Lasting Gammaproteobacteria profile changes characterized hematological cancer patients who developed oral mucositis following conditioning therapy
Journal of oral microbiology. 2020;12(1):1761135
Background: Oral mucositis (OM) is a common side effect of conditioning therapy implemented before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The role of oral microbiome in OM is not fully elucidated. Objective: To determine oral microbiome profile changes post-conditioning in HSCT patients who developed moderate OM, or mild to no OM. Design: Patient groups were: Muc0-1 with OM-score = 0-1 (43 paired samples) and Muc2 with WHO OM-score = 2 (36 paired samples). Bacterial DNA was isolated from oral samples (saliva, swabs of buccal mucosa, tongue, and supragingival plaque) at pre-conditioning (T 0 ), post-conditioning mucositis onset (T Muc ), and one-year post-conditioning (T Year ). 16S-rRNA gene next-generation sequencing was used to determine the relative abundance (RA) of >700 oral species. Alpha-diversity, beta-diversity and linear discriminant analyses (LDA) were performed Muc2 versus Muc0-1. Results: Muc2 oral microbiome alpha- and beta-diversity differed between T 0 and T Muc . Muc2 alpha-diversity and Muc0-1 beta-diversity did not differ between T 0 and T Year . T 0 to T Muc LDA scores were significant in Muc2 for Gammaproteobacteria. For Muc2 patients, the average RA decreased for Haemophilus parainfluenza, a species known as mucosal surfaces protector, but increased for Escherichia-Shigella genera. Conclusions: Post-conditioning OM might contribute to long-term oral microbiome changes affecting Gammaproteobacteria, in HSCT patients.
Prognostic impact of hyperbilirubinemia in the early phase after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Journal of Nippon Medical School = Nippon Ika Daigaku zasshi. 2020
BACKGROUND Liver dysfunction occurring after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may have various causes, but since these causes are difficult to identify in the early stages, therapeutic intervention may be delayed. It is, therefore, important to identify unfavorable prognostic factors of liver dysfunction as soon as possible. The objective of this study was to identify the unfavorable prognostic factors of liver dysfunction in the early post-transplant period. METHODS We defined liver dysfunction as the detection within 30 days of transplantation of elevated liver or biliary enzyme levels corresponding to Grade 2 in the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.0. We retrospectively investigated 82 patients who had undergone allogeneic HSCT at our institution. RESULTS Elevated liver or biliary enzyme levels were observed in almost half of the patients studied (n=40, 48.7%). Elevated total bilirubin (T-Bil) level was the most frequently observed unfavorable prognostic factor, having the greatest impact on overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and non-relapse mortality (NRM) (probability of unfavorable outcome in patients without elevated T-Bil level versus that in patients with elevated T-Bil level: OS, 58.9% vs. 15.4%, p < 0.001; PFS, 46.4% vs. 15.4%, p < 0.001; NRM, 10.7% vs. 53.8%, p < 0.001). Moreover, the probability of an unfavorable outcome increased in proportion to the degree of T-Bil elevation and the absence of improvements over time in the T-Bil level. CONCLUSION Our study showed that elevated T-Bil level is a major unfavorable prognostic factor of liver dysfunction after allogeneic HSCT.
Engraftment Syndrome and Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease: A Meta-Analysis
Hawai'i journal of health & social welfare. 2020;79(6):194-201
Engraftment syndrome (ES) has been associated with the surge of neutrophils and cytokines, which is similar to the presumed underlying pathophysiology behind acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). However, there has been no meta-analysis to evaluate the association; therefore, the team attempted to verify an association between ES and aGVHD through meta-analysis. The team searched for titles of articles in MEDLINE (PubMed), the Cochrane Library, and the EMBASE database up until December 2018 that evaluated the association between ES and aGVHD and conducted a random effect meta-analysis of 8 studies involving a total of 1,945 participants to report the pooled odds ratio (OR) for association of ES and aGVHD. The team found a significantly increased odds of developing aGVHD in patients with ES with the pooled OR of 2.76 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.64-4.63) and an I(2) (=) 64.5%. In conclusion, patients with ES have significantly higher odds of developing aGVHD compared to patients without ES.
