Comparison of reduced-intensity/toxicity conditioning regimens for umbilical cord blood transplantation for lymphoid malignancies
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
To investigate which reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC)/reduced-toxicity conditioning (RTC) is superior for umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) for lymphoid malignancies, we retrospectively compared three widely used RIC/RTC regimens: fludarabine/melphalan/total body irradiation (FM-TBI, n = 524), fludarabine/cyclophosphamide/total body irradiation (FC-TBI, n = 96), and fludarabine/busulfan/total body irradiation or melphalan (FB-based, n = 159). Among patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (n = 314), there were no differences in overall survival (OS) by conditioning regimen. Among patients with malignant lymphoma (ML) (n = 465), FM-TBI and FC-TBI regimens had similar OS, whereas FB-based regimen had lower OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.73; P < 0.01) than did FM-TBI regimen due to higher non-relapse mortality (HR, 1.72; P = 0.02). In addition, mycophenolate mofetil-containing GVHD prophylaxis was associated with better OS than methotrexate-containing GVHD prophylaxis among patients who received FM-TBI (HR, 0.65; P = 0.03) and FC-TBI (HR, 0.25; P < 0.01) regimens due to a decreased relapse risk. In summary, our results suggest that all three RIC/RTC regimens have comparable clinical outcomes in ALL, while the FM-TBI or FC-TBI regimens combined with mycophenolate mofetil-containing GVHD prophylaxis is preferable in RIC/RTC-UCBT for ML. Large prospective studies are warranted to confirm these results.
Comparison of reduced-intensity conditioning regimens in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia >45 years undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation-a retrospective study by the Acute Leukemia Working Party of EBMT
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
The optimal reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) remains unclear. We retrospectively analyzed 417 patients > 45 years with ALL in first complete remission who underwent a matched sibling or unrelated allo-HSCT and compared outcomes between fludarabine/busulfan (FLUBU, n = 127), fludarabine/melphalan (FLUMEL, n = 190), and fludarabine-TBI (FLUTBI, n = 100) conditioning. At 2 years, there were no differences between the groups in terms of cumulative incidence (CI) of relapse (40% for FLUBU vs 36% for FLUMEL vs 41% for FLUTBI, p = 0.21); transplant-related mortality (TRM) (18% for FLUBU, 22% for FLUMEL, 14% for FLUTBI, p = 0.09); overall survival (55% for FLUBU, 50% for FLUMEL, 60% for FLUTBI, p = 0.62) or leukemia-free survival (43% for FLUBU, 42% for FLUMEL, 45% for FLUTBI, p = 0.99), but GVHD-relapse-free survival was significantly lower in the FLUTBI group than FLUBU and FLUMEL group (18% vs 35% vs 28%, p = 0.02). However, this difference was lost in the multivariate analysis when adjusted for the in vivo T-cell depletion. Finally, the FLUMEL regimen was shown to be an independent risk factor for a higher TRM (HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.05-3.72, p = 0.04). We conclude that the three most popular RIC regimens yield similar transplant outcomes.
Reduced-Intensity Conditioning with Busulfan and Fludarabine for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Yonsei medical journal. 2020;61(6):452-459
PURPOSE Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with optimal conditioning has helped better long-term survival in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This study investigated the efficacy and safety of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) with busulfan and fludarabine in adult ALL patients unfit for myeloablation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Records of 78 patients who underwent HSCT with RIC consisting of 3.2 mg/kg/day of busulfan for 2 or 3 days and 30 mg/m(2)/day of fludarabine for 5 or 6 days were analyzed. RESULTS The median age at diagnosis was 49 years. Over a median follow-up of 22 months, 2-year estimates of relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival were 57.4% and 68.7%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed a trend of improved RFS in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (hazard ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.26-1.08; p=0.080). The cumulative incidences of relapse and non-relapse mortality were 42.9% and 19.6%, respectively and one case of central nervous system relapse was noted. No hepatic veno-occlusive disease was reported. Grade II-IV acute GVHD and any grade chronic GVHD occurred in 21.1% and 41.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION RIC with busulfan and fludarabine is an effective and safe conditioning regimen for adult ALL patients unfit for myeloablation.
Minimal residual disease-based long-term efficacy of reduced-intensity conditioning versus myeloablative conditioning for adult Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia
BACKGROUND The sensitivity of Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) to reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) versus myeloablative conditioning (MAC) allogeneic HCT by minimal residual disease (MRD) kinetics is not well established. METHODS This study compared long-term outcomes based on MRD kinetics for 79 patients with RIC transplants and 116 patients with MAC transplants in first complete remission (CR1) after tyrosine kinase inhibitor-based chemotherapy (median follow-up, 67.1 months). MRD monitoring was centrally evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction for all patients. RESULTS RIC showed a cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR; 30.6% vs 31.7%), nonrelapse mortality (17.5% vs 14.9%), disease-free survival (DFS; 51.9% vs 53.4%), and overall survival (61.1% vs 61.4%) comparable to those associated with MAC. In all MRD kinetics-based subgroups, no differences in CIR (early complete molecular response [CMR], 19.3% vs 4.8%; early major molecular response [MMR], 17.0% vs 26.8%; late CMR, 20.0% vs 14.3%; late MMR, 28.3% vs 31.0%; poor molecular response [PMR], 57.9% vs 62.4%) or DFS (early CMR, 71.6% vs 76.2%; early MMR, 66.9% vs 52.1%; late CMR, 50.0% vs 64.3%; late MMR, 50.7% vs 53.7%; PMR, 31.6% vs 34.1%) were observed between RIC and MAC. In a multivariate analysis, the conditioning intensity had no significant impact on transplantation outcomes. CONCLUSIONS RIC is a valid alternative choice for long-term disease control and is worthy of further investigation in prospective trials for adult Ph-positive ALL in CR1.