How Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation has Evolved Over Time: 30-Years' Experience at a Single Institution
Acta medica portuguesa. 2020;33(2):116-123
INTRODUCTION Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is an established procedure for a variety of diseases of the hematopoietic system. Our transplant program started in 1987 and since then advances have been made in the care of patients undergoing transplantation. We conducted a study to evaluate whether the changes implemented over time have improved the outcomes of transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed changes in patients, cell source, transplantation and outcome among 682 consecutive patients receiving their first transplant between 1987 and 2016. We compared overall survival, progression-free survival, the incidence of nonrelapse mortality and relapse in 10-year cohorts over the three decades of the study. RESULTS The median age of transplanted patients, the use of peripheral blood and unrelated donors all increased very significantly. There was an increase in the number of high-risk patients when comparing the first decade with the two subsequent ones. The 3-year non-relapse mortality decreased significantly from 29% to 20% (p = 0.045), while the overall survival, progression free survival and cumulative incidence of relapse remained stable. DISCUSSION Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has evolved considerably since its introduction in clinical practice. In the present study, we evaluated how these changes affected our practice along 30 years of activity and compared the results with those published in the literature. CONCLUSION Despite increasing age, higher risk patients and the increasing use of unrelated donors our results show a continuous significantly reduced non-relapse mortality, with stable overall survival, progression free survival and relapse rate.
Myeloablative conditioning for allo-HSCT in pediatric ALL: FTBI or chemotherapy?-A multicenter EBMT-PDWP study
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Although most children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) receive fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI) as myeloablative conditioning (MAC) for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), it is an important matter of debate if chemotherapy can effectively replace FTBI. To compare outcomes after FTBI versus chemotherapy-based conditioning (CC), we performed a retrospective EBMT registry study. Children aged 2-18 years after MAC for first allo-HSCT of bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) from matched-related (MRD) or unrelated donors (UD) in first (CR1) or second remission (CR2) between 2000 and 2012 were included. Propensity score weighting was used to control pretreatment imbalances of the observed variables. 3.054 patients were analyzed. CR1 (1.498): median follow-up (FU) after FTBI (1.285) and CC (213) was 6.8 and 6.1 years. Survivals were not significantly different. CR2 (1.556): median FU after FTBI (1.345) and CC (211) was 6.2 years. Outcomes after FTBI were superior as compared with CC with regard to overall survival (OS), leukemia-free survival (LFS), relapse incidence (RI), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). However, we must emphasize the preliminary character of the results of this retrospective "real-world-practice" study. These findings will be prospectively assessed in the ALL SCTped 2012 FORUM trial.
Outcomes of advanced Hodgkin lymphoma after umbilical cord blood transplantation: a Eurocord and EBMT Lymphoma and Cellular Therapy & Immunobiology Working Party study
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2018
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is an alternative for patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) but only limited data on unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) are available. We analyzed 131 adults with HL who underwent UCBT in EBMT centers from 2003 to 2015. Disease status at UCBT was complete remission (CR) in 59 (47%) and almost all patients had received a previous autologous stem cell transplantation. The 4-year PFS and OS were 26% (95% CI 19-34%) and 46% (95% CI 37-55%), respectively. Relapse incidence was 44% (95% CI 36-54%) and non-relapse mortality (NRM) was 31% (95% CI 23-40%) at 4 years. In multivariate analysis, refractory/relapsed disease status at UCBT was associated with increased relapse incidence (HR=3.14 [95% CI 1.41-7.00], p=0.005) and NRM (HR=3.61 [95% CI 1.58-8.27], p=0.002), lower PFS (HR=3.45 [95% CI 1.95-6.10], p<0.001) and OS (HR=3.10 [95% CI 1.60-5.99], p=0.001). Conditioning regimen with cyclophospamide+fludarabine+2Gy total body irradiation (Cy+Flu+2 GyTBI) was associated with decreased risk of NRM (HR=0.26 [95% CI 0.10-0.64], p=0.004). Moreover, Cy+Flu+2 GyTBI conditioning regimen was associated with a better OS (HR=0.25 [95% CI 0.12-0.50], p<0.001) and PFS (HR=0.51 [95% CI 0.27-0.96], p=0.04). UCBT is feasible in heavily pretreated patients with HL. The reduced intensity conditioning regimen with Cy+flu+2 GyTBI is associated with a better OS and NRM. However, outcomes are poor in patients not in CR at UCBT.
