Improved outcomes with allogeneic compared with autologous stem cell transplantation in aggressive T-cell lymphoma
European journal of haematology. 2020
Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) are a rare and aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), comprising up to 10% of all newly diagnosed NHL in the UK. The use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) to improve survival is has gained recognition in the up-front and relapsed setting, although evidence is limited for patients with refractory disease.
Autoimmune cytopenias (AIC) following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant for acquired aplastic anaemia: a joint study of the Autoimmune Diseases and Severe Aplastic Anaemia Working Parties (ADWP/SAAWP) of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT)
Bone marrow transplantation. 2019
This retrospective study explored the incidence of autoimmune cytopenia (AIC) in 530 paediatric and adult patients with acquired aplastic anaemia (aAA) who underwent first allogeneic HSCT between 2002 and 2012. AIC was a rare complication with a cumulative incidence of AIC at 1, 3, 5 and 10 years post HSCT of 2.5% (1.2-3.9 95% CI), 4.4% (2.6-6.2 95% CI), 4.6% (2.8-6.5 95% CI) and 5.1% (3.1-7.2 95% CI). Overall survival at 5 years after diagnosis of AIC was 85.9% (71-100 95% CI). Twenty-five patients were diagnosed with AIC at a median of 10.6 (2.6-91.5) months post HSCT. Eight (32%) patients were diagnosed with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), seven (28%) with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA), seven (24%) with Evans syndrome and four (16%) with autoimmune neutropenia (AIN). Treatment strategies were heterogeneous. Complete responses were seen in 12 of 25 patients, with death in three patients. In multivariable Cox analysis of a subgroup of 475 patients, peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplant was associated with higher risk of AIC compared with bone marrow (BM) when conditioning regimens contained fludarabine and/or alemtuzumab (2.81 [1.06-7.49 95% CI]; p = 0.038), or anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) (2.86 [1.11-7.37 95% CI]; p = 0.029). Myeloablative conditioning was associated with a lower risk of AIC compared with reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) in fludarabine and/or alemtuzumab (0.34 [0.12-0.98 95% CI]; p = 0.046) and ATG containing regimens (0.34 [0.12-0.95 95% CI]; p = 0.04). These findings provide clinically useful information regarding the incidence of a rare and potentially life-threatening complication of allogeneic HSCT for aAA, and further support for BM as the preferred stem cell source for transplant of patients with aAA.
Anti-thymocyte globulin improves survival free from relapse and graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with Philadelphia-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia: An analysis by the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the EBMT
BACKGROUND Mobilized peripheral blood stem cells are currently the predominant source of grafts for allogeneic transplantation (allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation [allo-PBSCT]), although, in comparison with bone marrow, their use is associated with an increased risk of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Attempts to reduce the incidence of cGVHD include the addition of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) to the pretransplant conditioning regimen. METHODS The goal of this retrospective study was to analyze the effect of ATG on allo-PBSCT outcomes for adults with Philadelphia-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-neg ALL). The primary endpoint was survival free from relapse, grade 3 to 4 acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), and cGVHD (ie, graft-versus-host disease-free/relapse-free survival [GRFS]). Nine-hundred twenty-four patients who underwent unmanipulated allo-PBSCT in their first complete remission between 2007 and 2016 were included. ATG was used in 97 of the 494 transplants from matched sibling donors (20%) and in 307 of the 430 transplants from human leukocyte antigen-matched (8 of 8 loci) unrelated donors (71%). RESULTS The use of ATG was an independent factor for an improved chance of GRFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; P = .0009). Furthermore, it was associated with a reduced risk of both grade 2 to 4 (HR, 0.66; P = .005) and grade 3 to 4 aGVHD (HR, 0.58; P = .03). Similarly, its addition reduced the incidence of both total (HR, 0.45; P < 10(-5) ) and extensive cGVHD (HR, 0.30; P < 10(-5) ) as well as nonrelapse mortality (HR, 0.58; P = .01). No significant effect was found with respect to leukemia-free or overall survival. However, an increased risk of relapse was noted for those who received ATG (HR, 1.40; P = .04). CONCLUSIONS Patients with Ph-neg ALL treated with allo-PBSCT benefit from the use of ATG in terms of improved GRFS. Its use may, therefore, be considered in this setting. Cancer 2018. (c) 2018 American Cancer Society.
