A Prospective Pilot Study of Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide and Ruxolitinib in Patients with Myelofibrosis
Acta haematologica. 2020;:1-8
INTRODUCTION This prospective study evaluated a calcineurin inhibitor-free graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis regimen of ruxolitinib in combination with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy). Patents and Methods: Twenty patients with primary or secondary myelofibrosis were prospectively enrolled. Reduced intensity conditioning was performed, followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation from related (n = 7) or unrelated (n = 13) donors. GVHD prophylaxis included only PTCy and ruxolitinib (45 mg) from day-7 to day-2, and 15 mg from day+5 to day+100. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02806375. RESULTS Primary engraftment was documented in 17 patients. One patient experienced primary graft failure and 2 died before engraftment. Eleven patients demonstrated severe poor graft function (SPGF), which required ruxolitinib dose reduction. The regimen was well tolerated, with grade 3-4 non-haematological toxicity in 30%, viral reactivation in 45%, and severe sepsis in 15% of patients. The incidence of acute GVHD grade II-IV was 25%, grade III-IV GVHD was 15%, and moderate chronic GVHD was 20%, with no severe cases. Only 2 patients required systemic steroids. Haematological relapse was documented in 1 patient. Two-year non-relapse mortality was 15%, 2-year overall survival was 85%, and 2-year event-free survival was 72%. CONCLUSION GVHD prophylaxis with PTCy and ruxolitinib is associated with low toxicity, good acute and chronic GVHD control, and low relapse incidence. However, the relatively high rate of SPGF should be taken into account. SPGF could possibly be mitigated by ruxolitinib dose reduction.
Long-term outcomes of ruxolitinib therapy in steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease in children and adults
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Acute and chronic steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease (srGVHD) is a life-threatening complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. There are a number of reports on case series describing efficacy of ruxolitinib in both acute and chronic srGVHD. We conducted a prospective study (NCT02997280) in 75 patients with srGVHD (32 acute, 43 chronic, 41 adults, and 34 children). Patients with chronic GVHD had severe disease in 83% of cases, and acute GVHD patients had grade III-IV disease in 66% of cases. The overall response rate (ORR) was 75% (95% CI 57-89%) in acute GVHD and 81% (95% CI 67-92%) in chronic. Overall survival was 59% (95% CI 49-74%) in acute group and 85% (95% CI 70-93%). The major risk factors for lower survival were grade III-IV gastrointestinal involvement (29% vs 93%, p = 0.0001) in acute form and high disease risk score in chronic (65% vs 90%, p = 0.038). Toxicity was predominantly hematologic with 79% and 44% of grade III-IV neutropenia in acute and chronic groups, respectively. There was no difference between adults and children in terms of ORR (p = 0.31, p = 0.35), survival (p = 0.44, p = 0.12) and toxicity (p > 0.93). The study demonstrated that ruxolitinib is an effective option in acute and chronic srGVHD and can be used both in adults and children.
Adult and paediatric patients with steroid refractory GVHD, 32 acute, 42 chronic (n=75)
Ruxolitinib at a starting dose of 10 mg bid for adults and children with weight >40 kg and 0.15 mg/kg bid for children with a weight less than 40 kg.
The overall response rate (ORR) was 75% in acute GVHD and 81% in chronic. Overall survival was 59% in acute group and 85% in chronic. The major risk factors for lower survival were grade III-IV gastrointestinal involvement (29% vs 93%) in acute form and high disease risk score in chronic (65% vs 90%). Toxicity was predominantly hematologic with 79% and 44% of grade III-IV neutropenia in acute and chronic groups, respectively. There was no difference between adults and children in terms of ORR, survival, and toxicity.
High prevalence of CD3, NK, and NKT cells in the graft predicts adverse outcome after matched-related and unrelated transplantations with post transplantation cyclophosphamide
Bone marrow transplantation. 2019
The predictive value of graft composition and plasma biomarkers on the outcome of allogeneic HSCT is well known for conventional GVHD prophylaxis based on calcineurin inhibitors with or without antithymocyte globulin. Currently, there is limited data whether these results could be translated to post transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy). The prospective extension cohort of NCT02294552 trial enrolled 79 adult patients with acute leukemia in CR. Twenty-six received matched-related bone marrow (BM) grafts with single-agent PTCy and 53 received unrelated peripheral blood stem cell graft (PBSC) with PTCy, tacrolimus, and MMF. The grafts were studied by the flow cytometry, and plasma samples were analyzed by ELISA. In the cluster and major component analysis, we determined that transplantation from donors with high content of CD3, NKT, and CD16-CD56 + subpopulations in the PBSC grafts was associated with poor immunological recovery and compromised event-free survival (50% vs. 80%, HR 2.93, p = 0.015) both due to increased relapse incidence and non-relapse mortality. The significant independent predictor of moderate and severe chronic GVHD was the high prevalence of and iNKT, Vbeta11, and double-positive cells in the PBSC grafts from young donors (HR 2.75, p = 0.0483). No patterns could be identified for BM grafts and for plasma biomarkers.
