Sorafenib Maintenance After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia With FLT3-Internal Tandem Duplication Mutation (SORMAIN)
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2020;:Jco1903345
PURPOSE Despite undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT), patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with internal tandem duplication mutation in the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 gene (FLT3-ITD) have a poor prognosis, frequently relapse, and die as a result of AML. It is currently unknown whether a maintenance therapy using FLT3 inhibitors, such as the multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib, improves outcome after HCT. PATIENTS AND METHODS In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase II trial (SORMAIN; German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00000591), 83 adult patients with FLT3-ITD-positive AML in complete hematologic remission after HCT were randomly assigned to receive for 24 months either the multitargeted and FLT3-kinase inhibitor sorafenib (n = 43) or placebo (n = 40 placebo). Relapse-free survival (RFS) was the primary endpoint of this trial. Relapse was defined as relapse or death, whatever occurred first. RESULTS With a median follow-up of 41.8 months, the hazard ratio (HR) for relapse or death in the sorafenib group versus placebo group was 0.39 (95% CI, 0.18 to 0.85; log-rank P = .013). The 24-month RFS probability was 53.3% (95% CI, 0.36 to 0.68) with placebo versus 85.0% (95% CI, 0.70 to 0.93) with sorafenib (HR, 0.256; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.65; log-rank P = .002). Exploratory data show that patients with undetectable minimal residual disease (MRD) before HCT and those with detectable MRD after HCT derive the strongest benefit from sorafenib. CONCLUSION Sorafenib maintenance therapy reduces the risk of relapse and death after HCT for FLT3-ITD-positive AML.
Comparing transplant outcomes in ALL patients after haploidentical with PTCy or matched unrelated donor transplantation
Blood advances. 2020;4(9):2073-2083
We compared outcomes of 1461 adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) receiving hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from a haploidentical (n = 487) or matched unrelated donor (MUD; n = 974) between January 2005 and June 2018. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy), calcineurin inhibitor (CNI), and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for haploidentical, and CNI with MMF or methotrexate with/without antithymoglobulin for MUDs. Haploidentical recipients were matched (1:2 ratio) with MUD controls for sex, conditioning intensity, disease stage, Philadelphia-chromosome status, and cytogenetic risk. In the myeloablative setting, day +28 neutrophil recovery was similar between haploidentical (87%) and MUD (88%) (P = .11). Corresponding rates after reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) were 84% and 88% (P = .47). The 3-month incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) and 3-year chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was similar after haploidentical compared with MUD: myeloablative conditioning, 33% vs 34% (P = .46) for aGVHD and 29% vs 31% for cGVHD (P = .58); RIC, 31% vs 30% (P = .06) for aGVHD and 24% vs 29% for cGVHD (P = .86). Among patients receiving myeloablative regimens, 3-year probabilities of overall survival were 44% and 51% with haploidentical and MUD (P = .56). Corresponding rates after RIC were 43% and 42% (P = .6). In this large multicenter case-matched retrospective analysis, despite the limitations of a registry-based study (ie, unavailability of key elements such as minimal residual disease testing), our analysis indicated that outcomes of patients with ALL undergoing HCT from a haploidentical donor were comparable with 8 of 8 MUD transplantations.
What is known?
Allogeneic stem cell transplant is a potentially curative treatment option for adults with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Transplant outcomes are, amongst other factors, dependent on optimal donor selection; despite a plethora of recent advances, donor availability is an area of unmet need for many patients. A fully HLA matched sibling donor is the preferred donor choice but is available in <30% of patients. Several studies have shown that comparable results can be achieved with a fully matched unrelated donor (MUD), but availability can be as low as 20% in non-Caucasian individuals. Haploidentical donor options are available for the vast majority of patients but historically their utility was limited by high rates of GvHD, treatment related morbidity and mortality and graft rejection. The addition of post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PtCy), calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) and mycofenolate mofetil (MMF) as GvHD prophylaxis has reduced these risks and is now a frequently employed approach for haploidentical haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HaploSCT) making it an attractive alternative to conventional donor transplant.
Several recent studies have compared MUD alloSCT and HaploSCT approaches in ALL in recent years. Most notably this has included an analysis of the European Bone Marrow Transplant (EBMT) group registry which included 1234 patients with ALL and shows comparable outcomes between HaploSCT and MUD alloSCT.
What did this paper set out to examine?
This retrospective multicentre cohort study aims to compare outcomes of HaploSCT & PtCy with MUD alloSCT in ALL in terms of engraftment, acute and chronic graft versus host disease (GvHD) incidence and severity, relapse free survival (RFS), non-relapse mortality (NRM) and overall survival (OS).