Impact of graft-versus-lymphoma effect on outcomes after reduced intensity conditioned-alemtuzumab allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients with mature lymphoid malignancies
British journal of haematology. 2018
Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) offers potentially curative therapy for patients with relapsed/refractory lymphoid malignancies. Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) with Alemtuzumab reduces transplant-related mortality and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), but may be associated with increased risk of relapse. With the aim of studying the effect of GVHD and donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) on relapse, we performed a retrospective study of 288 patients (57% non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 24% Hodgkin lymphoma and 19% chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; 58% were relapsed/refractory) who underwent RIC-Alemtuzumab-HSCT between 2000 and 2012. Median follow-up time for survivors was 64 months. Five-year overall survival, relapse incidence, GvHD/relapse-free survival and non-relapse mortality were 47%, 33%, 37% and 28% respectively. Cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute and extensive chronic GvHD was 22% and 21% at 100 days and 5 years respectively. On multivariate analysis, presence of GvHD (P = 0.03) and unrelated donor type (P = 0.03) were protective of relapse. 62/288 patients received DLI for either mixed donor chimerism (prophylactic DLI, n = 37) or clinical relapse (therapeutic DLI, n = 25). Prophylactic and therapeutic DLI successfully converted the patient to full or stable mixed donor chimerism in 78% and 56% of patients respectively. These data demonstrate good long-term outcomes and support the concept of the graft-vs-lymphoma effect as a key protective factor against relapse following RIC-Alemtuzumab allo-HSCT for patients with mature lymphoid malignancies.
Cyclophosphamide versus etoposide in combination with total body irradiation as conditioning regimen for adult patients with Ph-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplant: On behalf of the ALWP of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
American journal of hematology. 2018
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) with myeloablative conditioning based on total body irradiation (TBI) is widely used for the treatment of adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). TBI is most frequently administered in combination with either cyclophosphamide (Cy/TBI) or etoposide (Vp/TBI). The goal of this study was to retrospectively compare these two regimens. Adult patients with Ph-negative ALL treated with alloHCT in first or second complete remission who received Cy/TBI (n = 1346) or Vp/TBI (n = 152) conditioning were included in the analysis. In a univariate analysis, as compared to Cy/TBI, the use of Vp/TBI was associated with reduced incidence of relapse (17% vs. 30% at 5 years, P = .007), increased rate of leukemia-free survival (60% vs. 50%, P = .04), and improved "graft versus host disease (GVHD) and relapse-free survival" (GRFS, 43% vs. 33%, P = .04). No significant effect could be observed in terms of the incidence of nonrelapse mortality or acute or chronic GVHD. In a multivariate model, the use of Vp/TBI was associated with reduced risk of relapse (HR = 0.62, P = .04) while the effect on other study end-points was not significant. In conclusion, conditioning regimen based on Vp combined with TBI appears more effective for disease control than the combination of Cy with TBI for adult patients with Ph-negative ALL treated with alloHCT.
Greatly reduced risk of EBV reactivation in rituximab-experienced recipients of alemtuzumab-conditioned allogeneic HSCT
Bone Marrow Transplantation. 2016;51(6):825-32
EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) remains an important complication of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We retrospectively analysed the incidence and risk factors for EBV reactivation in 186 adult patients undergoing consecutive allo-HSCT with alemtuzumab T-cell depletion at a single centre. The cumulative incidence of EBV reactivation was 48% (confidence interval (CI) 41-55%) by 1 year, with an incidence of high-level EBV reactivation of 18% (CI 13-24%); 8 patients were concurrently diagnosed with PTLD. Amongst patients with high-level reactivation 31/38 (82%) developed this within only 2 weeks of first EBV qPCR positivity. In univariate analysis age50 years was associated with significantly increased risk of EBV reactivation (hazard ratio (HR) 1.54, CI 1.02-2.31; P=0.039). Furthermore, a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) was associated with greatly reduced risk of reactivation (HR 0.10, CI 0.03-0.33; P=0.0001) and this was confirmed in multivariate testing. Importantly, rituximab therapy within 6 months prior to allo-HSCT was also highly predictive for lack of EBV reactivation (HR 0.18, CI 0.07-0.48; P=0.001) although confounding with NHL was apparent. Our data emphasise the risk of PTLD associated with alemtuzumab. Furthermore, we report the clinically important observation that rituximab, administered in the peri-transplant period, may provide effective prophylaxis for PTLD.