Durable benefit of rituximab maintenance post-autograft in patients with relapsed follicular lymphoma: 12-year follow-up of the EBMT lymphoma working party Lym1 trial
Bone marrow transplantation. 2021
We report the 12-year follow-up of the prospective randomized EBMT LYM1 trial to determine whether the benefit of brief duration rituximab maintenance (RM) on progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with relapsed follicular lymphoma (FL) receiving an autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) is sustained. One hundred and thirty-eight patients received RM with or without purging. The median follow-up after random assignment is 12 years (range 10-13) for the whole series. The 10-year PFS after ASCT is 47% (95% CI 40-54) with only 4 patients relapsing after 7.5 years. RM continues to significantly improve 10-year PFS after ASCT in comparison with NM [P?=?0.002; HR 0.548 (95% CI 0.38-0.80)]. Ten-year non-relapse mortality (NRM) was not significantly different between treatment groups (7% overall). 10-year overall survival (OS) after ASCT was 75% (69-81) for the whole series, with no significant differences according to treatment sub-groups. 10-year OS for patients who progressed within 24 months (POD24T) was 60%, in comparison with 85% for patients without progression. Thus the benefit of rituximab maintenance after ASCT on relapse prevention is sustained at 12 years, suggesting that RM adds to ASCT-mediated disease eradication and may enhance the curative potential of ASCT.
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for advanced mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome. An updated experience of the Lymphoma Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Bone marrow transplantation. 2021
BACKGROUND Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a potentially curative treatment option in advanced-stage mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS). This study presents an updated analysis of the initial experience of the Lymphoma Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) describing the outcomes after allo-HSCT for MF and SS, with special emphasis on the impact of the use of unrelated donors (URD). METHODS AND PATIENTS Eligible for this study were patients with advanced-stage MF or SS who underwent a first allo-HSCT from matched HLA-identical related or URD between January/1997 and December/2011. Sixty patients have been previously reported. RESULTS 113 patients were included [77 MF (68%)]; 61 (54%) were in complete or partial remission, 86 (76%) received reduced-intensity protocols and 44 (39%) an URD allo-HSCT. With a median follow up for surviving patients of 73 months, allo-HSCT resulted in an estimated overall survival (OS) of 38% at 5 years, and a progression-free survival (PFS) of 26% at 5 years. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that advanced-phase disease (complete remission/partial remission >3, primary refractory or relapse/progression in patients that had received 3 or more lines of systemic treatment prior to transplant or the number of treatment lines was not known), a short interval between diagnosis and transplant (<18 months) were independent adverse prognostic factors for PFS; advanced-phase disease and the use of URDs were independent adverse prognostic factors for OS. CONCLUSIONS This extended series supports that allo-HSCT is able to effectively rescue over one third of the population of patients with advanced-stage MF/SS. High relapse rate is still the major cause of failure and needs to be improved with better strategies before and after transplant. The negative impact of URD is a matter of concern and needs to be further elucidated in future studies.
High leukemia-free survival after TBI-based conditioning and mycophenolate mofetil-containing immunosuppression in patients allografted for chronic myelomonocytic leukemia: a single-center experience
Annals of hematology. 2020
This retrospective single-center analysis studied the impact of the conditioning and the graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis on outcome in unselected patients allografted for chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) secondary to documented prior CMML. A total of 44 patients (median age 61 years) allografted between 2002 and 2019 in our institution were analyzed. Fifteen patients had secondary AML. The conditioning regimen was fractionated 6-8 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) in combination with fludarabine in 33 (75%) patients. Eleven patients (25%) received alkylator-based conditioning therapy without TBI. For GVHD prophylaxis, a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) backbone in combination with methotrexate (MTX) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was applied in 21 and 23 patients, respectively. All patients allografted from an unrelated donor (UD) received antithymocyte globuline. In univariate analysis of the entire cohort, TBI-based conditioning and MMF-containing immunosuppression were associated with improved leukemia-free survival (LFS, HR 0.16, P < 0.001 and HR 0.41, P = 0.030, respectively). After stratification according to conditioning and GVHD prophylaxis into four groups (TBI-MMF [n = 17], TBI-MTX [n = 16], alkylator-MMF [n = 6], alkylator-MTX [n = 5]), TBI-MMF was associated with improved overall survival (OS) and LFS (P = 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Patient and disease characteristics did not differ between the groups. The associations of TBI-based conditioning and MMF with prolonged LFS were observed across the CMML (n = 29), secondary AML (n = 15), and UD allograft (n = 34) subgroups. In summary, our study suggests that allografting based on intermediate-dose TBI conditioning and MMF-containing GVHD prophylaxis is associated with increased disease control in CMML. Larger (registry-based) studies are warranted to confirm our findings.
