BeEAM (bendamustine, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan) prior to autologous stem cell transplant for chemosensitive relapses in patients with follicular lymphoma: a prospective multicentre phase II study in Lymphoma Study Association centres(†)
British journal of haematology. 2021
Bendamustine-EAM versus BEAM regimen in patients with mantle cell lymphoma undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation in the frontline setting: a multicenter retrospective study from Lymphoma Study Association (LYSA) centers
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
The combination of carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan (BEAM) as conditioning regimen prior to autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) remains the standard of care for patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) who are eligible for transplantation. The replacement of carmustine with bendamustine (BeEAM) was described as a promising alternative in non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the BeEAM with the BEAM regimen in MCL patients in the frontline setting. Sixty and 108 patients were included in the BeEAM and the BEAM groups, respectively. At 3 years, progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly higher in the BeEAM than in the BEAM group (84% [73-96] vs. 63% [51-79], p = 0.03). The overall survival was not statistically different between the two groups (p = 0.2). In multivariable analysis, BeEAM regimen remained associated with higher PFS (HR = 0.377, 95% CI, 0.146-0.970; p = 0.043). Subgroup analyses in patients treated with prior rituximab-aracytine induction alone showed that BeEAM improved the PFS compared with BEAM regimen (p = 0.04). Despite the high rate of acute renal failure KDIGO III (32%), treatment-related mortality was not increased with the BeEAM regimen. A prospective randomized trial will be necessary to confirm the beneficial effect of the BeEAM regimen in MCL patients undergoing ASCT.
Clinical characteristics and outcomes of relapsed follicular lymphoma after autologous stem cell transplantation in the rituximab era
Hematological oncology. 2020
High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a therapeutic option for patients with relapsed follicular lymphoma (FL). The clinical characteristics and outcomes of FL relapse after ASCT in the rituximab era have not yet been fully elucidated. We retrospectively reviewed 414 FL patients treated with ASCT between 2000 and 2014 in four hematology departments. All patients received rituximab as a first-line treatment. We specifically analyzed the clinical characteristics, treatment strategies at relapse, and outcomes of 95 patients (23%) who relapsed after ASCT. The patients (median age, 57 years) received a median of two lines of therapy (range, 2-6) prior to ASCT, with 92% in complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) before ASCT. Histological transformation at relapse after ASCT was observed in 20% of the patients. Treatment at relapse after ASCT consisted of chemotherapy with or without rituximab (n = 45/90, 50%), targeted agents (18%), rituximab monotherapy (14%), or consolidation allogeneic transplantation after induction chemotherapy (12%) and radiotherapy (6%). After relapse, the median progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 1 year (95% CI, 0.541-1.579) and 5.5 years (95% CI, 1.910-9.099), respectively. In the multivariate analysis, histological transformation (HT) was associated with OS (P = 0.044, HR 2.439, 95% CI [1.025-5.806]), and a high FLIPI score at relapse was associated with PFS (P = 0.028, HR 2.469, 95% CI [1.104-5.521]). This retrospective study showed that the period of PFS of patients who relapsed after ASCT is short. A biopsy should be performed for these patients to document the HT. Our results indicate that new treatment strategies will need to be developed for these patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Autologous stem-cell collection following VTD or VRD induction therapy in multiple myeloma: a single-center experience
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Triplet-drug regimen bortezomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone (VTD) and bortezomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone (VRD) are considered as standard of care induction prior autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) in myeloma. In addition to improve response rate, induction therapy should preserve an adequate stem-cell collection. In the present retrospective study, we analyzed stem-cell collection in 325 newly diagnosed myeloma patients who received either VTD or VRD induction before ASCT. Stem-cell mobilization consisted of intravenous cyclophosphamide plus G-CSF. Plerixafor was administered preemptively to rescue mobilization. In comparison with VTD, VRD induction was associated with a more frequent use of plerixafor (19.3% versus 5.4%, p?=?0.004) and with an increased number of apheresis to reach adequate collection (>2 apheresis required in 42.3% versus 30.2%, p?=?0.05). Moreover, more patients experienced collection failure in the VRD group (6% versus 1.8%, p?=?0.004). The median number of CD34-positive cells (×10(6)/kg) was lower in the VRD group: 8.5 versus 9.3 (p?=?0.05) in the VTD group. The vast majority of patients underwent ASCT (93% versus 98%, in VRD and VTD group, respectively). These data highlight the need of optimal stem-cell collection strategy, especially in the context of tandem transplantation and incorporation of anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody into induction.
