Allogeneic transplantation for Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia with posttransplantation cyclophosphamide
Blood advances. 2020;4(20):5078-5088
Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (alloBMT) is standard of care for adults with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) in first complete remission (CR1). The routine pretransplant and posttransplant use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has dramatically improved outcomes, but the optimal conditioning regimen, donor type, and TKI remain undefined. The bone marrow transplant database at Johns Hopkins was queried for adult patients with de novo Ph+ ALL who received alloBMT using posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) as a component of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis from 2008 to 2018. Among transplants for Ph+ ALL, 69 (85%) were performed in CR1, and 12 (15%) were performed in second or greater remission (CR2+). The majority of transplants (58%) were HLA haploidentical. Nearly all patients (91.4%) initiated TKI posttransplant. For patients in CR1, the 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) was 66%. The use of nonmyeloablative conditioning, absence of measurable residual disease (MRD) according to flow cytometry at transplant, and the use of dasatinib vs imatinib at diagnosis were associated with improved overall survival (OS) and RFS. Neither donor type nor recipient age ≥60 years affected RFS. When analyzing all transplants, alloBMT in CR1 (vs CR2+) and the absence of pretransplant MRD were associated with improved RFS. Most relapses were associated with the emergence of kinase domain mutations. The cumulative incidence of grade 3 to 4 acute GVHD at 1 year was 9%, and moderate to severe chronic GVHD at 2 years was 8%. Nonmyeloablative alloBMT with PTCy for Ph+ ALL in an MRD-negative CR1 after initial treatment with dasatinib yields favorable outcomes.
Adults with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) undergoing allogeneic transplantation (n=76)
Myeloablative conditioning in first complete remission (CR1 MAC, n=26); Non-myeloablative conditioning in first complete remission (CR1 NMAC, n=43)
Patients in second or subsequent remission (CR2+, n=12)
For patients in CR1, the 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) was 66%. The use of nonmyeloablative conditioning, absence of measurable residual disease (MRD) according to flow cytometry at transplant, and the use of dasatinib vs imatinib at diagnosis were associated with improved overall survival (OS) and RFS. Neither donor type nor recipient age ≥60 years affected RFS. When analyzing all transplants, alloBMT in CR1 (vs CR2+) and the absence of pretransplant MRD were associated with improved RFS. Most relapses were associated with the emergence of kinase domain mutations. The cumulative incidence of grade 3 to 4 acute GVHD at 1 year was 9%, and moderate to severe chronic GVHD at 2 years was 8%.
Thrombotic Microangiopathy after Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide-Based Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2020
Transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (taTMA) is a systemic vascular illness associated with significant morbidity and mortality, resulting from a convergence of risk factors after allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (alloBMT). The diagnosis of taTMA has been a challenge, but most criteria include an elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), low haptoglobin, and schistocytes on peripheral blood smear. We performed a retrospective review of the 678 consecutive adults who received high-dose post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy)-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) between January 1, 2015, and August 31, 2018. In April 2016, we initiated a monitoring program of weekly LDH and haptoglobin measurements and blood smears when those 2 parameters were both abnormal on all of our adult patients undergoing alloBMT for hematologic malignancies. During the entire period, the 1-year cumulative incidence of taTMA was 1.4% (95% confidence interval, 0.5% to 2.3%). Eight patients were taking tacrolimus at the time of diagnosis, and 1 was not on any immunosuppression. Eight of 9 patients (89%) were hypertensive. Four patients had invasive infections at the time of diagnosis, 4 patients required renal replacement therapy, and 5 of 9 patients were neurologically impaired. Eculizumab was given to 6 patients (0.9%), of whom 2 died and 4 recovered with resolution of end-organ dysfunction. The paucity of events made the determination of risk factors difficult; however, the low incidence of taTMA in this cohort may be related to the limited use of myeloablative conditioning regimens, low incidence of severe GVHD, and use of PTCy. PTCy-based GVHD prophylaxis appears to be associated with a low incidence of severe taTMA.
Haploidentical transplantation using posttransplant cyclophosphamide as GVHD prophylaxis in patients over age 70
Blood advances. 2019;3(17):2608-2616
Hematologic malignancies in older people are unlikely to be cured with chemotherapy alone. Advances in allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (alloBMT), especially nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning and the use of haploidentical donors, now make this therapy available to older people; however, long-term outcomes and predictors of success are unclear. We reviewed the outcomes of 93 consecutive patients aged 70 and older (median, 72; range, 70-78), who underwent haploidentical BMT at Johns Hopkins Hospital between 1 September 2009 and 1 April 2018. All patients received NMA conditioning and posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The 2-year overall survival was 53%, and 2-year event-free survival was 43%. The 180-day cumulative incidence (CuI) of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 14%, and the 2-year CuI was 27%. The 2-year CuI of relapse was 30%. Of 78 patients who were alive and had their weight recorded on day 180, weight loss predicted subsequent NRM (subdistribution hazard ratio, 1.0; 95% CI, 1-1.13; P = .048). In conclusion, haploidentical BMT with PTCy is feasible and relatively safe in septuagenarians. Although early, 6-month NRM was relatively low at 14%, but overall NRM continued to climb to 27% at 2 years, at least in part because of late deaths that appeared to be somewhat age related. Further studies to elucidate predictors of NRM are warranted.
Consecutive patients older than 70 years with haematological malignancies (n=93)
Haploidentical BMT with post-transplant cyclophosphamide GvHD prophylaxis
The 2-year overall survival was 53%, and 2-year event-free survival was 43%. The 180-day cumulative incidence (CuI) of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 14%, and the 2-year CuI was 27%. The 2-year CuI of relapse was 30%. Of 78 patients who were alive and had their weight recorded on day 180, weight loss predicted subsequent NRM.
