Antiemetic prophylaxis in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a multicenter survey of the Gruppo Italiano Trapianto Midollo Osseo (GITMO) transplant programs
Annals of hematology. 2020
A survey within hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) centers of the Gruppo Italiano Trapianto Midollo Osseo (GITMO) was performed in order to describe current antiemetic prophylaxis in patients undergoing HSCT. The multicenter survey was performed by a questionnaire, covering the main areas on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV): antiemetic prophylaxis guidelines used, antiemetic prophylaxis in different conditioning regimens, and methods of CINV evaluation. The survey was carried out in November 2016, and it was repeated 6 months after the publication of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC)/European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) specific guidelines on antiemetic prophylaxis in HSCT. The results show a remarkable heterogeneity of prophylaxis among the various centers and a significant difference between the guidelines and the clinical practice. In the main conditioning regimens, the combination of a serotonin3 receptor antagonist (5-HT3-RA) with dexamethasone and neurokin1 receptor antagonist (NK1-RA), as recommended by MASCC/ESMO guidelines, increased from 0 to 15% (before the publication of the guidelines) to 9-30% (after the publication of the guidelines). This study shows a lack of compliance with specific antiemetic guidelines, resulting mainly in under-prophylaxis. Concerted strategies are required to improve the current CINV prophylaxis, to draft shared common guidelines, and to increase the knowledge and the adherence to the current recommendations for CINV prophylaxis in the specific field of HSCT.
Influence of the insertion site on central venous catheter-related complications in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2020
Central venous catheters (CVC) are extensively used in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In these patients CVC are placed routinely either via the internal jugular vein (IJV) or the subclavian vein (SCV). Purpose of this study was to analyze systematically complications of CVC at different insertion sites in HCT patients. In this retrospective analysis, all consecutive patients (n=56) who received a CVC (n=101) due to allogeneic HCT at our institution from 01/2011 to 06/2013 were included. 3-lumen standard non-tunneled CVC were placed either via the IJV (n=60, 59%) or the SCV (n=41, 41%). Study end points were time to local inflammation at the insertion site and time to fever and a combined endpoint of both variables, central line associated blood stream infections (CLABSI), duration of catheterization, catheter lumen obstruction, deep-vein thrombosis, pneumothorax and catheter-related deaths. The median duration of catheterization per CVC was almost identical for the IJV and the SCV (18 vs. 17 days, ns.). There were no differences in the frequency of CLABSI, deep-vein thrombosis, pneumothorax and catheter lumen obstruction between IJV and SCV-CVC. None of the patients died CVC-related. Local inflammation occurred less frequently (48% vs. 71%, p=0.025) and later (median time to local inflammation 25 vs. 12 days, p=0.01) in IJV vs. SCV-CVCs. There was a trend towards a longer duration until the occurrence of fever for IJV-CVC (20 days) in comparison to SCV-CVC (13 days, p=0.07). In the multivariate analysis, diagnosis of acute leukemia (HR 1.696, p=0.036), SCV-CVC (HR 1.617, p= 0.039) and neutropenic CVC-days (HR 2.477, p=0.01) were identified as risk factors for the occurrence of local inflammation or fever. In contrast to earlier studies on patients without hematologic malignancies, these data demonstrate that CVC placed in the SCV are not superior over IJV-CVC. Moreover, local inflammation occurred earlier and more frequently in patients with SCV-CVC.
Effect of vitamin A on intestinal mucosal injury in pediatric patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and chemotherapy: a quasai-randomized trial
BMC research notes. 2020;13(1):464
OBJECTIVE Vitamin A is involved in maintenance of gut mucosal integrity and normal immune function. However, it is unclear whether these functions of vitamin A have any beneficial effects in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In this study, we aimed to examine the potential protective effect of vitamin A supplementation on gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal integrity in HSCT recipients using plasma citrulline as a surrogate marker of intestinal integrity. RESULTS We performed a quasi-randomized trial in 30 pediatric patients undergoing HSCT. Half (n?=?15) of the patients received a single high dose of vitamin A (200,000 IU) before the conditioning regimen was given, and half (n?=?15) did not. Clinical data of patients who developed post-transplant complications were recorded for 60 days after HSCT. There were no significant differences in mean plasma citrulline levels on day 7 after HSCT between the treatment and control groups (5.8 vs. 5.9 µmol/L, respectively). The incidence of mucositis and other complications were not different between the two groups within 60 days of HSCT. Vitamin A supplementation prior to HSCT in pediatric patients had no clinical benefit in protecting GI mucosal integrity.
