HLA-B Leader and Survivorship after HLA-Mismatched Unrelated Donor Transplantation
Hematopoietic-cell transplantation (HCT) from HLA-mismatched unrelated donors can cure life-threatening blood disorders but its success is limited by graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). HLA-B leaders encode methionine (M) or threonine (T) at position 2 and give rise to TT, MT or MM genotypes. The dimorphic HLA-B leader informs GVHD risk in HLA-B-mismatched HCT. If the leader influences outcome in other HLA-mismatched transplant settings, the success of HCT could be improved for future patients. We determined leader genotypes for 11872 patients transplanted between 1988 and 2016 from unrelated donors with one HLA-A -B,-C,-DRB1 or -DQB1 mismatch. Multivariate regression methods were used to evaluate risks associated with patient leader genotype according to the mismatched HLA locus and with HLA-A,-B,-C,-DRB1 or -DQB1 mismatching according to patient leader genotype. The impact of the patient leader genotype on acute GVHD and mortality varied across different mismatched HLA loci. Non-relapse mortality was higher among HLA-DQB1-mismatched MM patients compared to HLA-DQB1-mismatched TT patients (hazard ratio 1.35; P = .01). Grades III-IV GVHD risk was higher among HLA-DRB1-mismatched MM or MT patients compared to HLA-DRB1-mismatched TT patients (odds ratio 2.52 and 1.51, respectively). Patients tolerated a single HLA-DQB1 mismatch better than mismatches at other loci. Outcome after HLA-mismatched transplantation depends on the HLA-B leader dimorphism and the mismatched HLA locus. The patient's leader variant provides new information on the limits of HLA mismatching. The success of HLA-mismatched unrelated transplantation might be enhanced through the judicious selection of mismatched donors for a patient's given leader genotype.
Role of HLA-DP Expression in Graft-Versus-Host Disease After Unrelated Donor Transplantation
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2020;:Jco2000265
PURPOSE The main aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of HLA-DPB1 expression in acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1-matched and -mismatched unrelated donors. PATIENTS AND METHODS Between January 1, 2017, and January 10, 2019, we assessed 19,136 patients who received HCT from an HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1-matched or -mismatched unrelated donor performed in Australia, the European Union, Japan, North America, and the United Kingdom between 1988 and 2016. Among transplant recipients with one HLA-DPB1 mismatch, the patient's mismatched HLA-DPB1 allotype was defined as low or high expression. Multivariable regression models were used to assess risks of GVHD associated with high expression relative to low expression HLA-DPB1 mismatches. The effect of increasing numbers of HLA-DPB1 mismatches on clinical outcome was assessed in HLA-mismatched transplant recipients. RESULTS In HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1,-DQB1-matched transplant recipients, donor mismatching against one high-expression patient HLA-DPB1 increased moderate (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; P = .001) and severe acute GVHD (OR, 1.32; P = .0016) relative to low-expression patient mismatches, regardless of the expression level of the donor's mismatched HLA-DPB1. Among transplant recipients with one HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, or -DQB1 mismatch, the odds of acute GVHD increased with increasing numbers of HLA-DPB1 mismatches (OR, 1.23 for one; OR, 1.40 for two mismatches relative to zero mismatches for moderate GVHD; OR, 1.19 for one; OR, 1.40 for two mismatches relative to zero for severe GVHD), but not with the level of expression of the patient's mismatched HLA-DPB1 allotype. CONCLUSION The level of expression of patient HLA-DPB1 mismatches informs the risk of GVHD after HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1-matched unrelated HCT, and the total number of HLA-DPB1 mismatches informs the risk of GVHD after HLA-mismatched unrelated HCT. Prospective consideration of HLA-DPB1 may help to lower GVHD risks after transplantation.