Predicting sinusoidal obstruction syndrome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation with the EASIX biomarker panel
No biomarker panel is established for prediction of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome/veno-occlusive disease (SOS/VOD), a major complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). We compared the potential of the Endothelial Activation and Stress Index (EASIX), based on lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, and thrombocytes, with that of the SOS/VOD CIBMTR clinical risk score to predict SOS/VOD in two independent cohorts. In a third cohort, we studied the impact of endothelium-active prophylaxis with pravastatin and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDA) on SOS/VOD risk. The cumulative incidence of SOS/VOD within 28 days after alloSCT in the training cohort (Berlin, 2013-2015, n=446) and in the validation cohort (Heidelberg, 2002-2009, n=380) was 9.6% and 8.4%, respectively. In both cohorts, EASIX assessed at the day of alloSCT (EASIX-d0) was significantly associated with SOS/VOD incidence (p<0.0001), overall survival (OS) and non-relapse mortality (NRM). In contrast, the CIBMTR score showed no statistically significant association with SOS/VOD incidence, and did not predict OS and NRM. In patients receiving pravastatin/UDA, the cumulative incidence of SOS/VOD was significantly lower at 1.7% (p<0.0001, Heidelberg, 2010-2015, n=359) than in the two cohorts not receiving pravastatin/UDA. The protective effect was most pronounced in patients with high EASIX-d0. The cumulative SOS/VOD incidence in the highest EASIX-d0 quartiles were 18.1% and 16.8% in both cohorts without endothelial prophylaxis as compared to 2.2% in patients with pravastatin/UDA prophylaxis (p<0.0001). EASIX-d0 is the first validated biomarker for defining a subpopulation of alloSCT recipients at high risk for SOS/VOD. Statin/UDA endothelial prophylaxis could constitute a prophylactic measure for patients at increased SOS/VOD risk.
Changes in patients population and characteristics of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma: an analysis of the Lymphoma Working Party of the EBMT
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Indications for autologous (auto-HCT) and allogeneic transplantation (allo-HCT) in relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (rrHL) have been long established. The expectation is that long-term outcomes have significantly improved over time with increased experience in these procedures. The objective of this study was to assess whether this is the case and to identify further areas of improvement. A total of 13,639 adult patients receiving an auto-HCT or allo-HCT for rrHL were reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) over a 25-year period. Regarding auto-HCT, recipients are younger, interval between diagnosis and transplant shorter, peripheral blood has become the universal stem cell source and the use of total body irradiation is almost non-existent in recent years. Allo-HCT is currently mostly used as a second transplant; recipients are younger, fitter and less frequently, chemorefractory. Reduced intensity conditioning protocols have vastly replaced myeloablative protocols. Increasing numbers of haplo-HCT have been reported. Both in auto-HCT and allo-HCT, NRM, PFS and OS have significantly improved but relapse remains the main cause of treatment failure. A better selection of patients and improvements in the supportive care has resulted in a reduction in the NRM. Relapse after HCT remains unchanged and further research is needed.
Idelalisib exposure before allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with follicular lymphoma: an EBMT survey
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Autologous stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma patients: utilization patterns and hospital effects
Leukemia & lymphoma. 2020;:1-10
Evidence on volume outcome associations for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in multiple myeloma (MM) is limited. We investigated ASCT utilization patterns and volume outcome associations in the German National Registry for Stem Cell Transplants (DRST). MM patients with an upfront ASCT between 1998 and 2014 registered in the DRST were included. ASCT utilization increased strongly from 6% to 17% between 1999 and 2013 with the largest increase for patients aged 60-64 years (8-34%). The mean number of ASCTs conducted in the hospitals per year varied (quintiles, Q1:0.0-8.2 to Q5:31.0-102.7). Center volume was not associated with survival after upfront ASCT (lowest vs. highest center volume, hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals: 0.95 (0.76-1.18), p = 0.92). Our findings may reflect a high standard of care and degree of specialization of centers performing ASCT for MM in Germany.