Beyond depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms: Qualitative study of negative emotional experiences in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients
European journal of cancer care. 2020;:e13263
OBJECTIVE Psychological distress impacts a variety of health outcomes in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Focused qualitative studies on a wider range of psychological distress in HSCT patients are lacking. However, understanding the subtleties of psychological distress (e.g. fear, guilt, loss of control) in HSCT patients is imperative to optimising the psychological well-being of this vulnerable population. To explore psychological distress after transplantation, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 25 HSCT patients. METHODS Interviews were completed in the first 100 days after transplantation. Interview modules explored psychological distress symptoms in the hospital and during the first 100 days after HSCT, along with the perceived impact of these symptoms on their recovery. RESULTS Of the negative emotional experiences reported, feeling trapped, fear, guilt, discouragement and powerlessness were frequently expressed. Patients reported that negative emotional states interfered with their motivation to participate in health behaviours important to the transplant recovery. CONCLUSION As one of the few qualitative studies broadly characterising the nature of negative emotional experiences after HSCT, these findings add to our understanding of the specific psychological challenges in this growing patient population and can inform development of targeted interventions and overall management of psychological distress during HSCT recovery.
Nursing role in the assessment and care of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome patients: a consensus paper by the "Gruppo Italiano Trapianto di Midollo Osseo"
Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer. 2020
PURPOSE Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is one of the most serious complications post haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The diagnosis of SOS is clinical, but nurses should be involved in the pre-transplant risk assessment period and play a crucial role in the early detection of signs and symptoms during and after hospitalization. The aim of this work is to achieve a consensus on nurses' behaviour in caring for SOS. METHODS On behalf of the Italian Group for Bone and Marrow Transplantation (GITMO), a promoter committee was established to put in place a consensus conference approach. A multidisciplinary group of GITMO together with four nurses, three haematology physicians and one patient representative acted as jury, who reviewed the reports and wrote recommendations and suggestions. Recommendations gaining 100% of consensus were considered 'Golden Points of Care'; if a consensus was achieved by ≥ 75% of the jury's members, those recommendations were defined as 'Good Practices'. RESULTS Eighteen papers written by nurses as first authors have been identified. Golden Points of Care and Good Practices were worked out for the following topics: nurses' role in general, nurses' role in pre-transplant assessment, pre-transplant risk assessment and risk stratification, baseline monitoring, suspected mild or moderate SOS, suspected severe or very severe SOS and late-onset cases. CONCLUSION SOS is relatively rare; therefore, a holistic approach to the patients' needs considering nursing role as essential may result in better care outcomes.
Nutritional problems and their non-pharmacological treatment in adults undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation-A systematic review
European journal of cancer care. 2020;:e13298
OBJECTIVE This systematic review aimed to identify the most relevant problems related to malnutrition in adult patients undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and to identify non-pharmacological interventions to treat these problems. METHODS A systematic search for each research question was performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and reference lists in the period 2009-2019. RESULTS Six and nine studies were included respectively. Quantitative pooling of data was not possible due to the heterogeneity of the studies. Oral mucositis (OM), nausea/vomiting, diarrhoea and dysgeusia were the most frequently reported nutritional problems. Cryotherapy and laser therapy seem to be effective in the prevention and treatment of OM. Recommendations for or against the use of mouth rinses and light therapy in the treatment of OM cannot be made, as too few studies have been conducted in this area. The evidence for non-pharmacological treatment options in the case of nausea/vomiting and diarrhoea is rather limited. No study was identified with regard to treatment of dysgeusia. CONCLUSION Nutrition in HSCT patients has not yet been studied to a satisfactory extent. There is an urgent need for high-quality studies to be conducted in this area to optimise the care of patients undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Self-efficacy for symptom management in the acute phase of hematopoietic stem cell transplant: A pilot study
European journal of oncology nursing : the official journal of European Oncology Nursing Society. 2019;42:21-27
PURPOSE Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is an intensive treatment associated with distressing treatment and disease-related symptoms that affect patient outcomes such as functional status and quality of life. Self-efficacy for symptom management (SESM) is a person's belief in their ability to perform behaviors to prevent and relieve symptoms. Presence of SESM can impact symptom distress and functional status. This study describes the changes over time and relationships among SESM, symptom distress, and physical functional status in adults during the acute phase of HSCT. METHODS Patients (n=40) completed measures of symptom distress, SESM, and physical function at time points prior to and at days 7, 15 and 30 post-transplant. Clinical outcomes were length of stay and number of readmissions. RESULTS Symptom distress, physical function, and SESM changed significantly over time. There was a significant negative relationship between symptom distress and physical function and between symptom distress and SESM at all points. The lowest levels of SESM and physical function were at day 7 when symptom distress was highest. Symptom distress was a moderator for the relationship between physical function and SESM at day 15. CONCLUSION This was the first study to examine SESM in the acute phase of HSCT. Higher SESM was associated with fewer symptoms and increased physical function. Less symptom distress was associated with higher physical function and confidence to manage symptoms. These findings provide the basis for development of patient-centered interventions to enhance SESM when symptoms are at their highest immediately after HSCT.