Second Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Post-Transplant Relapsed Acute Leukemia in Children: a Retrospective EBMT- PDWP Study
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2018
Outcome data were collected from the EBMT registry on 373 children from 120 centers with relapsed leukemia (214 ALL, 159 AML) who underwent second allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) between 2004 and 2013. At 2 and 5 years, respectively, overall survival (OS) was 38% and 29%, and leukemia-free survival (LFS) was 30% and 25%. Median follow-up after second HSCT was 36.4 months in the ALL group and 50.2 months in the AML group. In the ALL group, at 2 and 5 years, respectively, OS was 43% and 33%, and LFS, 34% and 31%; corresponding values in the AML group were OS 32% and 24%, LFS 24% and 17%. Non-relapse mortality rates at 2 years were 22% (ALL) and 18% (AML). Favorable prognostic factors (P <0.05) for OS and LFS included >12 months between transplants and chronic graft-versus-host disease after the first SCT (both groups), complete response before the second HSCT (ALL only), and age >12 years (AML only). Findings were more consistent over time in the ALL group, with no significant differences between 2-year and 5-year rates of relapse, non-relapse mortality, and LFS. Children with relapsed acute leukemias have a substantial chance at long-term survival following second HSCT. Given the many novel targeted and immune-modulation therapies currently under development, it is important to identify specific patient subpopulations that may benefit from a second HSCT versus those better suited to new approaches.
Comparable results of autologous and allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for adults with Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in first complete molecular remission: An analysis by the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the EBMT
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990). 2018;96:73-81
BACKGROUND Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) is considered a standard treatment for patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (Ph+ ALL) achieving complete remission after induction containing tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). METHODS We retrospectively compared results of myeloablative alloHSCT from either matched sibling donor (MSD) or unrelated donor (URD) with autologous (auto) HSCT for adults with Ph+ ALL in molecular remission, treated between 2007 and 2014. RESULTS In univariate analysis, the incidence of relapse at 2 years was 47% after autoHSCT, 28% after MSD-HSCT and 19% after URD-HSCT (P = 0.0002). Respective rates of non-relapse mortality were 2%, 18%, and 22% (P = 0.001). The probabilities of leukaemia-free survival were 52%, 55% and 60% (P = 0.69), while overall survival rates were 70%, 70% and 69% (P = 0.58), respectively. In multivariate analysis, there was a trend towards increased risk of overall mortality after MSD-HSCT (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5, P = 0.12) and URD-HSCT (HR, 1.6, P = 0.08) when referred to autoHSCT. The use of total body irradiation (TBI)-based regimens was associated with reduced risk of relapse (HR, 0.65, P = 0.02) and overall mortality (HR, 0.67, P = 0.01). CONCLUSION In the era of TKIs, outcomes of myeloablative autoHSCT and alloHSCT for patients with Ph+ ALL in first molecular remission are comparable. Therefore, autoHSCT appears to be an attractive treatment option potentially allowing for circumvention of alloHSCT sequelae. Irrespective of the type of donor, TBI-based regimens should be considered the preferable type of conditioning for Ph+ ALL.