[Relevance of antibodies in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Antibodies anti-HLA, anti-platelets, anti-granulocytes, anti-erythrocytes and anti-MICA. Guidelines from the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC)]
Bulletin du cancer. 2020
The presence of allo-antibodies in the serum of a recipient awaiting hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may have an impact on transfusion efficiency and/or donor choice, especially in the absence of an identical sibling donor. Prior to transplantation, donor specific anti-HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen) antibodies (DSA) have a recognized effect on transplant outcome, correlated with the increasing MFI value and with the ability of such antibody to fix the complement fraction. Anti-platelet antibodies (anti-HLA class I and anti-HPA [Human Platelet Antigen]) are better involved in transfusion inefficiency and can be responsible for refractory status. ABO incompatibilities require a specific treatment of the graft in presence of high titer to avoid hemolytic adverse effects. Investigations of these antibodies should be carried out on a regular basis in order to establish appropriate transfusion recommendation, select an alternative donor when possible or adapt the source of cells. After transplantation, in case of delayed recovery or graft rejection, long term aplasia, persistent mixed chimerism or late release, and after elimination of the main clinical causes, a biological assessment targeted on the different type of antibodies will have to be performed in order to orient towards the cause or the appropriate therapy. Further studies should be carried out to determine the impact of anti-MICA antibodies and recipient specific anti-HLA antibodies, on the outcome of the transplantation.
Compatibility at amino acid position 98 of MICB reduces the incidence of graft-versus-host disease in conjunction with the CMV status
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-related complications are leading causes of mortality after unrelated-donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (UD-HCT). The non-conventional MHC class I gene MICB, alike MICA, encodes a stress-induced polymorphic NKG2D ligand. However, unlike MICA, MICB interacts with the CMV-encoded UL16, which sequestrates MICB intracellularly, leading to immune evasion. Here, we retrospectively analyzed the impact of mismatches in MICB amino acid position 98 (MICB98), a key polymorphic residue involved in UL16 binding, in 943 UD-HCT pairs who were allele-matched at HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1 and MICA loci. HLA-DP typing was further available. MICB98 mismatches were significantly associated with an increased incidence of acute (grade II-IV: HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.24; P < 0.001; grade III-IV: HR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.56 to 3.34; P < 0.001) and chronic GVHD (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.33; P < 0.001). MICB98 matching significantly reduced the effect of CMV status on overall mortality from a hazard ratio of 1.77 to 1.16. MICB98 mismatches showed a GVHD-independent association with a higher incidence of CMV infection/reactivation (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.34 to 2.51; P < 0.001). Hence selecting a MICB98-matched donor significantly reduces the GVHD incidence and lowers the impact of CMV status on overall survival.
[Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplant: How to choose the best donor? Guidelines from the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC)]
Bulletin du cancer. 2019
Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been growing steadily since 2012. The SFGM-TC has twice published guidelines concerning T-cell repleted haploidentical grafts with high dose cyclophosphamide post-transplantation. The 2013 workshop recommended using the non-myeloablative Baltimore protocol with bone marrow and developed prospective protocols to evaluate these transplantations. The 2015 workshop reported improved results of reduced conditioning regimens in Hodgkin's lymphoma and intensive conditioning in myeloid hemopathies, and a similar outcome with 10/10 HLA matched donor with the same disease-risk score thus raising the question of the qualifier "alternative" for haploidentical transplants. The current work concerns the criteria for selecting the donor. The main criterion remains the absence of anti-HLA antibodies directed against the donor present in the recipient sera (DSA - Donor Specific Antibodies). In case of DSA and in the absence of an alternative donor, desensitization protocols exist. The other criteria are impossible to prioritize: age, sex, CMV, and blood type. The degree of relatedness and the number of HLA incompatibilities do not seem to be a criterion of choice. The 'ideal' donor would be a young man, CMV-matched, without major ABO incompatibility with a marrow transplant. There is insufficient data for the KIR-ligand and NIMA/NIPA mismatch. Peripheral stem cell grafts appear to yield more acute GVHD than bone marrow grafts after intensive conditioning, but with comparable survival rates. Based on the literature review, the comparison of haploidentical with unrelated donors encourages inclusion in existing national protocols randomizing these different donors.
