Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Recipient of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Life-threating Features Within the Early Post-engraftment Phase
Refractory and 17p-deleted chronic lymphocytic leukemia: improving survival with pathway inhibitors and allogeneic stem cell transplantation
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2020
Refractory/early relapsed and 17p deletion/p53 mutation (del(17p)/TP53mut)-positive chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has been conventionally considered a high-risk disease, potentially eligible for allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). In this multicenter retrospective analysis of 157 patients, we compared the outcomes of high-risk CLL treated with alloSCT or B-cell receptor pathway inhibitors (BCRis) or both. Seventy-one patients were treated with BCRis, 67 patients underwent reduced intensity alloSCT, and 19 received alloSCT with BCRis before and/or after transplant. An inverse probability of treatment weighting analyses were performed to compare alloSCT versus no-alloSCT groups: 5-year OS, PFS, and cumulative incidence of NRM and relapse were 40%/60% (p=0.096), 34%/17% (p=0.638), 28%/5% (p=0.016), and 38%/83% (p=0.005), respectively. Patients treated with alloSCT+BCRis showed a 3-year OS of 83%. Three -year OS and NRM by year of alloSCT, including patients treated with BCRis, were 53% and 17% in 2000-2007, 55% and 30% in 2008-2012 and 72% and 18% in 2013-2018. In conclusion, the combination of pathway inhibitors and alloSCT is feasible and may further improve the outcome of high-risk CLL patients.
Nilotinib in steroid-refractory cGVHD: prospective parallel evaluation of response, according to NIH criteria and exploratory response criteria (GITMO criteria)
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
We conducted a phase I-II study to evaluate Nilotinib (NIL) safety and pharmacokinetics in 22 SR-cGVHD patients; we also evaluated ORR by using in parallel NIH criteria and an exploratory approach, combining objective improvement (OI) without failure criteria (GITMO criteria). Results: 22 patients were enrolled. After dose escalation up to 600 mg/day, MTD was not reached. Main toxicities were asthenia, headache, nausea, pruritus, cramps, and mild anemia. Mean and median plasma concentrations of NIL (C-NIL) were 817 (SD +/- 450) and 773 ng/ml. ORR at 6 months, according to 2005 and 2014 NIH and GITMO criteria were 27.8%, 22.2%, and 55.6% respectively; close correspondence has been observed for ORR, according to 2014 NIH criteria, both assessed in a conventional way and assisted by dedicated software (CROSY). At 48 months OS was 75% while FFS, according to NIH and GITMO criteria, was 30 and 25%. In conclusion the safety profile of NIL and long-term outcome makes NIL an attractive option in SR-cGVHD. Exploratory GITMO criteria could represent an alternative tool for easy response evaluation in patients with prevalent skin and lung involvement, but require validation in a larger population; CROSY software showed excellent reliability in capturing ORR according to the 2014 NIH criteria.
Haploidentical related donor compared to HLA-identical donor transplantation for chemosensitive Hodgkin lymphoma patients
BMC cancer. 2020;20(1):1140
BACKGROUND Allogeneic stem cell transplantation from haploidentical donor using an unmanipulated graft and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) is growing. Haploidentical transplantation with PT-Cy showed a major activity in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), reducing the relapse incidence. The most important predictive factor of survival and toxicity was disease status before transplantation, which was better in patients with well controlled disease. METHODS We included 198 HL in complete (CR) or partial remission (PR) before transplantation. Sixty-five patients were transplanted from haploidentical donor and 133 from a HLA identical donor (both sibling and unrelated donors). Survival analysis was defined according to the EBMT criteria. Survival curves were generated by using Kaplan-Meier method and differences between groups were compared by the log rank test or by the log rank test for trend when appropriated. RESULTS The PFS, OS, and RI were significantly better in patients in CR compared to PR (55% vs 29% p?=?0.001, 74% vs 55% p?=?0.03, 27% vs 55% p? 0.001, respectively). The 2-year PFS was significantly better for HAPLO than HLA-id (63% vs 37%, p?=?0.03), without difference in OS. The 1-year NRM was not different. The 2-year relapse incidence (RI) was lower in the HAPLO group (24% vs 44%, p?=?0.008). Patients in CR receiving haplo HSCT showed higher 2-year PFS and lower 2-year RI than those allografted with HLA-id donor (75% vs 47%, p? 0.001 and 11% vs 34%, p?0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, donor type and disease status before transplantation were independent predictors of PFS as well as they predict the risk of relapse. Disease status at transplantation and age were independently associated to OS. CONCLUSIONS Nonetheless this is a retrospective study, limiting the wide applicability of results, data from this analysis suggest that HLA mismatch can induce a strong graft versus lymphoma effect leading to an enhanced PFS.