It is the first study to explicitly compare haploidentical allogeneic stem cell transplant (HaploSCT) with matched unrelated donor allogeneic stem cell transplant (MUD alloSCT) in terms of conditioning intensity, Philadelphia chromosome status and graft source. It also provides additional extensive, multinational data with matched pair analysis on outcomes of patients in both groups.
What did they show?
The authors compared data from 1461 adult patients (HaploSCT = 487 vs MUD = 974). Data from two separate registries was used: the EBMT registry alone was used for MUD alloSCT while the Haploidentical Transplant and Cellular Therapy Research Consortium (TCT-RC) was used in combination with Acute Leukaemia Working Party subgroup of the EBMT registry data for assessment of HaploSCT. The reason for using two databases is not explicitly stated although it is believed that this was done to increase sample size in the HaploSCT cohort.
Patients >18 years old with ALL over a 13.5-year period from January 2005 to June 2018 receiving their first alloSCT were included in the analysis. Exclusion criteria were fairly selected. GvHD prophylaxis was with PtCy, CNI and MMF in the HaploSCT group and with CNI and methotrexate or MMF in the MUD group. 64% of MUD patients also received ATG. Cohorts were matched at 1:2 (HaploSCT : MUD) for sex, cytogenetic risk, Philadelphia chromosome status, disease stage and intensity of conditioning (reduced intensity vs myeloablative). Statistical analysis was appropriate for the question to be answered.
RESULTS: HaploSCT and MUD alloSCT were comparable in terms of neutrophil engraftment, RFS and OS regardless of conditioning intensity, Philadelphia chromosome status and graft source. 3-year OS was 44% in the HaploSCT group vs 51% in the MUD group using myeloablative conditioning (p=5.56) with rates of 43% (HaploSCT) and 42% (MUD) for reduced intensity conditioning (p=5.6).
The overall incidence of acute and chronic GvHD was similar between the groups but there was an increased incidence in grade III-IV GvHD in HaploSCT when peripheral blood stem cells were used. Additionally, mortality form GvHD was higher in the MUD group. This is in keeping with results reported in the literature.
What are the implications for practice and for future work?
HaploSCT is becoming an increasingly attractive option for patients without matched sibling transplant. The comparable overall survival and now much more manageable GvHD risk will afford a previously difficult to manage cohort of patients a further option of curative treatment.
This study adds to the growing evidence base but did have some limitations. Firstly, the study is retrospective and uses registry-based data. While the registries used are of high quality, there are inherent concerns about missing data points and differences between the two databases used. The authors agreed that the variability of the condition regimes used added a further layer of complexity.
Prospective data with intention to treat analysis is required to further assess the comparability of HaploSCT and MUD for ALL patients.
Adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (n=1461)
HSCT from a haploidentical donor (n = 487)
HSCT from a matched unrelated donor (n = 974)
In the myeloablative setting, day +28 neutrophil recovery was similar between haploidentical (87%) and MUD (88%). Corresponding rates after reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) were 84% and 88%. The 3-month incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) and 3-year chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was similar after haploidentical compared with MUD: myeloablative conditioning, 33% vs 34% for aGVHD and 29% vs 31% for cGVHD; RIC, 31% vs 30% for aGVHD and 24% vs 29% for cGVHD. Among patients receiving myeloablative regimens, 3-year probabilities of overall survival were 44% and 51% with haploidentical and MUD. Corresponding rates after RIC were 43% and 42%.
Determinants of survival in myelofibrosis patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation
We aimed to evaluate the determinants of survival in myelofibrosis patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) and to describe factors predicting the main post-HCT complications. This retrospective study by the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation included 2916 myelofibrosis patients who underwent first allo-HCT from an HLA-identical sibling or unrelated donor between 2000 and 2016. After a median follow-up of 4.7 years from transplant, projected median survival of the series was 5.3 years. Factors independently associated with increased mortality were age ≥ 60 years and Karnofsky Performance Status <90% at transplant, and occurrence of graft failure, grades III-IV acute graft-vs.-host disease (aGVHD), and disease progression/relapse during follow-up. The opposing effects of chronic graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) on non-relapse mortality and relapse incidence resulted in a neutral influence on survival. Graft failure increased in unrelated donor recipients and decreased with myeloablative conditioning (MAC) and negative donor/recipient cytomegalovirus serostatus. Risk of grades III-IV aGVHD was higher with unrelated donors and decreased with MAC. Relapse incidence tended to be higher in patients with intermediate-2/high-risk DIPSS categories and to decrease in CALR-mutated patients. Acute and chronic GVHD reduced the subsequent risk of relapse. This information has potential implications for patient counseling and clinical decision-making.