Profiles of pro-inflammatory cytokines in allogenic stem cell transplantation with post-transplant cyclophosphamide
Large number of studies was published about predictive value of cytokines for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Recently, there has been a growing interest in GVHD prophylaxis with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy). Clinical data on the dynamics of proinflammatory cytokines with this prophylaxis is lacking. In this study, we have measured the levels of IL-17, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha in plasma on days -7, 0, +7, +14 and after engraftment in 20 patients with acute GVHD and 40 matched control patients with PTCy-based prophylaxis. Low levels of IL-8 (p=0.04) on day +7 and IFN-gamma (p=0.03) after engraftment were associated with grade II-IV acute GVHD. The same pattern was observed for severe acute GVHD. Low IFN-gamma after engraftment was also associated with increased non-relapse mortality (p=0.014). No impact of cytokine levels on overall survival and relapse incidence was observed (p>0.05). In conclusion, the dynamics of IL-8 and IFN-gamma in GVHD patients after PTCy was different from previously reported after conventional prophylaxis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for primary refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A report from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the EBMT
BACKGROUND Patients with primary refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (PREF ALL) who fail to achieve a complete remission (CR) after >=2 courses of chemotherapy have a dismal prognosis without undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). To the authors' knowledge, there currently are no data regarding factors influencing transplantation outcomes. METHODS The authors retrospectively studied outcomes of transplantation for cases of PREF ALL reported to European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry. Eligibility criteria for the current analysis included adult patients who underwent their first HCT for PREF ALL between 2000 and 2012. PREF disease was defined as the failure to achieve a morphological CR after >=2 courses of induction chemotherapy. RESULTS Data regarding 86 adult patients were analyzed. With a median follow-up of 106 months, the probability of survival was 36% at 2 years and 23% at 5 years. The probability of leukemia-free survival was 28% and 17%, respectively, and the probability of nonrecurrence mortality was 20% and 29%, respectively, at 2 years and 5 years. For 66 patients who achieved a CR (77%), the survival at 2 years and 5 years was 36% and 29%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, use of total body irradiation was found to be associated with improved survival. Total body irradiation and infusion of female hematopoietic cells into male recipients was associated with improved leukemia-free survival. These findings were incorporated into a scoring system that identified 3 groups (those with 2, 1, or no prognostic factors) with survival rates of 57%, 22%, and 8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Although overall these patients would clearly benefit from the introduction of novel antileukemic therapies, the data from the current study support the use of allogeneic HCT in selected patients with PREF ALL. Cancer 2017;123:1965-1970. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
Pharmacokinetic comparison of cyclosporin A and tacrolimus in graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis
Annals of Hematology. 2017;96(6):935-942
A number of studies were published with contradictory results comparing tacrolimus (Tac) and cyclosporine A (CsA) for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, but there are only few that accounted for pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. In this study, we created a model based on median concentrations, variability of concentrations, and failures to maintain target levels that distinguished patients with low, intermediate, and high risks of acute GVHD (hazard ratios (HR) 1.77, 95%CI 1.36-2.32, p < 0.0001). This model was used to compare 95 patients with CsA and 239 with Tac GVHD prophylaxis. In the multivariate analysis, incorporating PK risk, no differences were observed for grade II-IV acute GVHD (HR 0.73, 95%CI 0.48-1.10, p = 0.13), but grade III-IV acute GVHD was lower in the Tac group (HR 0.47, 95%CI 0.28-0.78, p = 0.004). The observed difference was due to patients with high PK risk (HR 0.377, 95%CI 0.19-0.75, p = 0.005), but not with low and intermediate PK risk (p > 0.05). Patients in the Tac group had better GVHD relapse-free survival (HR = 0.659, p = 0.01) and comparable overall survival (p > 0.05). In conclusion, PK risk should be accounted for in comparisons of GVHD prophylaxis regimens with calcineurin inhibitors, and Tac was superior to CsA in patients with high, but not intermediate and low PK risk.
Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis in Unrelated Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide, Tacrolimus, and Mycophenolate Mofetil
Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation. 2016;22(6):1037-42
Clinical efficacy of post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis has been demonstrated in haploidentical and HLA-matched bone marrow but not in unrelated peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantations. Also, no direct comparisons have been published with current standard of care, combination of antithymocyte globulin (ATG), calcineurin inhibitors, and either methotrexate or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Eighty-six adult patients (median age 34 years; range, 18 to 59) with acute myeloblastic and lymphoblastic leukemia underwent unrelated PBSC transplantation with PTCy, tacrolimus, and MMF as GVHD prophylaxis in the single-center trial (clinicaltrial.govNCT02294552). The control group comprised 125 consecutive historical control patients who received ATG, tacrolimus, and methotrexate or MMF. Cumulative incidences of grades II to IV acute (19% versus 45%, P = .0003), grades III to IV acute (4% versus 27%, P < .0001), and chronic GVHD (16% versus 65%, P < .0001) were significantly lower in the PTCy compared with the ATG group. PTCy-based prophylaxis was associated with reduced incidence of nonrelapse mortality (16% versus 36%, P = .005; HR, .55; 95% CI, .34 to .89) and improved overall survival (69% versus 40%, P = .0007; HR, .43; 95% CI, .26 to .70), event-free survival (65% versus 38%, P = .0006; HR, .49; 95% CI, .31 to .78), and GVHD relapse-free survival (52% versus 12%, P < .0001). PTCy-based prophylaxis also had a better safety profile compared with ATG with reduced incidence of veno-occlusive disease, cytomegalovirus reactivation, invasive mycosis, and reduced severity of mucositis. In this study we demonstrated that PTCy in combination with tacrolimus and MMF is a safe and effective GVHD prophylaxis for unrelated PBSC transplantation. Although there are several limitations of the historical control approach, this study suggests the superiority of a PTCy-based approach over an ATG-based prophylaxis. Copyright © 2016 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.