Efficacy of minimal residual disease driven immune-intervention after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results of a prospective multicentric trial
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains a potentially curative and useful strategy in high-risk relapsing CLL. Minimal Residual Disease (MRD) assessment at 12 months post-HSCT is predictive of relapse. This phase 2 study aimed to achieve M12 MRD negativity (MRDneg) using MRD-driven immune-intervention (Md-PII) algorithm based on serial flow-cytometry blood MRD, involving cyclosporine tapering followed if failure by donor lymphocytes infusions. Patients had high-risk CLL according to 2006 EBMT consensus, in complete or partial response with lymphadenopathy < 5 cm and comorbidity score ≤ 2. Donors were HLA-matched sibling or matched unrelated (10/10). Forty-two enrolled patients with either 17p deletion (front-line, n=11; relapse n=16) or other high-risk relapse (n=15) received reduced intensity-conditioning regimen before HSCT and were submitted to Md-PII. M12-MRDneg status was achieved in 64% versus 14.2% before HSCT. With a median follow-up of 36 months (range, 19-53), 3-year overall survival, non-relapse mortality and cumulative incidence of relapse are 86.9% (95%CI, 70.8-94.4), 9.5% (95%CI, 3.7-23.4) and 29.6% (95%CI, 17.3-47.7). Incidence of 2-year limited and extensive chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) is 38% (95%CI, 23-53) and 23% (95%CI, 10-36) including 2 cases post Md-PII. Fifteen patients converted to MRDneg either after CsA withdrawal (n=12) or after cGVHD (n=3). As a time-dependent variable, MRDneg achievement at any time-point correlates with reduced relapse (HR=0.14 [0.04-0.53], p=0.004) and improvement of both progression free (HR=0.18 [0.06-0.6], p<0.005) and overall (HR: 0.18 [0.03-0.98], p=0.047) survival. These data highlight the value of MRD-driven immune-intervention to induce prompt MRD clearance in the therapy of CLL.
Conditioning regimen intensity and low-dose azacitidine maintenance after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia
Leukemia & lymphoma. 2020;:1-11
Azacitidine (AZA) maintenance following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) may reduce relapse risk and improve survival. Given logistic and toxicity-related challenges, identifying subgroups appropriate for this approach is an unmet need. Using data from two centers, we retrospectively compared event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) of AML and MDS patients who received AZA maintenance (n = 59) with historic controls (n = 90). Controls were selected according to the following criteria: no death, relapse, or Grade III-IV acute GVHD for 100 days after transplant. In multivariable analysis, AZA maintenance yielded significantly improved EFS (p = 0.019) and OS (p = 0.011). Outcomes differed according to regimen intensity. For reduced-intensity transplant, EFS (p = 0.004) and OS (p = 0.004) were significantly improved and equivalent to myeloablative transplant. A significant benefit following myeloablative transplant was not observed. Within the limitation of its retrospective nature, this study suggests that AZA maintenance improves outcomes following reduced-intensity HCT, comparable to myeloablative HCT.
Sorafenib Maintenance After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia With FLT3-Internal Tandem Duplication Mutation (SORMAIN)
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2020;:Jco1903345
PURPOSE Despite undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT), patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with internal tandem duplication mutation in the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 gene (FLT3-ITD) have a poor prognosis, frequently relapse, and die as a result of AML. It is currently unknown whether a maintenance therapy using FLT3 inhibitors, such as the multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib, improves outcome after HCT. PATIENTS AND METHODS In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase II trial (SORMAIN; German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00000591), 83 adult patients with FLT3-ITD-positive AML in complete hematologic remission after HCT were randomly assigned to receive for 24 months either the multitargeted and FLT3-kinase inhibitor sorafenib (n = 43) or placebo (n = 40 placebo). Relapse-free survival (RFS) was the primary endpoint of this trial. Relapse was defined as relapse or death, whatever occurred first. RESULTS With a median follow-up of 41.8 months, the hazard ratio (HR) for relapse or death in the sorafenib group versus placebo group was 0.39 (95% CI, 0.18 to 0.85; log-rank P = .013). The 24-month RFS probability was 53.3% (95% CI, 0.36 to 0.68) with placebo versus 85.0% (95% CI, 0.70 to 0.93) with sorafenib (HR, 0.256; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.65; log-rank P = .002). Exploratory data show that patients with undetectable minimal residual disease (MRD) before HCT and those with detectable MRD after HCT derive the strongest benefit from sorafenib. CONCLUSION Sorafenib maintenance therapy reduces the risk of relapse and death after HCT for FLT3-ITD-positive AML.