Absence of influence of peripheral blood CD34+ and CD3+ graft cell counts on outcomes after reduced-intensity conditioning transplantation using post-transplant cyclophosphamide
Annals of hematology. 2020
The influence of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) graft cell contents after transplant with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY) remains unclear. Here, we retrospectively report on a cohort of 77 adults who received a Baltimore-based reduced-intensity conditioning regimen either with fludarabine (n = 40) or clofarabine (n = 37) and PTCY. With a median follow-up of 29.2 months, [2-]year overall (OS), disease-free (DFS), and GVHD/relapse-free survival (GRFS) rates were 62.8%, 51%, and 36.7%, respectively. The incidence of grades [2-]4 acute GVHD was significantly higher in patients transplanted with a haplodonor (n = 56), at 57.1% vs 19% (p = 0.006). PBSC graft cell contents (CD45+, CD34+, and CD3+ cells) had no impact on any outcome. Considering immune reconstitution until 1 year, only monocytes were above the normal range (as early as day + 30) during the first year post-transplant. In multivariate analysis, an older donor (> 45 years) and a high/very high disease risk index were independently associated with lower OS. A higher monocyte count (> median) at day + 90 was also associated with better OS, DFS, and GRFS. Donor/recipient CMV status matching was independently associated with GRFS. In conclusion, our data support the fact that there is no need to manipulate the graft before infusion in the particular context of PBSC/PTCY Baltimore-based allotransplant.
Grade 2 acute GVHD is a factor of good prognosis in patients receiving peripheral blood stem cells haplo-transplant with post-transplant cyclophosphamide
Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden). 2020;:1-9
BACKGROUND The impact of acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) on survivals for patients receiving a haploidentical allogeneic stem-cell transplant (Allo-SCT) with peripheral blood stem-cells (PBSC) complemented by post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY) is ill-known. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective study included 131 patients who received a PBSC haplograft in order to precise the impact of acute GVHD on outcomes. There were 78 males and 53 females and the median age for the whole cohort was 59 years (range: 20-71). Thirty-five patients were allografted for a lymphoid disease and 96 for a myeloid malignancy, including 67 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). RESULTS The cumulative incidence (CI) of day 100 grade 2-4 and 3-4 acute GVHD was 43.4 + 4.6% and 16.7 + 3.4%, respectively. The 2-year CI of moderate/severe chronic GVHD was 10.1 + 2.8%. The only factor affecting the occurrence of GVHD was GVHD prophylaxis. Indeed, CI of day 100 grade 2-4 (but not grade 3-4) acute GVHD was significantly reduced when adding anti-thymoglobulin (ATG) to PTCY. However, in multivariate analysis, grade 2 acute GVHD was significantly associated with better disease-free (HR: 0.36; 95%CI: 0.19-0.69, p = .002) and overall (HR: 0.35; 95%CI: 0.1-0.70, p = .003) survivals. The same results were observed when considering only AML patients. CONCLUSION Acute grade 2 GVHD is a factor of good prognosis after PBSC haplotransplant with PTCY. Further and larger studies are needed to clarify the complex question of GVHD prophylaxis in the setting of haplo-transplant, especially that of combining ATG and PTCY.
Molecular response after obinutuzumab plus high-dose cytarabine induction for transplant-eligible patients with untreated mantle cell lymphoma (LyMa-101): a phase 2 trial of the LYSA group
The Lancet. Haematology. 2020
BACKGROUND Obinutuzumab monotherapy has shown promising efficacy in mantle cell lymphoma. We aimed to investigate the activity of obinutuzumab plus DHAP (dexamethasone, high-dose cytarabine, and cisplatin), measured by minimal residual disease quantitative (q)PCR status in the bone marrow after four cycles. METHODS LyMa-101 was a prospective, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 trial. Participants were enrolled from 28 hospitals in France. Newly diagnosed patients with mantle cell lymphoma (aged 18 to <66 years) who were eligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation received four cycles of obinutuzumab plus DHAP (obinutuzumab 1000 mg/m(2) intravenously on days 1, 8, and 15 at cycle 1 and day 1 at cycles 2, 3, and 4; dexamethasone 40 mg intravenously on days 1-4, cytarabine 2 g/m(2) intravenously every 12 h on day 1, and according to local investigator, cisplatin 100 mg/m(2) by continuous infusion over 24 h on day 1 or carboplatin area under the curve 5 or oxaliplatin 130 mg/m(2)) every 21 days before transplantation, and 3 years of obinutuzumab (1000 mg/m(2) every 2 months) maintenance followed by minimal residual disease-based obinutuzumab on-demand maintenance. The primary outcome was minimal residual disease negativity in the bone marrow after four cycles of obinutuzumab plus DHAP at the end of induction, measured in the efficacy set (all minimal residual disease-informative [bone marrow or peripheral blood] patients who received at least one dose of obinutuzumab). Obinutuzumab plus DHAP was considered effective if bone marrow minimal residual disease negativity was 70% or more by intention to treat. The trial is closed to recruitment and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02896582. FINDINGS 86 patients were enrolled between Nov 29, 2016, and May 2, 2018. 81 patients completed induction, 73 underwent autologous stem-cell transplantation, and 69 started maintenance therapy. 55 (75%) of 73 patients in the efficacy set reached minimal residual disease negativity in bone marrow at end of induction. According to the protocol definition, 18 (25%) of 73 patients in the efficacy set were minimal residual disease-positive: 12 patients who were minimal residual disease-positive in the bone marrow, plus two patients who progressed during induction, and four patients who did not have minimal residual disease assessment. The most common grade 3-4 treatment-emergent adverse events were anaemia (grade 3, 26 [31%] of 85 patients; grade 4, three [4%] of 85 patients) and neutropenia (grade 3, 13 [15%] of 85 patients; grade 4, 32 [38%] of 85 patients). 58 serious adverse events occurred during the induction phase. There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION Obinutuzumab plus DHAP is a well tolerated regimen and has good activity for inducing minimal residual disease negativity in the bone marrow of transplant-eligible patients with mantle cell lymphoma. Obinutuzumab plus DHAP has potential activity as induction chemotherapy, with bone marrow minimal residual disease negativity potentially predicting long-term disease control. FUNDING Roche SAS.
