EBMT centers. A total of 49 patients were reported including 44 adults and 5 children. LMV was administered for: secondary prophylaxis (37 adults, 3 children), primary prophylaxis (2 children), pre-emptive treatment (5 adults), and therapy of CMV disease (2 adults; pneumonia, colitis). Cyclosporine was concomitantly used in 26 patients. Overall, LMV was used for a median 112 days (range: 10-473). Cumulative incidence of breakthrough infections during secondary prophylaxis was 10.1% (95% CI?=?3.1-21.9). Prophylactic treatment with LMV resulted in 94.9% (95% CI?=?81.0-98.7), and 81.9% (95% CI?=?65.7-90.9) probability of, respectively, 60 and 120-day survival without CMV infection in patients receiving secondary prophylaxis. During therapy of CMV infection/disease, probability of 60 and 120-day overall survival was 100% and 71.4% (95% CI?=?25.8-92.0), respectively. No breakthrough infection occurred in children on LMV prophylaxis. Adverse events were reported in 15/49 (30.4%) patients: the most common being nausea/vomiting (22.4%). In conclusion, the efficacy of the use of LMV as secondary prophylaxis was high, and the preliminary experience with the use of LMV for the treatment of patients with refractory CMV infection/disease was positive. Our data showed that higher dose or prolonged therapy did not result in increased rate of adverse events.
Patients in EBMT centres
Survey on the use of LMV in off-label indications in EBMT centers
A total of 49 patients were reported including 44 adults and 5 children. LMV was administered for: secondary prophylaxis (37 adults, 3 children), primary prophylaxis (2 children), pre-emptive treatment (5 adults), and therapy of CMV disease (2 adults; pneumonia, colitis). Cyclosporine was concomitantly used in 26 patients. Overall, LMV was used for a median 112 days (range: 10-473). Cumulative incidence of breakthrough infections during secondary prophylaxis was 10.1%. Prophylactic treatment with LMV resulted in 94.9%, and 81.9% probability of, respectively, 60 and 120-day survival without CMV infection in patients receiving secondary prophylaxis. During therapy of CMV infection/disease, probability of 60 and 120-day overall survival was 100% and 71.4%, respectively. No breakthrough infection occurred in children on LMV prophylaxis. Adverse events were reported in 15/49 (30.4%) patients: the most common being nausea/vomiting (22.4%).
A prospective study on the long-term outcome of prepubertal and pubertal boys undergoing testicular biopsy for fertility preservation prior to hematologic stem cell transplantation
Pediatric blood & cancer. 2020;:e28507
BACKGROUND Few studies have reported the long-term outcomes of prepubertal and pubertal boys undergoing testicular biopsy for fertility preservation (FP). PROCEDURE This prospective longitudinal study examined 21 boys (aged 1.5-14.5 years) who underwent testicular biopsy for FP prior to allogeneic (n = 20) or autologous (n = 1) hematological stem cell transplantation (HSCT) between 2003 and 2010. During counseling, pubertal boys were encouraged to produce a sperm sample by masturbation , while prepubertal boys were presented with surgical testicular tissue retrieval as an option for experimental FP. Clinical outcomes included postoperative complications, pubertal development, and sex-hormone levels. Survivors approaching adulthood were encouraged to provide semen samples. RESULTS Twenty boys, including 14 in prepuberty and six in early puberty (Tanner stage 2-3), underwent open testicular biopsies. Two pubertal biopsies contained mature sperms, which were cryopreserved. Testicular tissue was vitrified in the remaining 18 cases. One pubertal boy (Tanner stage 4) underwent percutaneous testicular sperm aspiration and sperms obtained were cryopreserved. Postoperative complications (hematoma or infection) were rare. Overall, 14 boys survived >5 years (mean follow-up after HSCT, 7.2 years) and 11 showed advanced puberty. Semen samples were provided by five boys and obtained sperm were cryopreserved from two. Individuals at adulthood had normal testosterone levels but subnormal testicular size, high follicle stimulating hormone, and low inhibin B and anti-Mullerian hormone levels. CONCLUSION No long-term risks were detected during continuous clinical follow-up. Experimental testicular biopsies for FP were well accepted by the patients and families, despite the absence of methods to use prepubertal tissue for fertility treatment.
Correction: The challenge of COVID-19 and hematopoietic cell transplantation: EBMT recommendations for management of hematopoietic cell transplant recipients, their donors, and patients undergoing CAR T-cell therapy
Bone Marrow Transplantation. 2020
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.