Recombinant human thrombopoietin promotes platelet engraftment after umbilical cord blood transplantation
Blood advances. 2020;4(16):3829-3839
Delayed platelet engraftment is a common complication after umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) accompanied by increased transplant-related complications or death. This study was designed to determine the safety and efficacy of recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) in promoting platelet engraftment after UCBT. A total of 120 patients scheduled to receive UCBT were randomly assigned to the rhTPO group (300 U/kg once daily from days 14 to 28 after UCBT, n = 60) or the control group (n = 60). The primary outcome was the 60-day cumulative incidence of platelet engraftment after single-unit cord blood transplantation. The 60-day cumulative incidence of platelet engraftment (platelet count =20 × 109/L) and the 120-day cumulative incidence of platelet recovery (platelet count =50 × 109/L) were both significantly higher in the rhTPO group than in the control group (83.1% vs 66.7%, P = .020; and 81.4% vs 65.0%, P = .032, respectively). In addition, the number of required platelet infusions was significantly lower in the rhTPO group than in the control group (6 vs 8 units, respectively; P = .026). The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment and the probability of 2-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and graft-versus-host disease-free relapse-free survival did not differ between the 2 groups. Other transplant-related outcomes and complications did not differ between the 2 groups, and no severe adverse effects were observed in patients receiving rhTPO. This study demonstrated that rhTPO is well tolerated in patients and could effectively promote platelet engraftment after UCBT. This study was registered on the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (http://www.chictr.org.cn/index.aspx) as ChiCTR-IPR-16009357.
Bortezomib Consolidation or Maintenance Following Immunochemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for Mantle Cell Lymphoma: CALGB/Alliance 50403
American journal of hematology. 2020
Immunochemotherapy followed by autologous transplant (ASCT) in CALGB/Alliance 59909 achieved a median progression-free survival (PFS) in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) of 5 years, but late recurrences occurred. We evaluated tolerability and efficacy of adding post-transplant bortezomib consolidation (BC) or maintenance (BM) to this regimen in CALGB/Alliance 50403, a randomized phase II trial. Following augmented-dose R-CHOP/ methotrexate, high-dose cytarabine-based stem cell mobilization, cyclophosphamide/carmustine/etoposide (CBV) autotransplant, and rituximab, patients were randomized to BC (1.3 mg/m2 IV days 1, 4, 8, 11 of a 3-week cycle for 4 cycles) or BM (1.6 mg/m2 IV once weekly x 4 every 8 weeks for 18 months) beginning day 90. The primary endpoint was PFS, measured from randomization for each arm. Proliferation signature, Ki67, and postinduction minimal residual disease (MRD) in bone marrow were assessed. Of 151 patients enrolled; 118 (80%) underwent ASCT, and 102 (68%) were randomized. Both arms met the primary endpoint, with median PFS significantly greater than 4 years (p < 0.001). The 8-year PFS estimates in the BC and BM arms were 54.1% (95% CI 40.9%-71.5%) and 64.4% (95% 51.8%-79.0%), respectively. PFS was significantly longer for transplanted patients on 50403 compared with those on 59909. PFS and OS were significantly better for those who were MRD-negative post-induction. High risk proliferation signature was associated with adverse outcome. Both BM and BC were efficacious and tolerable, although toxicity was significant. The comparison between studies 50403 and 59909 with long-term follow up suggests a PFS benefit from the addition of BC or BM post- transplant. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Patients with mantle cell lymphoma who had undergone augmented-dose R-CHOP/ methotrexate, high-dose cytarabine-based stem cell mobilization, cyclophosphamide/carmustine/etoposide (CBV) autotransplant (n=102)
Patients on study CALGB 50403, randomised to two arms: Bortezomib consolidation (1.3 mg/m2 IV days 1, 4, 8, 11 of a 3-week cycle for 4 cycles) (BC, n=50), Bortezomib maintenance (1.6 mg/m2 IV once weekly x 4 every 8 weeks for 18 months) (BM, n=52)
Patients on study CALGB 59909 who received the same transplant regimen but without post-transplant bortezomib (n=78)
Both arms of 50403 met the primary endpoint, with median PFS significantly greater than 4 years. The 8-year PFS estimates in the BC and BM arms were 54.1% and 64.4%, respectively. PFS was significantly longer for transplanted patients on 50403 compared with those on 59909. PFS and OS were significantly better for those who were MRD negative post-induction. High risk proliferation signature was associated with adverse outcome. Both BM and BC were efficacious and tolerable, although toxicity was significant.
