Medication adherence after pediatric allogeneic stem cell transplantation: Barriers and facilitators
European journal of oncology nursing : the official journal of European Oncology Nursing Society. 2019;38:1-7
PURPOSE Immunosuppressive therapy following pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is essential for the patient's prognosis, as the antibioprophylaxis and the isolation measures. But medication adherence is suboptimal for children and adolescents, from 52 to 73% in literature. The aim of this study is to provide an understanding of medication adherence after pediatric allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), by identifying facilitators and barriers. METHOD Semi-structured interviews were conducted by a pharmacist with caregivers and healthcare providers in a pediatric centre. Four topics were discussed: transplantation, post-transplantation therapies, caregivers' experience and the healthcare system. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analysed by inductive approach. FINDINGS Semi-structured interviews with 15 caregivers and 21 healthcare providers identified factors of medication adherence and hygiene measures. The long-term nature of therapy and difficult transitions of care were identified as major barriers. Recognizing the benefits of medication and parental involvement are facilitators. Furthermore, caregivers expressed the need to take into consideration the family entity. They would like also to receive earlier information from healthcare providers before hospital discharge. Those needs were not always identified by healthcare providers. CONCLUSION This analysis revealed barriers and facilitators to the medication adherence and to the care. It demonstrated similarities and differences between caregivers and healthcare providers' perceptions and has thereby initiated an improvement process of the healthcare system. As part of this process, medical and paramedical healthcare providers at this French pediatric centre are currently working on a support program for post-alloSCT hospital-home transition.
Improved outcome of children transplanted for high-risk leukemia by using a new strategy of cyclosporine-based GVHD prophylaxis
Bone Marrow Transplantation. 2016;51(5):698-704
There is currently a major concern regarding the optimal immunosuppression therapy to be administered after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to reduce both the toxicity of GvHD and the rate of relapse. We report the outcome of high-risk leukemia children transplanted with a new way of managing cyclosporine (CsA)-based GvHD prophylaxis. A total of 110 HSCT in 109 ALL or AML children who received CsA without mycophenolate or methotrexate in matched related as well as in matched or mismatched unrelated stem cell transplantation were included. CsA dosage regimens were individualized to obtain specific trough blood concentrations values. The incidences of grade I-II and III-IV acute GvHD were 69.1% and 1.8%, respectively, and 8.4% for chronic GvHD. GvHD was neither more frequent nor severe in unrelated than in related HSCT. GvHD occurred in 87% of patients with a mean CsA trough concentration 120ng/mL versus 43% with concentration >120ng/mL (P<0.0001). Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival were 78% and 83.6%, respectively. DFS was 76.9% for ALL and 80.4% for AML patients. There was no difference in DFS between matched siblings and matched unrelated or mismatched unrelated HSCT. DFS in patients with minimal residual disease (MRD) 10(-3) and in those with MRD <10(-3) before SCT was comparable. Our results indicate that a GvHD prophylaxis regimen based on CsA without mycophenolate or methotrexate is safe and effective whatever the donor compatibility is. These results suggest that GvL effect may be enhanced by this strategy of GvHD prophylaxis.