Myelofibrosis patients (n=2916)
First allo-HCT from an HLA-identical sibling or unrelated donor between 2000 and 2016
After a median follow-up of 4.7 years from transplant, projected median survival of the series was 5.3 years. Factors independently associated with increased mortality were age >/= 60 years and Karnofsky Performance Status <90% at transplant, and occurrence of graft failure, grades III-IV acute graft-vs.-host disease (aGVHD), and disease progression/relapse during follow-up. The opposing effects of chronic graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) on non-relapse mortality and relapse incidence resulted in a neutral influence on survival. Graft failure increased in unrelated donor recipients and decreased with myeloablative conditioning (MAC) and negative donor/recipient cytomegalovirus serostatus. Risk of grades III-IV aGVHD was higher with unrelated donors and decreased with MAC. Relapse incidence tended to be higher in patients with intermediate-2/high-risk DIPSS categories and to decrease in CALR-mutated patients. Acute and chronic GVHD reduced the subsequent risk of relapse.
External Validation of Models for KIR2DS1/KIR3DL1-informed Selection of Hematopoietic Cell Donors fails
Several studies suggest that harnessing Natural Killer (NK) cell reactivity mediated through Killer cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) could reduce the risk of relapse after allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (HCT). Based on one promising model, information on KIR2DS1 and KIR3DL1 and their cognate ligands can be used to classify donors as KIR-advantageous or disadvantageous. This study was aimed at externally validating this model in unrelated donor HCT. The impact of the predictor on Overall Survival (OS) and relapse incidence was tested in a Cox regression model adjusted for patient age, a modified disease risk index, performance status, donor age, HLA-match, sex-match, CMV-match, conditioning intensity, type of T-cell depletion and graft type. Data from 2222 patients with AML or MDS were analyzed. KIR genes were typed using high-resolution amplicon-based next generation sequencing. In univariable analyses and subgroup analyses, OS and the cumulative incidence of relapse of patients with a KIR-advantageous donor were comparable to patients with a KIR-disadvantageous donor. The adjusted hazard ratio from the multivariable Cox regression model was 0.99 (Wald-test: p=0.93) for OS and 1.04 (Wald-test: p=0.78) for relapse incidence. We also tested the impact of activating donor KIR2DS1 and inhibition by KIR3DL1 separately, but did not find a significant impact on OS and the risk of relapse. Thus, our study shows that the proposed model does not universally predict NK-mediated disease control. Deeper knowledge of NK-mediated alloreactivity is necessary to predict its contribution to graft-versus leukemia reactions and to eventually utilize KIR-genotype information for donor selection.
Outcome of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in myeloproliferative neoplasm, unclassifiable: a retrospective study by the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the EBMT
British journal of haematology. 2020
Myeloproliferative Neoplasm (MPN), unclassifiable (MPN-U) is a heterogeneous disease with regards to both clinical phenotype and disease course. Patients may initially be asymptomatic or present with leucocytosis or thrombocytosis, anaemia, progressive splenomegaly, constitutional symptom, thromboses or accelerated/blastic phase disease. Treatment strategies are variable and there are no widely accepted consensus management guidelines for MNU-U. Allogeneic Haematopoietic Cell Transplantation (allo-HCT) remains the only curative strategy yet outcomes, to date, are not well defined. We hereby report on the largest retrospective study of patients with MPN-U undergoing allo-HCT, highlighting the potentially curative role and providing clinicians with robust engraftment, GvHD and outcome data to facilitate patient discussion.