Glasdegib as maintenance therapy for patients with AML and MDS patients at high risk for postallogeneic stem cell transplant relapse
Blood advances. 2020;4(13):3102-3108
Adverse event management in the TOURMALINE-MM3 study of post-transplant ixazomib maintenance in multiple myeloma
Annals of hematology. 2020
The phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled TOURMALINE-MM3 study (NCT02181413) demonstrated improved progression-free survival with ixazomib maintenance versus placebo post autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) in multiple myeloma patients. We report additional safety data from TOURMALINE-MM3 to inform adverse event (AE) management recommendations. Patients were randomized 3:2 to receive ixazomib (n = 395) or placebo (n = 261) on days 1, 8, and 15 of 28-day cycles for ~ 2 years or until progressive disease/toxicity. The initial 3-mg ixazomib dose was escalated to 4 mg in cycle 5, if tolerated in cycles 1-4. Safety was a secondary endpoint assessed in all treated patients; AEs were graded using Common Terminology Criteria for AEs v4.03. The rate of grade ≥ 3 AEs was higher in the ixazomib arm (19%) than in the placebo arm (5%), but the rate of discontinuation due to AEs was similar (7% vs. 5%). For AEs of clinical interest, rates were higher with ixazomib versus placebo: nausea 39% versus 15%, vomiting 27% versus 11%, diarrhea 35% versus 24%, thrombocytopenia 13% versus 3%, and peripheral neuropathy 19% versus 15%. However, the majority of events were low-grade, manageable with supportive therapy or dose reduction, and reversible, and did not result in discontinuation. There was no evidence of cumulative, long-term, or late-onset toxicity with ixazomib maintenance. Ixazomib is an efficacious and tolerable option for post-ASCT maintenance. AEs associated with ixazomib maintenance can be managed in the context of routine post-ASCT supportive care due to the limited additional toxicity. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02181413.
Health-related quality of life results from the IFM 2009 trial: treatment with lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone in transplant-eligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma
Leukemia & lymphoma. 2020;:1-11
The Intergroupe Francophone du Myelome 2009 trial (NCT01191060) assessed health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) receiving lenalidomide/bortezomib/dexamethasone (RVd) induction therapy followed by consolidation therapy with either autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) plus RVd (RVd-ASCT) or RVd-alone; both groups then received lenalidomide maintenance therapy for 1 year. Global HRQoL, physical functioning, and role functioning scores significantly improved for both cohorts from baseline to the end of consolidation and were sustained during maintenance and follow-up, with clinically meaningful changes (RVd-alone: p = .0002; RVd-ASCT: p < .001). Similarly, both groups showed clinically meaningful improvements from baseline in fatigue, pain, and disease symptom scores. Side effects of treatment scores remained stable. In the RVd-ASCT group, there was transient worsening in HRQoL immediately after ASCT. These findings suggest that the clinical improvements observed with RVd-based treatment are accompanied by overall improvements in HRQoL for patients with NDMM.