Tandem autologous-reduced intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation in high-risk relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma: a retrospective study of the Lymphoma Working Party-EBMT
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is curative for a proportion of patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). However, there is a small group of patients with high-risk of relapse after ASCT that might benefit from other approaches. We conducted a retrospective analysis on 126 patients treated with tandem ASCT-reduced intensity conditioning (RIC)-allogeneic-SCT and reported to the EBMT registry to analyze the efficacy and safety of this approach. Patients were included if they had received an ASCT followed by a planned RIC-SCT in <6 months without relapse between the procedures. The median time between diagnosis and ASCT was 16 months (2-174). The median number of lines prior to ASCT was two (33% of the patients received >3 lines). Forty-one percent were transplanted with active disease. The median follow-up was 44 months (6-130). Three-year-progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), incidence of relapse (IR), and non-relapse mortality (NRM) after the tandem were 53% (45-64), 73% (65-81), 34% (24-42), and 13% (8-21), respectively. This is the largest series analyzing the efficacy and safety of a tandem approach in R/R HL. The low NRM and IR with promising PFS and OS suggest that this might be an effective procedure for a high-risk population.
Patients with high-risk Hodgkin lymphoma (n=126)
Tandem procedure of autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) followed by a planned allogeneic transplant with reduced intensity conditioning (RIC-SCT), in <6 months without relapse between the procedures
The median time between diagnosis and ASCT was 16 months (2-174). The median number of lines prior to ASCT was two (33% of the patients received >3 lines). Forty-one percent were transplanted with active disease. The median follow-up was 44 months (6-130). Three-year-progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), incidence of relapse (IR), and non-relapse mortality (NRM) after the tandem were 53% (45-64), 73% (65-81), 34% (24-42), and 13% (8-21), respectively.
First salvage treatment with bendamustine and brentuximab vedotin in Hodgkin lymphoma: a phase 2 study of the Fondazione Italiana Linfomi
Blood cancer journal. 2019;9(12):100
Effective salvage options inducing high complete metabolic response (CMR) rates without significant toxicity are needed for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients failing induction treatment and who are candidate to autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Brentuximab vedotin (BV) and bendamustine are active monotherapies in the relapsed/refractory setting and their combination (the BBV regimen) possibly enhances their activity. This single-arm multicenter phase 2 study investigated the efficacy and safety of BBV as first salvage therapy in 40 patients with relapsed/refractory HL. Thirty-eight patients were evaluable for efficacy: 30 (78.9%) had a CMR and 2 (5.3%) a partial response, leading to an overall response rate (ORR) of 84.2%. The ORR in the primary refractory subset was 75.0%, among relapsed patients it was 94.4%. Thirty-five patients could mobilize peripheral blood stem cells and 33 underwent ASCT. At a median follow-up of 23 months, the estimated 3-year overall survival and progression-free survival are 88.1% and 67.3%. During therapy, only 3 grade IV cases of neutropenia occurred and resolved within a week. No grade 4 extrahematologic toxicities were reported; skin reactions were however rather frequent (65%). These results suggest that the BBV regimen exhibits promising efficacy and a manageable toxicity in a challenging subpopulation of HL patients.
Ibrutinib as a salvage therapy after allogeneic HCT for chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Bone marrow transplantation. 2019
The purpose of our study is to provide information on safety and efficacy of ibrutinib as salvage treatment after allo-HSCT for CLL. A total of 56 patients were included, 36 (64%) males; median age at transplantation was 48 years (range: 35-64) and the median number of treatment lines prior to transplantation was 3 (1-10). The median time between allo-HSCT and Ibrutinib was 30 months (range: 1-140). Overall, 40 (71%) patients responded to Ibrutinib; 23 (41%) PR, and 17 (30%) CR. At time of ibrutinib initiation, ten patients had active chronic GVHD that resolved under Ibrutinib, whilst a single patient developed limited de novo chronic GVHD on Ibrutinib. Fourteen patients discontinued ibrutinib, four because of toxicity and ten because of disease progression. Overall, 14 patients progressed (median PFS = 24 months) among them 10 died. Two-year OS and PFS probabilities were 72% (95% CI: 52-84) and 50% (95% CI: 32-66), respectively. Patients with late relapse after allo-HSCT (≥24 months) had a better PFS after ibrutinib. Our study shows that ibrutinib can be safely administered for CLL relapse after allo-HSCT, with comparable efficacy to non-transplanted patients with high-risk disease.
