Effect of vitamin A on intestinal mucosal injury in pediatric patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and chemotherapy: a quasai-randomized trial
BMC research notes. 2020;13(1):464
OBJECTIVE Vitamin A is involved in maintenance of gut mucosal integrity and normal immune function. However, it is unclear whether these functions of vitamin A have any beneficial effects in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In this study, we aimed to examine the potential protective effect of vitamin A supplementation on gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal integrity in HSCT recipients using plasma citrulline as a surrogate marker of intestinal integrity. RESULTS We performed a quasi-randomized trial in 30 pediatric patients undergoing HSCT. Half (n?=?15) of the patients received a single high dose of vitamin A (200,000 IU) before the conditioning regimen was given, and half (n?=?15) did not. Clinical data of patients who developed post-transplant complications were recorded for 60 days after HSCT. There were no significant differences in mean plasma citrulline levels on day 7 after HSCT between the treatment and control groups (5.8 vs. 5.9 µmol/L, respectively). The incidence of mucositis and other complications were not different between the two groups within 60 days of HSCT. Vitamin A supplementation prior to HSCT in pediatric patients had no clinical benefit in protecting GI mucosal integrity.
Nutritional problems and their non-pharmacological treatment in adults undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation-A systematic review
European journal of cancer care. 2020;:e13298
OBJECTIVE This systematic review aimed to identify the most relevant problems related to malnutrition in adult patients undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and to identify non-pharmacological interventions to treat these problems. METHODS A systematic search for each research question was performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and reference lists in the period 2009-2019. RESULTS Six and nine studies were included respectively. Quantitative pooling of data was not possible due to the heterogeneity of the studies. Oral mucositis (OM), nausea/vomiting, diarrhoea and dysgeusia were the most frequently reported nutritional problems. Cryotherapy and laser therapy seem to be effective in the prevention and treatment of OM. Recommendations for or against the use of mouth rinses and light therapy in the treatment of OM cannot be made, as too few studies have been conducted in this area. The evidence for non-pharmacological treatment options in the case of nausea/vomiting and diarrhoea is rather limited. No study was identified with regard to treatment of dysgeusia. CONCLUSION Nutrition in HSCT patients has not yet been studied to a satisfactory extent. There is an urgent need for high-quality studies to be conducted in this area to optimise the care of patients undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Low serum albumin levels prior to pediatric allogeneic HCT are associated with increased need for critical care interventions and increased 6-month mortality
Pediatric Transplantation. 2017;21(6):e13016
Poor nutritional status in HCT patients is a negative prognostic factor. There are no pediatric studies evaluating albumin levels prior to HCT and need for critical care interventions. We hypothesized that pediatric patients with low albumin levels, routinely measured 30 days (+/-10 days) prior to allogeneic HCT, have a higher risk of critical care interventions in the post-transplant period. We performed a 5-year retrospective study of pediatric patients who underwent allogeneic HCT for any indication. Patients were categorized based on albumin level. Hypoalbuminemia was defined as <3.1 g/dL. A total of 73 patients were included, with a median age of 7.4 years (IQR 3.3, 13.2). Patients with hypoalbuminemia had higher needs for critical care interventions including non-invasive ventilation (44% vs 8%, P=.01), mechanical ventilation (67% vs 17%, P<.01), and vasoactive therapy (56% vs 16%, P=.01). Patients with hypoalbuminemia also had a higher 6-month mortality (56% vs 17%, P=.02). Our data demonstrate that children undergoing allogeneic HCT with hypoalbuminemia in the pretransplant period are more likely to require critical care interventions and have higher 6-month mortality. These findings identify an at-risk population in which nutritional improvements may be instituted prior to HCT in hopes of improving outcomes.