Utilization of Palliative Care for Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation During Hospitalization: A Population-Based National Study
The American journal of hospice & palliative care. 2019;:1049909119838975
OBJECTIVE Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have substantial physical and psychological symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of palliative care (PC) in patients undergoing HSCT during hospitalization. METHODS The 2008-2014 National Inpatient Sample was queried for eligible participants. Demographics, hospital characteristics, comorbidities, posttransplantation complications, and inpatient procedures were compared between patients with and without PC. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify predictors associated with PC use. RESULTS Among 21 458 patients undergoing HSCT during hospitalization, 278 (1.30%) received PC. The rate of PC use has significantly increased from 0.64% in 2008 to 1.95% in 2014. Patients receiving PC had more co-comorbidities, posttransplantation complications, inpatient procedures, and were more likely to carry a diagnosis of leukemia. In allogeneic HSCT, large bed size (odds ratio [OR] =2.80; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-6.70), stem cell source from cord blood (OR = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.15-3.24), and graft-versus-host disease (OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.36-3.06) were predictors of PC use. In a subset analysis of 783 patients who died during hospitalization, 166 (21.20%) received PC. Among the decedents, Hispanic race had lower odds of PC use (OR = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.05-0.82) in allogeneic HSCT and women had higher odds of PC (OR = 2.70; 95% CI: 1.35-5.41) in autologous HSCT. CONCLUSIONS The rate of PC use has significantly increased among patients undergoing HSCT during hospitalization from 2008 to 2014 but still remains very low. Further investigation is warranted to verify and better understand the barriers toward PC use for HSCT patients.
End-of-Life Care Intensity in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Population-Level Analysis
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2018;:Jco2018780957
Purpose Intensity of end-of-life care receives much attention in oncology because of concerns that high-intensity care is inconsistent with patient goals, leads to worse caregiver outcomes, and is expensive. Little is known about such care in those undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), a population at high risk for morbidity and mortality. Patients and Methods We conducted a population-based analysis of patients who died between 2000 and 2013, within 1 year of undergoing an inpatient allogeneic HCT using California administrative data. Previously validated markers of intensity were examined and included: hospital death, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and procedures such as intubation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation at end of life. Multivariable logistic regression models determined clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with: hospital death, a medically intense intervention (ICU admission, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, hemodialysis, intubation), and ≥ two intensity markers. Results Of the 2,135 patients in the study population, 377 were pediatric patients (age ≤ 21 years), 461 were young adults (age 22 to 39 years), and 1,297 were adults (age ≥ 40 years). The most common intensity markers were: hospital death (83%), ICU admission (49%), and intubation (45%). Medical intensity varied according to age, underlying diagnosis, and presence of comorbidities at time of HCT. Patients with higher-intensity end-of-life care included patients age 15 to 21 years and 30 to 59 years, patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and those with comorbidities at time of HCT. Conclusion Patients dying within 1 year of inpatient allogeneic HCT are receiving medically intense end-of-life care with variations related to age, underlying diagnosis, and presence of comorbidities at time of HCT. Future studies need to determine if these patterns are consistent with patient and family goals.
Effect of Inpatient Palliative Care During Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplant on Psychological Distress 6 Months After Transplant: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial
Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2017;35(32):3714-3721
Purpose Inpatient palliative care integrated with transplant care improves patients' quality of life (QOL) and symptom burden during hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (HCT). We assessed patients' mood, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and QOL 6 months post-transplant. Methods We randomly assigned 160 patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent autologous or allogeneic HCT to inpatient palliative care integrated with transplant care (n = 81) or transplant care alone (n = 79). At baseline and 6 months post-transplant, we assessed mood, PTSD symptoms, and QOL with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire, PTSD checklist, and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplant. To assess symptom burden during HCT, we used the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale. We used analysis of covariance while controlling for baseline values to examine intervention effects and conducted causal mediation analyses to examine whether symptom burden or mood during HCT mediated the effect of the intervention on 6-month outcomes. Results We enrolled 160 (86%) of 186 potentially eligible patients between August 2014 and January 2016. At 6 months post-transplant, intervention participants reported lower depression symptoms on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire (adjusted mean difference, -1.21 [95% CI, -2.26 to -0.16; P = .024] and -1.63 [95% CI, -3.08 to -0.19; P = .027], respectively) and lower PTSD symptoms (adjusted mean difference, -4.02; 95% CI, -7.18 to -0.86; P = .013), but no difference in QOL or anxiety. Symptom burden and anxiety during HCT hospitalization partially mediated the effect of the intervention on depression and PTSD at 6 months post-transplant. Conclusion Inpatient palliative care integrated with transplant care leads to improvements in depression and PTSD symptoms at 6 months post-transplant. Reduction in symptom burden and anxiety during HCT partially accounts for the effect of the intervention on these outcomes.