Outcome of Patients with Fanconi Anemia developing myelodysplasia and acute leukemia who received Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A retrospective analysis on Behalf of EBMT group
American journal of hematology. 2020
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is curative for bone marrow failure in patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), but the presence of a malignant transformation is associated with a poor prognosis and the management of these patients is still challenging. We analyzed outcome of 74 FA patients with a diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 35), acute leukemia (n = 35) or with cytogenetic abnormalities (n = 4), who underwent allo-HSCT from 1999 to 2016 in EBMT network. Type of diagnosis, pre-HSCT cytoreductive therapies and related toxicities, disease status pre-HSCT, donor type, and conditioning regimen were considered as main variables potentially influencing outcome. The 5-year OS and EFS were 42% (30-53%) and 39% (27-51%), respectively. Patients transplanted in CR showed better OS compared with those transplanted in presence of an active malignant disease (OS:71%[48-95] vs 37% [24-50],P = .04), while none of the other variables considered had an impact. Twenty-two patients received pre-HSCT cytoreduction and 9/22 showed a grade 3-4 toxicity, without any lethal event or negative influence on survival after HSCT(OS:toxicity pre-HSCT 48% [20-75%] vs no-toxicity 51% [25-78%],P = .98). The cumulative incidence of day-100 grade II-IV a-GvHD and of 5-year c-GvHD were 38% (26-50%) and 40% (28-52%). Non-relapse-related mortality and incidence of relapse at 5-years were 40% (29-52%) and 21% (11-30%) respectively, without any significant impact of the tested variables. Causes of death were transplant-related events in most patients (34 out of the 42 deaths, 81%). This analysis confirms the poor outcome of transformed FA patients and identifies the importance of achieving CR pre-HSCT, suggesting that, in a newly diagnosed transformed FA patient, a cytoreductive approach pre-HSCT should be considered if a donor have been secured. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Treosulfan conditioning for allogeneic transplantation in multiple myeloma - improved overall survival in first line haematopoietic stem cell transplantation - a large retrospective study by the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the EBMT
British journal of haematology. 2020
Second allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a study on behalf of the Acute Leukaemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
British journal of haematology. 2019
Although second allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT2) is a therapeutic option for patients relapsing after first HCT (allo-HCT1), there is limited data on allo-HCT2 in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). We retrospectively studied 245 patients receiving allo-HCT2 as a salvage treatment for relapse following allo-HCT1 between the 2000 and 2017. The median age at allo-HCT2 was 34.6 years (range: 18-74). One hundred and one patients (41%) received sibling donor and 144 (59%) unrelated donor allo-HCT2. Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grade II-IV and III-IV occurred in 33% and 17% of the patients, respectively. The incidence of 2-year total and extensive chronic GVHD was 38% and 19%, respectively. The 2- and 5-year cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality, relapse incidence, leukaemia-free survival, overall survival and GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) were 24% and 26%, 56% and 62%, 20% and 12%, 30% and 14% and 12% & 7%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with overall survival were age, time from allo-HCT1 to relapse, conditioning for allo-HCT1, Karnofsky score at allo-HCT2 and donor type for allo-HCT2. In conclusion, outcomes of allo-HCT2 in ALL patients were poor, with only 14% overall survival and 7% GRFS at 5 years with very high relapse incidence.
False-positive Candida and Aspergillus antigen testing in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation due to administration of parenteral nutrition and fixed combinations of piperacillin-tazobactam
BACKGROUND False-positivity of antigen immunoassays used as an early diagnostic tool to detect invasive fungal infections are known. Interpretation of the assay needs the identification of sources which could affect the specificity of the test. OBJECTIVES We focused on the influence of parenteral nutrition (PN) and piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) on fungal immunoassays. Measurable amounts of Candida antigen mannan were detected in several compounds of PN and TZP in a previous in-vitro study. PATIENTS/ METHODS In the current study, 84 patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation receiving either TZP, PN or both were monitored with Aspergillus and Candida antigen assay. Six patients were analyzed closer in a kinetic analysis with more frequent blood sampling to detect mannan. RESULTS PN in diverse compositions as well as TZP did not increase significantly the amount of mannan and the Aspergillus antigen in serum. We could not confirm the positive results of the in-vitro study. CONCLUSIONS Physicians should be aware that mannan antigenemia due to drug infusion could be a transient issue and should be considered in the interpretation of fungal immunoassays, although we could not find clinically relevant effects on mannan levels. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Bone marrow central memory and memory stem T-cell exhaustion in AML patients relapsing after HSCT
Nature communications. 2019;10(1):1065
The major cause of death after allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is disease relapse. We investigated the expression of Inhibitory Receptors (IR; PD-1/CTLA-4/TIM-3/LAG-3/2B4/KLRG1/GITR) on T cells infiltrating the bone marrow (BM) of 32 AML patients relapsing (median 251 days) or maintaining complete remission (CR; median 1 year) after HSCT. A higher proportion of early-differentiated Memory Stem (TSCM) and Central Memory BM-T cells express multiple IR in relapsing patients than in CR patients. Exhausted BM-T cells at relapse display a restricted TCR repertoire, impaired effector functions and leukemia-reactive specificities. In 57 patients, early detection of severely exhausted (PD-1(+)Eomes(+)T-bet(-)) BM-TSCM predicts relapse. Accordingly, leukemia-specific T cells in patients prone to relapse display exhaustion markers, absent in patients maintaining long-term CR. These results highlight a wide, though reversible, immunological dysfunction in the BM of AML patients relapsing after HSCT and suggest new therapeutic opportunities for the disease.