Myeloablative conditioning for allo-HSCT in pediatric ALL: FTBI or chemotherapy?-A multicenter EBMT-PDWP study
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Although most children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) receive fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI) as myeloablative conditioning (MAC) for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), it is an important matter of debate if chemotherapy can effectively replace FTBI. To compare outcomes after FTBI versus chemotherapy-based conditioning (CC), we performed a retrospective EBMT registry study. Children aged 2-18 years after MAC for first allo-HSCT of bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) from matched-related (MRD) or unrelated donors (UD) in first (CR1) or second remission (CR2) between 2000 and 2012 were included. Propensity score weighting was used to control pretreatment imbalances of the observed variables. 3.054 patients were analyzed. CR1 (1.498): median follow-up (FU) after FTBI (1.285) and CC (213) was 6.8 and 6.1 years. Survivals were not significantly different. CR2 (1.556): median FU after FTBI (1.345) and CC (211) was 6.2 years. Outcomes after FTBI were superior as compared with CC with regard to overall survival (OS), leukemia-free survival (LFS), relapse incidence (RI), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). However, we must emphasize the preliminary character of the results of this retrospective "real-world-practice" study. These findings will be prospectively assessed in the ALL SCTped 2012 FORUM trial.
Role of a second transplantation for children with acute leukemia following posttransplantation relapse: a study by the Turkish Bone Marrow Transplantation Study Group
Leukemia & lymphoma. 2020;:1-10
We examined outcomes of 51 pediatric patients with relapsed acute leukemia (AL) who underwent a second allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). After a median follow-up of 941 days (range, 69-2842 days), leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS) at 3 years were 26.6% and 25.6%, respectively. The nonrelapse mortality rate (NMR) and cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) were 36.4% and 42.4%, respectively. The Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the risk factors at second transplantation for predicting limited LFS were active disease (hazard ratio (HR) = 5.1), reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) (HR = 5.0), matched unrelated donor (MUD) (HR = 3.4) and performance score <80 (HR = 3.2). Pediatric patients with AL who relapsed after their first alloHSCT may survive with a second alloHSCT. Disease status, conditioning intensity, donor type, and performance score at the second transplantation are the relevant risk factors. A score based on these factors may predict the results of the second transplantation.
Retrospective Evaluation of Relationship Between Iron Overload and Transplantation Complications in Pediatric Patient Who Underwent Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Due to Acute Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome
Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology. 2020
BACKGROUND Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative therapy option for hematologic malignancies. Iron overload is common in this patient group and can impact short-term and long-term nonrelapse mortality. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective observational cohort study. AIMS To evaluate the effect of iron load on early and late HSCT outcomes in patients with acute leukemia and myelodysplasia in order to assess the necessity of reducing iron load. PATIENTS AND METHODS Sixty patients who underwent HSCT in pediatric stem cell transplantation unit between 2000 and 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. The patients were divided into those with pretransplantation serum ferritin levels above and below the median value of 1299 ng/mL. RESULTS Forty-two (70%) of the patients were male, mean ages of the low and high ferritin groups were 85.43+/-9.42 and 118.56+/-10.04 months, respectively. Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) within the first 100 days and acute liver GVHD were significantly more common in the high ferritin group (P<0.011 for both). Ferritin level was not associated with rates of engraftment syndrome, veno-occlusive disease, early/late infection, relapse, or overall and disease-free survival. CONCLUSIONS In our study, significant result especially in terms of acute liver GVHD, was important to emphasize the need to be more careful in terms of acute liver GVHD risk in early liver pathologies in patients with high levels of ferritin after transplantation. In future large studies may be helpful to explain the relationship between acute liver GVHD and high ferritin levels.
Results of Allogenic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Fanconi Anemia due to Bone Marrow Failure; Single Regimen, Single Center Experience of 14 years
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2019
BACKGROUND Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative treatment for bone marrow failure (BMF) in patients with Fanconi anemia (FA). METHODS We retrospectively analyzed the records of FA patients who underwent HSCT with a radiation-free, reduced-intensity conditioning regimen (fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and anti-thymocyte globulin) along with an unmanipulated graft infusion between 2004 and 2018. RESULTS A total of 44 patients underwent HSCT during the study period. Median age at transplantation was 121 months. Regarding the donor source, 22 transplants (50%) were collected from matched related donors (MRD) and 22 transplants (50%) were collected from alternative donors (AD). The median infused CD34+ cell dose was 4.7x10(6)/kg (range: 0.8-23) in bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell recipients and 1.2x10(5)/kg (range: 1.1-3.6) in umbilical cord blood recipients. All but 2 patients achieved primary neutrophil engraftment (95%). In a median follow-up of 36 months (range: 1-159), 3-year overall survival was 70.5% in the entire group and 91% in the MRD recipients. Primary causes of death were infections (n=5), acute grade 3-4 graft-versus-host disease (n=4), and hemorrhagic cystitis (n=3). All surviving patients have full (n=29) and acceptable mixed (n=2) donor chimerism and good clinical status. CONCLUSION Our results showed an excellent outcome with unmanipulated grafts using a fludarabine-based, radiation-free preparative regimen for MRD recipients. Even though primary neutrophil engraftment rates were good in AD recipients, intervening complications increased mortality in these patients. In clinics where T cell depletion is not feasible, more effort is warranted to improve outcomes for AD recipients.