Predicting sinusoidal obstruction syndrome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation with the EASIX biomarker panel
No biomarker panel is established for prediction of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome/veno-occlusive disease (SOS/VOD), a major complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). We compared the potential of the Endothelial Activation and Stress Index (EASIX), based on lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, and thrombocytes, with that of the SOS/VOD CIBMTR clinical risk score to predict SOS/VOD in two independent cohorts. In a third cohort, we studied the impact of endothelium-active prophylaxis with pravastatin and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDA) on SOS/VOD risk. The cumulative incidence of SOS/VOD within 28 days after alloSCT in the training cohort (Berlin, 2013-2015, n=446) and in the validation cohort (Heidelberg, 2002-2009, n=380) was 9.6% and 8.4%, respectively. In both cohorts, EASIX assessed at the day of alloSCT (EASIX-d0) was significantly associated with SOS/VOD incidence (p<0.0001), overall survival (OS) and non-relapse mortality (NRM). In contrast, the CIBMTR score showed no statistically significant association with SOS/VOD incidence, and did not predict OS and NRM. In patients receiving pravastatin/UDA, the cumulative incidence of SOS/VOD was significantly lower at 1.7% (p<0.0001, Heidelberg, 2010-2015, n=359) than in the two cohorts not receiving pravastatin/UDA. The protective effect was most pronounced in patients with high EASIX-d0. The cumulative SOS/VOD incidence in the highest EASIX-d0 quartiles were 18.1% and 16.8% in both cohorts without endothelial prophylaxis as compared to 2.2% in patients with pravastatin/UDA prophylaxis (p<0.0001). EASIX-d0 is the first validated biomarker for defining a subpopulation of alloSCT recipients at high risk for SOS/VOD. Statin/UDA endothelial prophylaxis could constitute a prophylactic measure for patients at increased SOS/VOD risk.
Improved detection of sinusoidal obstructive syndrome using pediatric-AYA diagnostic criteria and severity grading
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
New diagnostic criteria and severity grading for sinusoidal obstructive syndrome (SOS) among pediatric and adolescent young adult (AYA) patients have been recently endorsed by international consensus. The extent to which these have been adopted in the US remains unclear. We sought to assess the potential impact via retrospective application of these criteria among patients treated at a large academic center in the United States. This is a single center retrospective study of pediatric-AYA patients who underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) between July 2009 and 2019. The incidence of SOS was assessed using historic Baltimore and Seattle diagnostic criteria and compared with more recent guidelines (pEBMT) as proposed by the Paediatric Diseases Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Among 226 patients, application of the pEBMT diagnostic criteria was associated with a higher incidence (15.9%) and earlier time to diagnosis of SOS (by 2.5-3 days) compared with the modified Seattle (12.3%), and Baltimore (6.6%) criteria, respectively. The pEBMT criteria were sensitive and highly specific. Refractory thrombocytopenia was present in 75% of patients at diagnosis. Approximately 61% of patients with SOS were anicteric at diagnosis, though the majority (94.4%) developed hyperbilirubinemia as SOS progressed over a median time of 4 (1-57) days. Application of pEBMT criteria may have resulted in earlier indication for definitive treatment by 3 days. Timely diagnosis and administration of definitive treatment of SOS has been associated with improved outcomes. Prospective studies may better characterize the risk factors and natural course of SOS using pEBMT criteria.
Introduction of new pediatric EBMT criteria for VOD diagnosis: is it time-saving or money-wasting? : Prospective evaluation of pediatric EBMT criteria for VOD
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) is a potentially fatal complication following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We evaluated in prospective analysis the usefulness of the pediatric EBMT criteria for VOD diagnosis and their presumable impact on cost effectiveness and patients' outcome. Study included all 282 HSCT procedures performed in Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology and BMT in Wroclaw between January 2016 and March 2019. Data were compared with previous VOD research conducted in our center before year 2016. Twenty-five (8.9%) patients (median age 3.5 years) were diagnosed with VOD. Duration of defibrotide (DF) administration varied from 4 to 34 days (median: 16.5), with 96% response rate. Overall survival was 88%. If applying Baltimore and modified Seattle criteria, VOD incidence was 2.13% and 5.7%, respectively. Median diagnosis delay based on modified Seattle criteria was 3 days. Before 2016, VOD incidence was 4.9%, with 74% DF response rate (p = 0.033) and 56.2% OS (p = 0.008). After implementing new criteria length of hospitalization for VOD patients decreased by median of 12 days (p = 0.009). Earlier VOD diagnosis, facilitated by EBMT criteria, resulting in implementing immediate treatment significantly improved patients' outcome. Furthermore, it allows shortening of DF administration and minimizes length of hospital stay.
Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis and Graft Failure Following Unrelated Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation in Children
Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology. 2020
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is closely correlated with graft failure and poor prognosis. Because of its rarity, the incidence, risk factors, and optimal treatment strategy are unclear. We analyzed data from cases of HLH following umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) performed for pediatric patients at our center. Among 66 UCBT recipients, 5 developed HLH and imminent graft failure. The median time of diagnosis of HLH was 22 (range, 19 to 30) days after UCBT, and the cumulative incidence of HLH was 7.6% (95% confidence interval, 2.8-15.7) at day 60. In univariate analysis, the cumulative incidence of HLH was significantly higher in patients with infused CD34 cells <1.0x10/kg than in patients with higher CD34 cells. Patients with preengraftment infection showed a trend toward higher incidence of HLH compared with patients without any infection. All 5 patients with HLH received corticosteroids and low-dose etoposide (VP-16), with or without high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin. Following these treatments, successful engraftment was observed in 2 patients. Corticosteroids and low-dose VP-16 may be worthy of a trial before attempting salvage hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Further analyses are required to identify risk factors and to develop methods for prophylaxis, diagnosis, and treatment of HLH.