Role of HLA-B exon 1 in graft-versus-host disease after unrelated haemopoietic cell transplantation: a retrospective cohort study
The Lancet. Haematology. 2019
BACKGROUND The success of unrelated haemopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is limited by graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), which is the main post-transplantation challenge when HLA-matched donors are unavailable. A sequence dimorphism in exon 1 of HLA-B gives rise to leader peptides containing methionine (Met; M) or threonine (Thr; T), which differentially influence natural killer and T-cell alloresponses. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the role of the leader dimorphism in GVHD after HLA-B-mismatched unrelated HCT. METHODS We did a retrospective cohort study of 33 982 patients who received an unrelated HCT done in Australia, Europe, Japan, North America, and the UK between Jan 1, 1988, and Dec 31, 2016. Data were contributed by participants of the International Histocompatibility Working Group in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. All cases were included and there were no exclusion criteria. Multivariate regression models were used to assess risks associated with HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, and HLA-DQB1 mismatching. Among the 33 982 transplantations, the risks of GVHD associated with HLA-B M and T leaders were established in 17 100 (50.3%) HLA-matched and 1457 (4.3%) single HLA-B-mismatched transplantations using multivariate regression models. Leader frequencies were defined in 2 004 742 BeTheMatch US registry donors. FINDINGS Between Jan 20, 2017, and March 11, 2019, we assessed 33 982 HCTs using multivariate regression models for the role of HLA mismatching on outcome. Median follow-up was 1841 days (IQR 909-2963). Mortality and GVHD increased with increasing numbers of HLA mismatches. A single HLA-B mismatch increased grade 3-4 acute GVHD (odds ratio [OR] 1.89, 95% CI 1.53-2.33; p<0.0001). Among the single HLA-B-mismatched transplantations, acute GVHD risk was higher with leader mismatching than with leader matching (OR 1.73, 1.02-2.94; p=0.042 for grade 2-4) and with an M leader shared allotype compared with a T leader shared allotype (OR 1.98, 1.39-2.81; p=0.0001 for grade 3-4). The preferred HLA-B-mismatched donor is leader-matched and shares a T leader allotype. The majority (1 836 939 [91.6%]) of the 2 004 742 US registry donors have the TT or MT genotype. INTERPRETATION The HLA-B leader informs GVHD risk after HLA-B-mismatched unrelated HCT and differentiates high-risk HLA-B mismatches from those with lower risk. The leader of the matched allotype could be considered to be as important as the leader of the mismatched allotype for GVHD. Prospective identification of leader-matched donors is feasible for most patients in need of a HCT, and could lower GVHD and increase availability of HCT therapy. These findings are being independently validated and warrant further research in prospective trials. FUNDING The National Institutes of Health, USA.
[Chimerism analysis after hematopoietic cell transplantation: Guidelines from the Francophone Society of bone marrow transplantation and cellular therapy (SFGM-TC)]. [French]
Bulletin du Cancer. 2017;104(12S):S59-S64
Chimerism analysis is an important step for the patient follow-up after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It is used to quantify the donor and the recipient part of a cell population issued from blood or bone marrow sample. In addition to hemogram, this technique is necessary to appreciate the quality of engraftment. The aim of this article is to propose some recommendation about methods, result analysis and therapeutic decision in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for malignant or non-malignant diseases.Copyright © 2017 Societe Francaise du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Using EasyMatch to anticipate the identification of an HLA identical unrelated donor: A validated efficient time and cost saving method
Human Immunology. 2016;77(11):1008-1015
In the absence of an HLA matched familial donor, a search for an unrelated donor or cord blood unit is initiated through worldwide registries. Although a first look-up on available HLA information of donors in the "book" at BMDW (Bone Marrow Donor Worldwide) can provide a good estimation of the number of compatible donors, the variety of resolution typing levels requires confirmatory typing (CT) which are expensive and time consuming. In order to help recipient centers in their work. The French donor registry (France Greffe de Moelle/Agence de la Biomedecine) has recently developed a software program called "EasyMatch" that uses haplotype frequencies to compute the likelihood of phenotypic match in donors according to various typing resolution levels. The goal of our study is to report a single monocentric user-experience with