Determinants of survival in myelofibrosis patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation
We aimed to evaluate the determinants of survival in myelofibrosis patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) and to describe factors predicting the main post-HCT complications. This retrospective study by the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation included 2916 myelofibrosis patients who underwent first allo-HCT from an HLA-identical sibling or unrelated donor between 2000 and 2016. After a median follow-up of 4.7 years from transplant, projected median survival of the series was 5.3 years. Factors independently associated with increased mortality were age ≥ 60 years and Karnofsky Performance Status <90% at transplant, and occurrence of graft failure, grades III-IV acute graft-vs.-host disease (aGVHD), and disease progression/relapse during follow-up. The opposing effects of chronic graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) on non-relapse mortality and relapse incidence resulted in a neutral influence on survival. Graft failure increased in unrelated donor recipients and decreased with myeloablative conditioning (MAC) and negative donor/recipient cytomegalovirus serostatus. Risk of grades III-IV aGVHD was higher with unrelated donors and decreased with MAC. Relapse incidence tended to be higher in patients with intermediate-2/high-risk DIPSS categories and to decrease in CALR-mutated patients. Acute and chronic GVHD reduced the subsequent risk of relapse. This information has potential implications for patient counseling and clinical decision-making.
Myelofibrosis patients (n=2916)
First allo-HCT from an HLA-identical sibling or unrelated donor between 2000 and 2016
After a median follow-up of 4.7 years from transplant, projected median survival of the series was 5.3 years. Factors independently associated with increased mortality were age >/= 60 years and Karnofsky Performance Status <90% at transplant, and occurrence of graft failure, grades III-IV acute graft-vs.-host disease (aGVHD), and disease progression/relapse during follow-up. The opposing effects of chronic graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) on non-relapse mortality and relapse incidence resulted in a neutral influence on survival. Graft failure increased in unrelated donor recipients and decreased with myeloablative conditioning (MAC) and negative donor/recipient cytomegalovirus serostatus. Risk of grades III-IV aGVHD was higher with unrelated donors and decreased with MAC. Relapse incidence tended to be higher in patients with intermediate-2/high-risk DIPSS categories and to decrease in CALR-mutated patients. Acute and chronic GVHD reduced the subsequent risk of relapse.
The impact of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation on the mortality of poor-risk non-Hodgkin lymphoma: an intent-to-transplant analysis
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Purpose of this single-centre retrospective study was to assess the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) for relapsed/refractory (r/r) non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) by intent-to-transplant (ITT). Included were all consecutive patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), and peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) for whom a donor search was performed between 2004 and 2018. Primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) measured from search initiation. A donor search was initiated for 189 patients (DLBCL 61, FL 32, MCL 43, and PTCL 53), with 76% of the patients having active disease. OS at 5 years after search initiation for DLBCL, FL, MCL, and PTCL was 26%, 44%, 52%, and 50%, respectively. AlloHCT was performed in 137 patients (72%; DLBCL 64%). Main reason for not undergoing alloHCT was disease progression, whereas donor unavailability accounted for only 4% of pretransplantation failures. These results suggest that survival of patients with r/r NHL entering the alloHCT route may be overestimated by a factor of 1.2-1.4 if based on actually transplanted patients only. This effect should be taken into account when using alloHCT as benchmark for new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of poor-risk NHL.
Influencing factors of cardiorespiratory fitness in allogeneic stem cell transplant candidates prior to transplantation
Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer. 2020
PURPOSE Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) seems to be prognostic prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Influencing factors of CRF in allo-HSCT candidates have not been studied so far. Aim was to identify potentially influencing factors on CRF. METHODS To assess CRF, a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) was performed on average 2.6 +/- 7.2 days prior to admission. A regression analysis was conducted, with the following predictors: gender, age, body mass index (BMI), time between last therapy and allo-HSCT (t_Therapies), number of cardiotoxic therapies (n_Cardiotox), number of transplantations (n_Transplantations), comorbidity index (HCT-CI), hemoglobin level of the last 3 months (area under the curve), and physical activity. RESULTS A total of 194 patients performed a CPET. VO2peak was significantly reduced compared with reference data. In total, VO2peak was 21.4 ml/min/kg (- 27.5%, p < 0.05). Men showed a significant larger percentage difference from reference value (- 29.1%, p < 0.05) than women (- 24.4%). VO2peak was significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by age (beta = - 0.11), female gender (beta = - 3.01), BMI (beta = - 0.44), n_Cardiotox (beta = - 0.73), hemoglobin level (beta = 0.56), and physical activity prior to diagnosis (beta = 0.10). CONCLUSIONS Our study demonstrates a decreased CRF indicating the potential need of prehabilitative exercise. We revealed some influencing factors on CRF. Those patients could benefit the most from exercise.