Early Intervention With Transplantation Recipients to Improve Access to and Knowledge of Palliative Care
Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing. 2016;20(4):E88-92
BACKGROUND The literature continues to support that patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) receive early consultation with palliative care specialists. Nurses can be leaders in this initiative. OBJECTIVES This quality improvement project was conducted to determine whether patients undergoing HSCT, who were provided an early consultation with palliative care, would report increased knowledge and increased ability to access palliative services. METHODS Patients completed a postintervention questionnaire in which the majority of patients reported that they had increased knowledge about palliative care and learned how to access their services. FINDINGS Patient comments were positive about the successful intervention of early palliative care. The palliative care team, however, revealed a different view of the situation, showing that patients were often overwhelmed, anxious, and sometimes did not remember the content of their meetings.
End-of-Life Care Patterns Associated with Pediatric Palliative Care among Children Who Underwent Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant
Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation. 2016;22(6):1049-55
Stem cell transplantation (SCT) is an intensive therapy offering the possibility of cure for life-threatening conditions but with risk of serious complications and death. Outcomes associated with pediatric palliative care (PPC) for children who undergo SCT are unknown. Therefore, we evaluated whether PPC consultation is associated with differences in end-of-life (EOL) care patterns for children who underwent SCT and did not survive. Medical records of children who underwent SCT at Boston Children's Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute for any indication from September 2004 to December 2012 and did not survive were reviewed. Child demographic and clinical characteristics and PPC consultation and EOL care patterns were abstracted. Children who received PPC (PPC group) were compared with those who did not (non-PPC group). Children who received PPC consultation (n = 37) did not differ from the non-PPC group (n = 110) with respect to demographic or clinical characteristics, except they were more likely to have undergone unrelated allogeneic SCT (PPC, 68%; non-PPC, 39%; P = .02) or to have died from treatment-related toxicity (PPC, 76%; non-PPC, 54%; P = .03). PPC consultation occurred at a median of .7 months (interquartile range [IQR], .4 to 4.2) before death. PPC consultations most commonly addressed goals of care/decision-making (92%), psychosocial support (84%), pain management (65%), and non-pain symptom management (70%). Prognosis discussions (ie, the likelihood of survival) occurred more commonly in the PPC group (PPC, 97%; non-PPC, 83%; P = .04), as did resuscitation status discussions (PPC, 88%; non-PPC, 58%; P = .002). These discussions also occurred earlier in the PPC group, for prognosis a median of 8 days (IQR, 4 to 26) before death compared with 2 days (IQR, 1 to 13) in the non-PPC group and for resuscitation status a median of 7 days (IQR, 3 to 18) compared with 2 days (IQR, 1 to 5) in the non-PPC group (P < .001 for both of the timing of prognosis and resuscitation status discussions). The PPC group was also was more likely to have resuscitation status documented (PPC, 97%; non-PPC, 68%; P = .002). With respect to patterns of care, compared with non-PPC, the PPC group was as likely to die in a medicalized setting (ie, the hospital) (PPC, 84%; non-PPC, 77%; P = .06) or have hospice care (PPC, 22%; non-PPC, 18%; P = .6). However, among children who died in the hospital, those who received PPC were more likely to die outside the intensive care unit (PPC, 80%; non-PPC, 58%; P = .03). In addition, the PPC group was less likely to receive intervention-focused care such as intubation in the 24 hours before death (PPC, 42%; non-PPC, 66%; P = .02) or cardiopulmonary resuscitation (PPC, 3%; non-PPC, 20%; P = .03) at EOL. Children who received PPC for at least a month were more likely to receive hospice care (PPC, 41%; non-PPC, 5%; P = .01). Children who underwent SCT and did not survive were likely to die in a medicalized setting, irrespective of PPC. However, PPC was associated with less intervention-focused care and greater opportunity for EOL communication and advance preparation. In the intense, cure-oriented SCT setting, PPC may facilitate advance care planning in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2016 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pretransplantation Supportive and Palliative Care Consultation for High-Risk Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Patients
Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation. 2016;22(7):1299-305
Early palliative care (EPC) for patients with metastatic solid tumors is now standard of care, but the effect of EPC in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is less well understood. We studied the acceptability of pre-HCT EPC as measured by trial participation, changes in patient-reported outcomes, and follow-up with palliative care providers. English-speaking adults (age >17 years) with an HCT comorbidity index of > 3, relapse risk > 25%, or planned HLA-mismatched allogeneic or myeloablative HCT received EPC before HCT admission with monthly or more frequent visits. Twenty-two (69%) of 32 subjects provided consent; 2 were later excluded (HCT cancelled, consent retracted) for a 63% participation rate. Comfort with EPC was high (82% very comfortable). Subjects reported stable or improved mood and sense of hope, without apparent negative effects with a median of 3 visits. Follow-up surveys were returned by 75% of participants at 60 days and by 65% at 90 days. Four (20%) were admitted to the intensive care unit before day 100 and 3 (15%) received life-support measures. Five (25%) died with median follow-up of 14 months. EPC is feasible, acceptable, and has the potential to improve the HCT experience, whether or not the patient survives. EPC for HCT patients should be tested in a randomized trial. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.