EasyMatch, demonstrating that its routine use reduced the cost and the delay of the donor search in our center, allowing the definition of a new strategy to search compatible unrelated donors. The strategy was first established on a retrospective cohort of 217 recipients (185 adults and 32 children=before score) and then validated on a prospective cohort of 171 recipients (160 adults and 11 children=after score). For all patients, we calculated the delay between the registration day and the donor identification day, and the number of CT requested to the donor centre. Considering both groups, we could observe a significant decrease of the number of CT from 8 to 2 (p<0,001), and a significant decrease of the median delay to identify a suitable donor from 43 to 31days (p<0.0001). EasyMatch estimates the number of potentially identical donors, but doesn't foresee availability of the donors. It provides us an easy tracking of mismatches, an estimation of the number of potential donors, the selection of population following ethnic origin of patients and a high prediction when probability is high or low. It affords a new approach of donor search in our daily work and improves the efficiency in the great challenge of the compatible donor identification. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Matching for the nonconventional MHC-I MICA gene significantly reduces the incidence of acute and chronic GVHD
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is among the most challenging complications in unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The highly polymorphic MHC class I chain-related gene A, MICA, encodes a stress-induced glycoprotein expressed primarily on epithelia. MICA interacts with the invariant activating receptor NKG2D, expressed by cytotoxic lymphocytes, and is located in the MHC, next to HLA-B Hence, MICA has the requisite attributes of a bona fide transplantation antigen. Using high-resolution sequence-based genotyping of MICA, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical effect of MICA mismatches in a multicenter cohort of 922 unrelated donor HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, and HLA-DQB1 10/10 allele-matched HCT pairs. Among the 922 pairs, 113 (12.3%) were mismatched in MICA MICA mismatches were significantly associated with an increased incidence of grade III-IV acute GVHD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50-2.23; P < .001), chronic GVHD (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.45-1.55; P < .001), and nonelapse mortality (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.24-1.46; P < .001). The increased risk for GVHD was mirrored by a lower risk for relapse (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.43-0.59; P < .001), indicating a possible graft-versus-leukemia effect. In conclusion, when possible, selecting a MICA-matched donor significantly influences key clinical outcomes of HCT in which a marked reduction of GVHD is paramount. The tight linkage disequilibrium between MICA and HLA-B renders identifying a MICA-matched donor readily feasible in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.
Improved outcome of children transplanted for high-risk leukemia by using a new strategy of cyclosporine-based GVHD prophylaxis
Bone Marrow Transplantation. 2016;51(5):698-704
There is currently a major concern regarding the optimal immunosuppression therapy to be administered after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to reduce both the toxicity of GvHD and the rate of relapse. We report the outcome of high-risk leukemia children transplanted with a new way of managing cyclosporine (CsA)-based GvHD prophylaxis. A total of 110 HSCT in 109 ALL or AML children who received CsA without mycophenolate or methotrexate in matched related as well as in matched or mismatched unrelated stem cell transplantation were included. CsA dosage regimens were individualized to obtain specific trough blood concentrations values. The incidences of grade I-II and III-IV acute GvHD were 69.1% and 1.8%, respectively, and 8.4% for chronic GvHD. GvHD was neither more frequent nor severe in unrelated than in related HSCT. GvHD occurred in 87% of patients with a mean CsA trough concentration 120ng/mL versus 43% with concentration >120ng/mL (P<0.0001). Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival were 78% and 83.6%, respectively. DFS was 76.9% for ALL and 80.4% for AML patients. There was no difference in DFS between matched siblings and matched unrelated or mismatched unrelated HSCT. DFS in patients with minimal residual disease (MRD) 10(-3) and in those with MRD <10(-3) before SCT was comparable. Our results indicate that a GvHD prophylaxis regimen based on CsA without mycophenolate or methotrexate is safe and effective whatever the donor compatibility is. These results suggest that GvL effect may be enhanced by this strategy of GvHD prophylaxis.