Antithymocyte globulin administration in patients with profound lymphopenia receiving a PBSC purine analog/busulfan-based conditioning regimen allograft
Scientific reports. 2020;10(1):15399
Graft-versus host disease (GVHD) remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Prophylactic T cell depletion via antithymocyte globulin (ATG) during ASCT conditioning is one of the standards of care for GVHD prophylaxis, although the optimal dosing strategy is still unclear. Recent studies have reported that absolute lymphocyte count at the time of ATG administration could predict survivals in ASCT from unrelated donors. Here this issue was examined in 116 patients receiving peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) ASCT with purine analog/busulfan-based conditioning regimens between 2009 and 2019 in our department. The impact of lymphopenia at the time of ATG administration was evaluated in terms of overall survival, disease-free survival and GVHD-free/relapse-free survival. After a median follow-up of 4 years, no adverse effect of a profound lymphopenia was observed on patients' outcome. Notably, a reduced dose of ATG in patients with profound lymphopenia did not translate into better survivals. This study indicates that ATG can be administered whatever the recipient's lymphocyte counts in patients receiving a PBSC purine analog/busulfan-based conditioning regimen ASCT.
Maintenance Therapies for Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas After Autologous Transplantation: A Consensus Project of ASBMT, CIBMTR, and the Lymphoma Working Party of EBMT
JAMA oncology. 2019
Importance: Maintenance therapies are often considered as a therapeutic strategy in patients with lymphoma following autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT) to mitigate the risk of disease relapse. With an evolving therapeutic landscape, where novel drugs are moving earlier in therapy lines, evidence relevant to contemporary practice is increasingly limited. The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT), Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR), and European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) jointly convened an expert panel with diverse expertise and geographical representation to formulate consensus recommendations regarding the use of maintenance and/or consolidation therapies after auto-HCT in patients with lymphoma. Observations: The RAND-modified Delphi method was used to generate consensus statements where at least 75% vote in favor of a recommendation was considered as consensus. The process included 3 online surveys moderated by an independent methodological expert to ensure anonymity and an in-person meeting. The panel recommended restricting the histologic categories covered in this project to Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and follicular lymphoma. On completion of the voting process, the panel generated 22 consensus statements regarding post auto-HCT maintenance and/or consolidation therapies. The grade A recommendations included endorsement of: (1) brentuximab vedotin (BV) maintenance and/or consolidation in BV-naive high-risk HL, (2) rituximab maintenance in MCL undergoing auto-HCT after first-line therapy, (3) rituximab maintenance in rituximab-naive FL, and (4) No post auto-HCT maintenance was recommended in DLBCL. The panel also developed consensus statements for important real-world clinical scenarios, where randomized data are lacking to guide clinical practice. Conclusions and Relevance: In the absence of contemporary evidence-based data, the panel found RAND-modified Delphi methodology effective in providing a rigorous framework for developing consensus recommendations for post auto-HCT maintenance and/or consolidation therapies in lymphoma.
FLT3 ligand plasma levels have no impact on outcomes after allotransplant in acute leukemia
OBJECTIVE This study was designed to assess the impact on outcomes of early soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand concentrations (sFLc) in patients receiving an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). METHODS This was a prospective monocentric study including all allo-HSCT patients included in the previous FLAM/FLAL study (Peterlin et al., 2019). Blood samples collected before the start of conditioning then post-transplant were frozen, stored and tested by ELISA. The parameters considered were hematopoietic recoveries, Leukemia Free Survival and Overall Survival, acute and chronic GVHD, grade 3 or 4 acute and/or extensive chronic GVHD-free and relapse-free survival (GRFS). RESULTS Forty-one patients were included, a total of 179 samples were assayed for sFLc. There was no impact of sFLc levels (<=median vs>median) on acute and chronic GVHD incidences, LFS, OS nor GRFS. CONCLUSION At variance with induction results for AML (Peterlin et al., 2019) endogenous sFLc do not appear to be a prognostic marker at the time of or after allo-HSCT. Even though the results are negatives, this is, to the best of our knowledge, the only prospective series specifically addressing the question of sFLc impact after allo-HSCT in acute leukemias.