Severe cytokine release syndrome after haploidentical peripheral blood transplantation
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2019
INTRODUCTION Inflammatory cytokines released by activated lymphocytes and innate cells in the context of cellular therapy can cause fever, vasodilatation and end organ damage, so-called cytokine release syndrome (CRS). CRS can occur after allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation, but especially after HLA-haploidentical (haplo) peripheral blood transplantation (PBT). We reviewed charts of all patients who underwent haplo PBT between October 1, 2013 and September 1, 2017 and graded CRS. A total of 146 consecutive related haplo PBTs were analyzed. CRS occurred in 130 (89%) of the patients, but most was of mild (Grades 0-2) severity. Severe CRS (Grades 3-5) occurred in 25 patients (17% of PB haploPBT). In this group with severe CRS, 13 had encephalopathy; 12 required hemodialysis, and 11 were intubated. Death from the immediate complications of CRS occurred in 6 patients (24% of the severe CRS group and 4% of the entire haplo PBT cohort). The cumulative probability of non-relapse mortality (NRM) for patients with severe CRS was 38% at 6 months; it was 8% in the 121 out of 146 patients without severe CRS. In conclusion, CRS occurs in nearly 90% of haploidentical peripheral blood stem cell transplants. Older recipients (OR 2.4, 95% CI 0.83-6.75, p=0.11) of haploidentical PBT and those with a history of XRT (OR=3.85, 95% CI 1.32-11.24, p=0.01) have a higher risk of developing severe CRS. Most recipients of haplo PBT develop CRS, but less than 20% experience severe complications. The development of severe CRS significantly increases NRM.
Major Histocompatibility Mismatch and Donor Choice for Second Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation
Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation. 2017;23(11):1887-1894
Large alternative donor pools provide the potential for selecting a different donor for a second allogeneic (allo) bone or marrow transplant (BMT). As HLA disparity may contribute to the graft-versus-tumor effect, utilizing new mismatched haplotype donors may potentially improve the antitumor activity for relapsed hematologic malignancies despite a previous alloBMT. Data from patients who received a second alloBMT for relapsed hematologic malignancies at Johns Hopkins were analyzed. Outcomes were compared between patients who received a second allograft with the same MHC composition and those who received an allograft with a new mismatched haplotype. Loss of heterozygosity analysis was performed for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) whose first allograft was haploidentical. Between 2005 and 2015, 40 patients received a second BMT for a relapsed hematologic malignancy. The median follow-up is 750 (range, 26 to 2950) days. The median overall survival (OS) in the cohort is 928 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 602 to not reached [NR]); median event-free survival (EFS) for the cohort is 500 days (95% CI, 355 to NR). The 4-year OS is 40% (95% CI, 25% to 64%), and the 4-year EFS is 36% (95% CI, 24% to 55%). The cumulative incidence of nonrelapsed mortality by 2 years was 27% (95% CI, 13% to 42%). The cumulative incidence of grade 3 to 4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) at 100 days was 15% (95% CI, 4% to 26%); the cumulative incidence of extensive chronic GVHD at 2 years was 22% (95% CI, 9% to 36%). The median survival was 552 days (95% CI, 376 to 2950+) in the group who underwent transplantation with a second allograft that did not harbor a new mismatched haplotype, while it was not reached in the group whose allograft contained a new mismatched haplotype (hazard ratio [HR], .36; 95% CI, .14 to .9; P=.02). EFS was also longer in the group who received an allograft containing a new mismatched haplotype, (NR versus 401 days; HR, .50; 95% CI, .22 to 1.14; P=.09). Although the allograft for this patient's second BMT contained a new mismatched haplotype, AML nevertheless relapsed a second time. Second BMTs are feasible and provide a reasonable chance of long-term survival. An allograft with a new mismatched haplotype may improve outcomes after second BMTs for relapsed hematologic malignancies.Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Low immunosuppressive burden after HLA-matched related or unrelated BMT using posttransplantation cyclophosphamide
The intensive and prolonged immunosuppressive therapy required to prevent or treat graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (alloBMT) puts patients at substantial risk for life-threatening infections, organ toxicity, and disease relapse. Posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) can function as single-agent GVHD prophylaxis after myeloablative, HLA-matched related (MRD), or HLA-matched unrelated (MUD) donor T-cell-replete bone marrow allografting, obviating the need for additional prophylactic immunosuppression. However, patients who develop GVHD require supplemental treatment. We assessed the longitudinal requirement for immunosuppressive therapy in 339 patients treated with this transplantation platform: 247 receiving busulfan/cyclophosphamide (BuCy) conditioning (data collected retrospectively) and 92 receiving busulfan/fludarabine (BuFlu) conditioning (data collected prospectively). Approximately 50% of MRD patients and 30% of MUD patients never required immunosuppression beyond PTCy. In patients requiring further immunosuppression, typically only 1 to 2 agents were required, and the median durations of systemic pharmacologic immunosuppression for the BuCy MRD, BuFlu MRD, BuCy MUD, and BuFlu MUD groups all were 4.5 to 5 months. For these 4 groups, 1-year probabilities of being alive and off all systemic immunosuppression were 61%, 53%, 53%, and 51% and 3-year probabilities were 53%, 48%, 49%, and 56%, respectively. These data suggest that PTCy minimizes the global immunosuppressive burden experienced by patients undergoing HLA-matched alloBMT.