A Prospective Pilot Study of Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide and Ruxolitinib in Patients with Myelofibrosis
Acta haematologica. 2020;:1-8
INTRODUCTION This prospective study evaluated a calcineurin inhibitor-free graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis regimen of ruxolitinib in combination with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy). Patents and Methods: Twenty patients with primary or secondary myelofibrosis were prospectively enrolled. Reduced intensity conditioning was performed, followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation from related (n = 7) or unrelated (n = 13) donors. GVHD prophylaxis included only PTCy and ruxolitinib (45 mg) from day-7 to day-2, and 15 mg from day+5 to day+100. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02806375. RESULTS Primary engraftment was documented in 17 patients. One patient experienced primary graft failure and 2 died before engraftment. Eleven patients demonstrated severe poor graft function (SPGF), which required ruxolitinib dose reduction. The regimen was well tolerated, with grade 3-4 non-haematological toxicity in 30%, viral reactivation in 45%, and severe sepsis in 15% of patients. The incidence of acute GVHD grade II-IV was 25%, grade III-IV GVHD was 15%, and moderate chronic GVHD was 20%, with no severe cases. Only 2 patients required systemic steroids. Haematological relapse was documented in 1 patient. Two-year non-relapse mortality was 15%, 2-year overall survival was 85%, and 2-year event-free survival was 72%. CONCLUSION GVHD prophylaxis with PTCy and ruxolitinib is associated with low toxicity, good acute and chronic GVHD control, and low relapse incidence. However, the relatively high rate of SPGF should be taken into account. SPGF could possibly be mitigated by ruxolitinib dose reduction.
High prevalence of CD3, NK, and NKT cells in the graft predicts adverse outcome after matched-related and unrelated transplantations with post transplantation cyclophosphamide
Bone marrow transplantation. 2019
The predictive value of graft composition and plasma biomarkers on the outcome of allogeneic HSCT is well known for conventional GVHD prophylaxis based on calcineurin inhibitors with or without antithymocyte globulin. Currently, there is limited data whether these results could be translated to post transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy). The prospective extension cohort of NCT02294552 trial enrolled 79 adult patients with acute leukemia in CR. Twenty-six received matched-related bone marrow (BM) grafts with single-agent PTCy and 53 received unrelated peripheral blood stem cell graft (PBSC) with PTCy, tacrolimus, and MMF. The grafts were studied by the flow cytometry, and plasma samples were analyzed by ELISA. In the cluster and major component analysis, we determined that transplantation from donors with high content of CD3, NKT, and CD16-CD56 + subpopulations in the PBSC grafts was associated with poor immunological recovery and compromised event-free survival (50% vs. 80%, HR 2.93, p = 0.015) both due to increased relapse incidence and non-relapse mortality. The significant independent predictor of moderate and severe chronic GVHD was the high prevalence of and iNKT, Vbeta11, and double-positive cells in the PBSC grafts from young donors (HR 2.75, p = 0.0483). No patterns could be identified for BM grafts and for plasma biomarkers.
Pharmacokinetic comparison of cyclosporin A and tacrolimus in graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis
Annals of Hematology. 2017;96(6):935-942
A number of studies were published with contradictory results comparing tacrolimus (Tac) and cyclosporine A (CsA) for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, but there are only few that accounted for pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. In this study, we created a model based on median concentrations, variability of concentrations, and failures to maintain target levels that distinguished patients with low, intermediate, and high risks of acute GVHD (hazard ratios (HR) 1.77, 95%CI 1.36-2.32, p < 0.0001). This model was used to compare 95 patients with CsA and 239 with Tac GVHD prophylaxis. In the multivariate analysis, incorporating PK risk, no differences were observed for grade II-IV acute GVHD (HR 0.73, 95%CI 0.48-1.10, p = 0.13), but grade III-IV acute GVHD was lower in the Tac group (HR 0.47, 95%CI 0.28-0.78, p = 0.004). The observed difference was due to patients with high PK risk (HR 0.377, 95%CI 0.19-0.75, p = 0.005), but not with low and intermediate PK risk (p > 0.05). Patients in the Tac group had better GVHD relapse-free survival (HR = 0.659, p = 0.01) and comparable overall survival (p > 0.05). In conclusion, PK risk should be accounted for in comparisons of GVHD prophylaxis regimens with calcineurin inhibitors, and Tac was superior to CsA in patients with high, but not intermediate and low PK risk.
Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis in Unrelated Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide, Tacrolimus, and Mycophenolate Mofetil
Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation. 2016;22(6):1037-42
Clinical efficacy of post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis has been demonstrated in haploidentical and HLA-matched bone marrow but not in unrelated peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantations. Also, no direct comparisons have been published with current standard of care, combination of antithymocyte globulin (ATG), calcineurin inhibitors, and either methotrexate or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Eighty-six adult patients (median age 34 years; range, 18 to 59) with acute myeloblastic and lymphoblastic leukemia underwent unrelated PBSC transplantation with PTCy, tacrolimus, and MMF as GVHD prophylaxis in the single-center trial (clinicaltrial.govNCT02294552). The control group comprised 125 consecutive historical control patients who received ATG, tacrolimus, and methotrexate or MMF. Cumulative incidences of grades II to IV acute (19% versus 45%, P = .0003), grades III to IV acute (4% versus 27%, P < .0001), and chronic GVHD (16% versus 65%, P < .0001) were significantly lower in the PTCy compared with the ATG group. PTCy-based prophylaxis was associated with reduced incidence of nonrelapse mortality (16% versus 36%, P = .005; HR, .55; 95% CI, .34 to .89) and improved overall survival (69% versus 40%, P = .0007; HR, .43; 95% CI, .26 to .70), event-free survival (65% versus 38%, P = .0006; HR, .49; 95% CI, .31 to .78), and GVHD relapse-free survival (52% versus 12%, P < .0001). PTCy-based prophylaxis also had a better safety profile compared with ATG with reduced incidence of veno-occlusive disease, cytomegalovirus reactivation, invasive mycosis, and reduced severity of mucositis. In this study we demonstrated that PTCy in combination with tacrolimus and MMF is a safe and effective GVHD prophylaxis for unrelated PBSC transplantation. Although there are several limitations of the historical control approach, this study suggests the superiority of a PTCy-based approach over an ATG-based prophylaxis. Copyright © 2016 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.