Immune Modulation Properties of Zoledronic Acid on TcRgammadelta T-Lymphocytes After TcRalphabeta/CD19-Depleted Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation: An analysis on 46 Pediatric Patients Affected by Acute Leukemia
Frontiers in immunology. 2020;11:699
TcRalphabeta/CD19-cell depleted HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) represents a promising new platform for children affected by acute leukemia in need of an allograft and lacking a matched donor, disease recurrence being the main cause of treatment failure. The use of zoledronic acid to enhance TcRgammadelta+ lymphocyte function after TcRalphabeta/CD19-cell depleted haplo-HSCT was tested in an open-label, feasibility, proof-of-principle study. Forty-six children affected by high-risk acute leukemia underwent haplo-HSCT after removal of TcRalphabeta+ and CD19+ B lymphocytes. No post-transplant pharmacological graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis was given. Zoledronic acid was administered monthly at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg/dose (maximum dose 4 mg), starting from day +20 after transplantation. A total of 139 infusions were administered, with a mean of 3 infusions per patient. No severe adverse event was observed. Common side effects were represented by asymptomatic hypocalcemia and acute phase reactions (including fever, chills, malaise, and/or arthralgia) within 24-48 h from zoledronic acid infusion. The cumulative incidence of acute and chronic GvHD was 17.3% (all grade I-II) and 4.8% (all limited), respectively. Patients given 3 or more infusions of zoledronic acid had a lower incidence of both acute GvHD (8.8 vs. 41.6%, p = 0.015) and chronic GvHD (0 vs. 22.2%, p = 0.006). Transplant-related mortality (TRM) and relapse incidence at 3 years were 4.3 and 30.4%, respectively. Patients receiving repeated infusions of zoledronic acid had a lower TRM as compared to those receiving 1 or 2 administration of the drug (0 vs. 16.7%, p = 0.01). Five-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) for the whole cohort were 67.2 and 65.2%, respectively, with a trend toward a better OS for patients receiving 3 or more infusions (73.1 vs. 50.0%, p = 0.05). The probability of GvHD/relapse-free survival was significantly worse in patients receiving 1-2 infusions of zoledonic acid than in those given ≥3 infusions (33.3 vs. 70.6%, respectively, p = 0.006). Multivariable analysis showed an independent positive effect on outcome given by repeated infusions of zoledronic acid (HR 0.27, p = 0.03). These data indicate that the use of zoledronic acid after TcRalphabeta/CD19-cell depleted haploHSCT is safe and may result in a lower incidence of acute GvHD, chronic GvHD, and TRM.
Response-adapted lenalidomide maintenance in newly diagnosed myeloma: results from the phase III GMMG-MM5 trial
The MM5 trial aimed at demonstrating a progression-free survival (PFS) difference in continued vs. response-adapted (in case of complete response, CR) lenalidomide (LEN) maintenance therapy (MT) in newly diagnosed, transplant-eligible multiple myeloma (MM). Patients were equally randomized to receive induction therapy with PAd (bortezomib/doxorubicin/dexamethasone) or VCD (bortezomib/cyclophosphamide/dexamethasone), high-dose melphalan and autologous blood stem cell transplantation, and LEN consolidation, followed by either LEN MT for a fixed duration of 2 years (LEN-2Y) or until achievement of CR (LEN-CR, intention-to-treat population n = 502): arms A1:PAd + LEN-2Y (n = 125), B1:PAd + LEN-CR (n = 126), A2:VCD + LEN-2Y (n = 126), B2:VCD + LEN-CR (n = 125). In the LEN-CR group (B1 + B2), n = 88/17.5% patients did not start or discontinued LEN MT due to CR. There was no PFS (p = 0.60, primary endpoint) nor overall survival (OS) (p = 0.15) difference between the four study arms. On pooled LEN MT strategies, OS (hazard ratio, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.42, p = 0.03) but not PFS (HR = 1.15, p = 0.20) was shorter in LEN-CR (B1 + B2) vs. LEN-2Y (A1 + A2) groups. PFS was shortened on landmark analyses from the start of LEN MT in patients being in CR in the LEN-CR group (LEN-CR vs. LEN-2Y, HR = 1.84, p = 0.02). OS from first progression was shortened in the LEN-CR vs. LEN-2Y group (HR = 1.60, p = 0.01). LEN MT should be applied beyond CR for at least 2 years.
Patients with newly diagnosed, transplant-eligible multiple myeloma (MM, n=502)
PAd or VCD conditioning followed by lenalidomide maintenance therapy (LEN) for two years. Arms: A1:PAd + LEN-2Y (n = 125), A2:VCD + LEN-2Y (n = 126),
PAd or VCD conditioning followed by lenalidomide maintenance therapy (LEN) until complete remission. Arms B1:PAd + LEN-CR (n = 126) B2:VCD + LEN-CR (n = 125)
In the LEN-CR group (B1 + B2), n = 88/17.5% patients did not start or discontinued LEN MT due to CR. There was no PFS nor overall survival (OS) difference between the four study arms. On pooled LEN MT strategies, OS but not PFS was shorter in LEN-CR (B1 + B2) vs. LEN-2Y (A1 + A2) groups. PFS was shortened on landmark analyses from the start of LEN MT in patients being in CR in the LEN-CR group. OS from first progression was shortened in the LEN-CR vs. LEN-2Y group.