Clinical Features and HSCT Outcome for SCID in Turkey
Journal of clinical immunology. 2019
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is the most serious PID, characterized by T cell lymphopenia and lack of antigen-specific T cell and B cell immune responses, inevitably leading to death within the first year of life if hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is not performed. PURPOSE AND METHODS Since SCID is a common type of PID with an estimated incidence of 1/10.000 in Turkey, a retrospective analysis of HSCT characteristics, survival, immune recovery, and the major clinical features of SCID prior to HSCT is the aim of this multi-transplant center-based analysis. RESULTS A total of 234 SCID patients transplanted between the years 1994 and 2014 were included in the study. Median age at diagnosis was 5 months, at transplantation, 7 months, B- phenotype and RAGs were the most common defects among others. Immune phenotype did not seem to have an effect on survival rate (p > 0.05), Immunoglobulin (Ig) requirement following HSCT did not differ between B+ and B- phenotypes (p > 0.05). Overall survival rate was 65.7% over a period of 20 years. It increased from 54% (1994-2004) to 69% (p = 0.052) during the last 10 years (2005-2014). Ten-year survival after HSCT has improved over time although the difference was not significant. Infection at the time of transplantation (p = 0.006), mismatched related donor (MMRD) (haploidentical parents), and matched unrelated donor (MUD) donor transplants p < 0.001 were the most important factors, significantly affecting the outcome. CONCLUSIONS This is the first multicenter study with the largest data obtained from transplanted SCID patients in Turkey. Early diagnosis with newborn screening (NBS) together with emerging referrals, treatment by transplantation centers, and specialized teams are mandatory in countries with high parental consanguinity such as Turkey.
Risks and outcomes of invasive fungal infections in pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients receiving fluconazole prophylaxis: a multicenter cohort study by the Turkish Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplantation Study Group
Medical mycology. 2018
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are a major cause of infection-related morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Data from pediatric settings are scarce. To determine the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of IFIs in a 180-day period post-transplantation, 408 pediatric patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT were retrospectively analyzed. The study included only proven and probable IFIs. The cumulative incidences of IFI were 2.7%, 5.0%, and 6.5% at 30, 100, and 180 days post-transplantation, respectively. According to the multivariate analysis, the factors associated with increased IFI risk in the 180-day period post-HSCT were previous HSCT history (hazard ratio [HR], 4.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42-14.71; P = .011), use of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) (HR, 2.94; 95% CI 1.27-6.80; P = .012), grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) (HR, 2.91; 95% CI 1.24-6.80; P = .014) and late or no lymphocyte engraftment (HR, 2.71; 95% CI 1.30-5.62; P = .007). CMV reactivation was marginally associated with an increased risk of IFI development (HR, 1.91; 95% CI 0.97-3.74; P = .063). IFI-related mortality was 1.5%, and case fatality rate was 27.0%.The close monitoring of IFIs in pediatric patients with severe acute GVHD who receive ATG during conditioning is critical to reduce morbidity and mortality after allogeneic HSCT, particularly among those with prior HSCT and no or late lymphocyte engraftment.
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Using Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and Human Leukocyte Antigen Typing for Human Leukocyte Antigen-Matched Sibling Donor: A Turkish Multicenter Study
Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation. 2017;23(5):790-794
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis involves the diagnosis of a genetic disorder in embryos obtained through in vitro fertilization, selection of healthy embryos, and transfer of the embryos to the mother's uterus. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis has been used not only to avoid the risk of having an affected child, but it also offers, using HLA matching, preselection of potential HLA-genoidentical healthy donor progeny for an affected sibling who requires bone marrow transplantation. Here, we share the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation results of 52 patients with different benign and malign hematological or metabolic diseases or immunodeficiencies whose donors were siblings born with this technique in Turkey since 2008. The median age of the patients' at the time of the transplantation was 8 years (range, 3 to 16 years) and the median age of the donors was 2 years (range, .5 to 6 years). The most common indication for HSCT was thalassemia major (42 of all patients, 80%). The stem cell source in all of the transplantations was bone marrow. In 37 of the transplantations, umbilical cord blood of the same donor was also used. In 50 of the 52 patients, full engraftment was achieved with a mean of 4.6 x 106 CD 34+ cells per kg of recipient weight. Ninety-six percent of the patients have been cured through hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without any complication. Primary engraftment failure was seen in only 2 patients with thalassemia major. All of the donors and the patients are alive with good health status. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis with HLA matching offers a life-saving chance for patients who need transplantation but lack an HLA genoidentical donor. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prognostic Factors and a New Prognostic Index Model for Children and Adolescents with Hodgkin's Lymphoma Who Underwent Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Multicenter Study of the Turkish Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplantation Study Group
Turkish Journal of Haematology. 2016;33(4):265-272
OBJECTIVE The prognostic factors and a new childhood prognostic index after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) in patients with relapsed/refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS The prognostic factors of 61 patients who underwent AHSCT between January 1990 and December 2014 were evaluated. In addition, the Age-Adjusted International Prognostic Index and the Childhood International Prognostic Index (CIPI) were evaluated for their impact on prognosis. RESULTS The median age of the 61 patients was 14.8 years (minimum-maximum: 5-20 years) at the time of AHSCT. There were single relapses in 28 patients, >2 relapses in eight patients, and refractory disease in 25 patients. The chemosensitivity/chemorefractory ratio was 36/25. No pretransplant radiotherapy, no remission at the time of transplantation, posttransplant white blood cell count over 10x103/micro L, posttransplant positron emission tomography positivity at day 100, and serum albumin of <2.5 g/dL at diagnosis were correlated with progression-free survival. No remission at the time of transplantation, bone marrow positivity at diagnosis, and relapse after AHSCT were significant parameters for overall survival. CONCLUSION The major factors affecting the progression-free and overall survival were clearly demonstrated. A CIPI that uses a lactate dehydrogenase level of 500 IU/L worked well for estimating the prognosis. We recommend AHSCT at first complete remission for relapsed cases, and it should also be taken into consideration for patients with high prognostic scores at diagnosis.