Solid organ transplantation after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in childhood: a multicentric retrospective survey
American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. 2018
We report data obtained from a retrospective multicenter pediatric survey on behalf of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). Information on Solid Organ Transplantation (SOT) performed in pediatric recipients of either autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) between 1984 and 2016 were collected in 20 pediatric EBMT Centers (25.6%). Overall, we evaluated data on 44 SOTs following HSCT including 20 liver (LTx), 12 lung (LuTx), 6 heart (HTx), and 6 kidney (KTx) transplantations. The indication for SOT was organ failure related to intractable Graft-versus-Host Disease in 16 children (36.3%), acute or chronic HSCT-related toxicity in 18 (40.9%) and organ dysfunction related to the underlying disease in 10 (22.8%). The median follow-up was 10.9 years (95% CI: 1.7-29.5). The overall survival (OS) rate at 1 and 5 years after SOT was 85.7% and 80.4%, respectively: it was 74% and 63.2% after LTx, 83.2% after HTx, and 100% equally after LuTx and KTx. This multicenter survey confirms that SOT represents a promising option in children with severe organ failure occurred after HSCT. Additional studies are needed to further establish the effectiveness of SOT after HSCT and to better understand the mechanism underlying this encouraging success. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Unrelated Cord Blood Transplantation for Acute Leukemia Diagnosed in the First Year of Life: Outcomes and Risk Factor Analysis
Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation. 2017;23(1):96-102
Infant acute leukemia still has a poor prognosis, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is indicated in selected patients. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an attractive cell source for this population because of the low risk of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), the strong graft-versus-leukemia effect, and prompt donor availability. This retrospective, registry-based study reported UCB transplantation (UCBT) outcomes in 252 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; n=157) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML; n=95) diagnosed before 1 year of age who received a single-unit UCBT after myeloablative conditioning between 1996 and 2012 in European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation centers. Median age at UCBT was 1.1 years, and median follow-up was 42 months. Most patients (57%) received a graft with 1 HLA disparity and were transplanted in first complete remission (CR; 55%). Cumulative incidence function (CIF) of day 100 acute GVHD (grades II to IV) was 40%+/-3% and of 4-year chronic GVHD was 13%+/-2%. CIF of 1-year transplant-related mortality was 23%+/-3% and of 4-year relapse was 27%+/-3%. Leukemia-free-survival (LFS) at 4 years was 50%+/-3%; it was 40% and 66% for those transplanted for ALL and AML, respectively (P=.001). LFS was better for patients transplanted in first CR, regardless of diagnosis. In multivariate model, diagnosis of ALL (P=.001), advanced disease status at UCBT (<.001), age at diagnosis younger than 3 months (P=.012), and date of transplant before 2004 were independently associated with worse LFS. UCBT is a suitable option for patients diagnosed with infant acute leukemia who achieve CR. In this cohort, patients with AML had better survival than those with ALL. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Outcomes after Unrelated Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation for Children with Osteopetrosis
Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation. 2016;22(11):1997-2002
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative treatment for most children with osteopetrosis (OP). Timing of HSCT is critical; therefore, umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) is an attractive option. We analyzed outcomes after UCBT in 51 OP children. Median age at UCBT was 6 months. Seventy-seven percent of the cord blood grafts had 0 or 1 HLA disparity with the recipient. Conditioning regimen was myeloablative (mostly busulfan-based in 84% and treosulfan-based in 10%). Antithymocyte globulin was given to 90% of patients. Median number of total nucleated and CD34+ cells infused was 14 x 107/kg and 3.4 x 105/kg, respectively. Median follow-up for survivors was 74 months. Cumulative incidence (CI) of neutrophil recovery was 67% with a median time to recovery of 23 days; 33% of patients had graft failure, 81% of engrafted patients had full donor engraftment, and 19% had mixed donor chimerism. Day 100 CI of acute graft-versus-host disease (grades II to IV) was 31% and 6-year CI of chronic graft-versus-host disease was 21%. Mechanical ventilation was required in 28%, and veno-occlusive disease was diagnosed in 16% of cases. Six-year overall survival rate was 46%. Comparative studies with other alternative donors should be performed to evaluate whether UCBT remains a valid alternative for children with OP without an HLA-matched donor. Copyright © 2016 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.