Olanzapine as a rescue antiemetic in hematopoietic stem cell transplant
Journal of oncology pharmacy practice : official publication of the International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practitioners. 2019;:1078155219879215
BACKGROUND Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting occurs in up to 80% of patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment and is associated with a deterioration in quality of life. Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic antagonist blocking a variety of neurotransmitters in the nausea and vomiting pathophysiology. OBJECTIVES The primary objective of this study is to determine whether olanzapine is associated with improved breakthrough nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Secondary outcomes include number of documented emesis episodes, an evaluation of patient oral intake, and number of rescue antiemetic agents administered after olanzapine initiation. METHODS This is a retrospective cohort review examining the effects of olanzapine for the treatment of breakthrough nausea and vomiting following hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Patients undergoing autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant between January 2014 and October 2017 were included. RESULTS A total of 150 patients were included in the study. Olanzapine use was associated with a complete response in 30% of patients for breakthrough chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (p < 0.0001). An improvement in nausea (p < 0.0001) and vomiting (p = 0.02) was also observed in patients. Olanzapine administration was associated with lower as needed antiemetic usage (p < 0.0001) as well as fewer emesis episodes (p < 0.0001) but had no effect on oral intake (p = 0.13). CONCLUSIONS Olanzapine was associated with significant improvements in breakthrough nausea and vomiting control while reducing the number of emesis episodes and required antiemetic doses in the hematopoietic stem cell transplant population. Olanzapine may be beneficial in optimizing antiemetic regimens for breakthrough chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting control in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant.
Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for Multiple Myeloma: Growth Factor Matters
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2019
Engraftment syndrome (ES) is a known complication of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant during neutrophil recovery. There is a limited amount of data available comparing the incidence of ES with post-transplant G-CSF versus GM-CSF, specifically in patients with multiple myeloma. Our retrospective review of 156 patients at a single center showed that GM-CSF was associated with a higher incidence of ES compared with G-CSF (32% vs. 8% of patients, p<0.001) and that development of ES was associated with 32.9% (p<0.001) longer hospital stay. This suggests that the choice of growth factor could possibly contribute to the development of ES and the associated costs of increased medical care.
Low serum albumin levels prior to pediatric allogeneic HCT are associated with increased need for critical care interventions and increased 6-month mortality
Pediatric Transplantation. 2017;21(6):e13016
Poor nutritional status in HCT patients is a negative prognostic factor. There are no pediatric studies evaluating albumin levels prior to HCT and need for critical care interventions. We hypothesized that pediatric patients with low albumin levels, routinely measured 30 days (+/-10 days) prior to allogeneic HCT, have a higher risk of critical care interventions in the post-transplant period. We performed a 5-year retrospective study of pediatric patients who underwent allogeneic HCT for any indication. Patients were categorized based on albumin level. Hypoalbuminemia was defined as <3.1 g/dL. A total of 73 patients were included, with a median age of 7.4 years (IQR 3.3, 13.2). Patients with hypoalbuminemia had higher needs for critical care interventions including non-invasive ventilation (44% vs 8%, P=.01), mechanical ventilation (67% vs 17%, P<.01), and vasoactive therapy (56% vs 16%, P=.01). Patients with hypoalbuminemia also had a higher 6-month mortality (56% vs 17%, P=.02). Our data demonstrate that children undergoing allogeneic HCT with hypoalbuminemia in the pretransplant period are more likely to require critical care interventions and have higher 6-month mortality. These findings identify an at-risk population in which nutritional improvements may be instituted prior to HCT in hopes of improving outcomes.