Paediatric patients who underwent umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) (n=66)
Identifying cases of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) following transplant
Among 66 UCBT recipients, 5 developed HLH and imminent graft failure. The median time of diagnosis of HLH was 22 (range, 19 to 30) days after UCBT, and the cumulative incidence of HLH was 7.6% at day 60. In univariate analysis, the cumulative incidence of HLH was significantly higher in patients with infused CD34 cells <1.0x10/kg than in patients with higher CD34 cells. Patients with preengraftment infection showed a trend toward higher incidence of HLH compared with patients without any infection. All 5 patients with HLH received corticosteroids and low-dose etoposide (VP-16), with or without high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin. Following these treatments, successful engraftment was observed in 2 patients.
Risk factors of non-invasive ventilation failure in hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome
Therapeutic advances in respiratory disease. 2020;14:1753466620914220
BACKGROUND Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) was one of the first-line ventilation supports for hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Successful NIV may avoid need for intubation. However, the influence NIV failure had on patients' outcome and its risk factors were hardly known. METHODS In this retrospective observational study, we reported risk factors and incidence of NIV failure in HSCT patients who were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with a diagnosis of ARDS and supported with mechanical ventilation, in a 5-year period. Patient outcomes, such as ventilator-free days, ICU-free days, and ICU mortality were also reported. RESULTS Of all the 94 patients included, 70 patients were initially supported with NIV. NIV failure occurred in 44 (63%) patients. Male sex, elevated serum galactomannan (GM) test, (1-3)-beta-D-glucan (BG) assay, or elevated serum creatinine level were risk factors for NIV failure. When compared with the NIV success group, failure of NIV was associated with much fewer ICU-free days (22 versus 0, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.62) and higher ICU mortality (9.5% versus 75.5%, p < 0.001, Pearson's r = 0.75). There was no difference in ICU-free days, ventilator-free days and ICU mortality between NIV failure and initial invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) groups. Patients who failed in NIV support had a higher ICU mortality (75.5%) than those who succeeded (9.5%). CONCLUSION In a small cohort of HSCT patients with mainly moderate severity of ARDS, male patients with elevated serum GM/BG test or serum creatinine level had a higher risk of NIV failure. Both NIV failure and initial IMV groups were characterized by high mortality rate and extremely low ICU-free days and ventilator-free days; failure of NIV support may further aggravate patient prognosis. The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.
Pathologic Hepatic Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Pattern in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation
Ultrasound in medicine & biology. 2020
Veno-occlusive disease (VOD) is a severe complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Its diagnosis is difficult, and ultrasound (US) has not been proven to be of additional diagnostic value. In the work described here, we prospectively analyzed the hepatic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) pattern before and after allo-SCT and correlated these results with the pre-allo-SCT VOD risk factors, clinical VOD findings and conventional US findings. Thirty consecutive patients who underwent allo-SCT and had at least one VOD risk factor were studied. B-Mode US and CEUS were longitudinally performed at defined time points before and after allo-SCT. The 1-min hepatic enhancement (OMHE) in CEUS was standardized to splenic enhancement and quantified using optical density (OD) measurement software. A hypo-OMHE was arbitrarily defined as pathologic (pOMHE) if the OD of the liver was less than 90% compared with the mean splenic OD. Twenty-one patients (70%) had a pOMHE, the occurrence of which peaked at day 10 after allo-SCT. The number of pre-treatment VOD risk factors significantly differed between the pathologic and non-pathologic OD groups. Together, patients undergoing allo-SCT frequently exhibit a pathologic hepatic CEUS pattern, which can be quantified by OD measurement and is suggestive of pre-clinical VOD or other hepatic pathologies.
Patterns of salivary microbiota injury and oral mucositis in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Blood advances. 2020;4(13):2912-2917
Oral mucositis (OM) is a common debilitating dose-limiting toxicity of cancer treatment, including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We hypothesized that the oral microbiome is disturbed during allogeneic HSCT, partially accounting for the variability in OM severity. Using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis, metabolomic profiling, and computational methods, we characterized the behavior of the salivary microbiome and metabolome of 184 patients pre- and post-HSCT. Transplantation was associated with a decrease in oral alpha diversity in all patients. In contrast to the gut microbiome, an association with overall survival was not detected. Among 135 patients given methotrexate for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis pre-HSCT, Kingella and Atopobium abundance correlated with future development of severe OM. Posttransplant, Methylobacterium species were significantly enriched in patients with severe OM. Moreover, the oral microbiome and metabolome of severe OM patients underwent distinct changes post-HSCT, compared with patients with no or mild OM. Changes in specific metabolites were well explained by microbial composition, and the common metabolic pathway was the polyamines pathway, which is essential for epithelial homeostasis. Together, our findings suggest that salivary microbial composition and metabolites are associated with the development of OM, offering new insights on pathophysiology and potential avenues of intervention.