Maintenance Therapies for Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas After Autologous Transplantation: A Consensus Project of ASBMT, CIBMTR, and the Lymphoma Working Party of EBMT
JAMA oncology. 2019
Importance: Maintenance therapies are often considered as a therapeutic strategy in patients with lymphoma following autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT) to mitigate the risk of disease relapse. With an evolving therapeutic landscape, where novel drugs are moving earlier in therapy lines, evidence relevant to contemporary practice is increasingly limited. The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT), Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR), and European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) jointly convened an expert panel with diverse expertise and geographical representation to formulate consensus recommendations regarding the use of maintenance and/or consolidation therapies after auto-HCT in patients with lymphoma. Observations: The RAND-modified Delphi method was used to generate consensus statements where at least 75% vote in favor of a recommendation was considered as consensus. The process included 3 online surveys moderated by an independent methodological expert to ensure anonymity and an in-person meeting. The panel recommended restricting the histologic categories covered in this project to Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and follicular lymphoma. On completion of the voting process, the panel generated 22 consensus statements regarding post auto-HCT maintenance and/or consolidation therapies. The grade A recommendations included endorsement of: (1) brentuximab vedotin (BV) maintenance and/or consolidation in BV-naive high-risk HL, (2) rituximab maintenance in MCL undergoing auto-HCT after first-line therapy, (3) rituximab maintenance in rituximab-naive FL, and (4) No post auto-HCT maintenance was recommended in DLBCL. The panel also developed consensus statements for important real-world clinical scenarios, where randomized data are lacking to guide clinical practice. Conclusions and Relevance: In the absence of contemporary evidence-based data, the panel found RAND-modified Delphi methodology effective in providing a rigorous framework for developing consensus recommendations for post auto-HCT maintenance and/or consolidation therapies in lymphoma.
PTCy-based haploidentical vs matched related or unrelated donor reduced-intensity conditioning transplant for DLBCL
Blood advances. 2019;3(3):360-369
This study retrospectively compared long-term outcomes of nonmyeloablative/reduced intensity conditioning (NMC/RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) from a haploidentical family donor (haplo-HCT) using posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) with those of matched sibling donor (MSD) and matched unrelated donor (MUD) with or without T-cell depletion (TCD+/TCD-) in patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Adult patients with DLBCL who had undergone their first NMC/RIC allo-HCT between 2008 and 2015 were included. Recipients of haplo-HCT were limited to those receiving graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with PTCy. GVHD prophylaxis in MSD was limited to calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based approaches without in vivo TCD, while MUD recipients received CNI-based prophylaxis with or without TCD. Outcome analyses for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), nonrelapse mortality (NRM), and disease relapse/progression were calculated. A total of 1438 patients (haplo, 132; MSD, 525; MUD TCD+, 403; and MUD TCD-, 378) were included. Patients with haplo donors were significantly older, had a better performance status and had more frequently received total body irradiation-based conditioning regimens and bone marrow grafts than MSD and MUD TCD+ or TCD-. 3-year OS, PFS, NRM and relapse/progression incidence after haplo-HCT was 46%, 38%, 22%, and 41%, respectively, and not significantly different from outcomes of matched donor transplants on multivariate analyses. Haplo-HCT was associated with a lower cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD compared with MSD, MUD TCD+/TCD-. NMC/RIC haplo-HCT with PTCy seems to be a valuable alternative for patients with DLBCL considered for allo-HCT but lacking a matched donor.
Allogeneic transplantation for relapsed and refractory Hodgkin lymphoma: long-term outcomes and graft-versus-host disease-free/relapse-free survival
Leukemia & lymphoma. 2018;:1-9
This monocentric retrospective study included 70 consecutive relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (RR-HL) patients receiving reduced-intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). We evaluated overall and progression-free survival (OS, PFS), graft-versus host disease/relapse-free survival (GFRS), and chronic GVHD-free OS (cGVHD-free OS) defined as OS without moderate-to-severe cGVHD. Patients had a median age of 33 years (range, 18-60 years), 23% had refractory disease (SD/PD). Donors were HLA identical (39%), unrelated (30%), or haploidentical (31%). Median follow-up was 6.2 years. Five-year OS was 59% and PFS was 49%. NRM was 16% at 1 year. 44% of patients had cGVHD, and 14% moderate-to-severe cGVHD at last follow-up. GFRS and cGVHD-free OS were 26 and 48% at 5 years. In multivariate analysis, resistant disease at alloSCT impacted survival and GFRS. In conclusion, disease response before alloSCT impacts survival and GFRS. GVHD outcomes may help comparing the long-term effects of the new salvage treatments that bridge patients to alloSCT.