Fludarabine, busulfan, and low-dose TBI conditioning versus cyclophosphamide and TBI in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Leukemia & lymphoma. 2018;:1-10
The optimal conditioning regimen for adults undergoing transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains undetermined. Cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (Cy/TBI) has emerged as a standard myeloablative regimen but is associated with significant toxicity. We compared outcomes between patients undergoing transplant for ALL at centers using Cy/TBI as standard of care and another center using fludarabine, busulfan, and low-dose TBI (400 cGy) in combination with anti-thymocyte globulin as its standard. Among 146 patients (74 Cy/TBI and 72 Flu/Bu/TBI) there were no significant differences in overall or progression-free survival between groups. Non-relapse mortality was similar (12% vs. 16.7% for Cy/TBI and Flu/Bu/TBI, respectively, p = .62) despite the Flu/Bu/TBI group having significantly worse performance status. Flu/Bu/TBI resulted in significantly lower cumulative incidence of relapse compared with Cy/TBI (2-year point estimate 18.5% vs. 31.5%, p = .05). These results demonstrate similar outcomes for patients receiving Flu/Bu/TBI versus Cy/TBI. Flu/Bu/TBI may allow the possibility of providing myeloablative conditioning to patients with poor performance status.
Cyclophosphamide versus etoposide in combination with total body irradiation as conditioning regimen for adult patients with Ph-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplant: On behalf of the ALWP of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
American journal of hematology. 2018
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) with myeloablative conditioning based on total body irradiation (TBI) is widely used for the treatment of adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). TBI is most frequently administered in combination with either cyclophosphamide (Cy/TBI) or etoposide (Vp/TBI). The goal of this study was to retrospectively compare these two regimens. Adult patients with Ph-negative ALL treated with alloHCT in first or second complete remission who received Cy/TBI (n = 1346) or Vp/TBI (n = 152) conditioning were included in the analysis. In a univariate analysis, as compared to Cy/TBI, the use of Vp/TBI was associated with reduced incidence of relapse (17% vs. 30% at 5 years, P = .007), increased rate of leukemia-free survival (60% vs. 50%, P = .04), and improved "graft versus host disease (GVHD) and relapse-free survival" (GRFS, 43% vs. 33%, P = .04). No significant effect could be observed in terms of the incidence of nonrelapse mortality or acute or chronic GVHD. In a multivariate model, the use of Vp/TBI was associated with reduced risk of relapse (HR = 0.62, P = .04) while the effect on other study end-points was not significant. In conclusion, conditioning regimen based on Vp combined with TBI appears more effective for disease control than the combination of Cy with TBI for adult patients with Ph-negative ALL treated with alloHCT.
[Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using myeloablative conditioning including total body irradiation for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a single-center retrospective analysis]
[Rinsho ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology. 2018;59(4):373-382
This study aimed to investigate the clinical outcomes of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with total body irradiation-based myeloablative conditioning (TBI-MAC) in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We retrospectively examined patients with ALL who underwent HSCT with TBI-MAC from January 2000 to August 2016 at our institute. We enrolled 67 patients with a median follow-up period of 8 years. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 51.2% and 59.6%, respectively. At the first complete remission, HSCT exhibited significantly superior EFS and OS in our patients than that in patients with other diseases. We encountered 57.9% of patients with at least one late complication. Major late complications were short stature (26.3%) and hypogonadism (18.4%). While late complications were observed in several recipients of HSCT, late complication-related deaths occurred in three patients. The TBI-MAC regimen led to favorable clinical outcomes in pediatric patients with ALL who underwent HSCT. Thus, proper evaluation and management of late complications are mandatory.
Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Results from a Single Center, 1993-2011
International Journal of Hematology Oncology & Stem Cell Research. 2017;11(1):58-62
Background: For adult ALL patients, the indications and appropriate timing of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) continue to be debated. The primary aim of this single-institution study was to compare the results of our adult ALL patients that had been allografted with those reported in the current literature. Subjects and Methods: This study included 53 consecutive adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) with myeloablative (92%) and reduced-intensity (8%) conditioning between 1993 and 2011. Results: Mean patient age was 27 years (SD:8.62) and donor age was 33.7 years (SD:9.47). Fourteen patients were in first remission; 21 in >=2nd remission, 15 in relapse and 3 had primary refractory leukemia. Thirty-four, 15 and 4 patients received busulfan plus cyclophosphamide, cyclophosphamide/total body irradiation and fludarabine-based regimens, respectively. For graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, cyclosporine plus methotrexate were used. Forty-six donors were related and 7 were unrelated. Thirty patients received granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilized peripheral blood and 23 received bone marrow as stem cell source. Twenty-six patients relapsed at a mean duration of 11.3 months (SD:19.1). Forty-four patients succumbed to their disease after a mean follow-up of 13.6 months (SD:19.5). The cause of mortality was relapse (n=24; 54.5%) and transplant-related etiologies (n=20; 45.5%). The estimated five year probabilities of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 37% and 12%, respectively. Conclusion: By multivariate analyses, transplantation in first remission was the most important predictor of transplant success.
Clofarabine Plus Busulfan is an Effective Conditioning Regimen for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Long-Term Study Results
Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation. 2017;23(2):285-292
We investigated the long-term safety and disease control data obtained with i.v. busulfan (Bu) combined with clofarabine (Clo) in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). A total of 107 patients, median age 38 years (range, 19 to 64 years) received a matched sibling donor (n=52) or matched unrelated donor (n=55) transplant for ALL in first complete remission (n=62), second complete remission (n=28), or more advanced disease (n=17). Nearly one-half of the patients had a high-risk cytogenetic profile as defined by the presence of t(9;22) (n=34), t(4;11) (n=4), or complex cytogenetics (n=7). Clo 40mg/m2 was given once daily, with each dose followed by pharmacokinetically dosed Bu infused over 3 hours daily for 4 days, followed by hematopoietic cell infusion after 2 days of rest. The Bu dose was based on the drug clearance as determined by a test Bu dose of 32mg/m2. The target daily area under the curve was 5500 micro mol/min for patients aged <60 years and 4000 micro mol/min for patients aged >59 years. With a median follow-up of 3.3 years among surviving patients (range, 1 to 5.8 years), the 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) for patients undergoing HSCT in first complete remission (CR1), second complete remission (CR2), or more advanced disease was 62%, 34%, and 35%, respectively. The regimen was well tolerated, with nonrelapse mortality (NRM) of 10% at 100 days and 31% at 2 years post-HSCT. The incidence of grade II-IV and III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 35% and 10%, respectively; 18% patients developed extensive chronic GVHD. The 2-year overall survival (OS) for patients undergoing HSCT in CR1, CR2, or more advanced disease was 70%, 57%, and 35%, respectively. Among 11 patients aged >59 years treated with reduced-dose Bu in CR1 (n=7) or CR2 (n=4), 4 remain alive and disease-free, with a median follow-up of 2.6 years (range, 2 to 4.7 years). Only the presence of minimal residual disease at the time of transplantation was associated with significantly worse PFS and OS in multivariate analysis. Our data indicate that the Clo-Bu combination provides effective disease control while maintaining a favorable safety profile. OS and NRM rates compare favorably with those for traditional myeloablative total body irradiation-based conditioning regimens. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Factors Associated with Long-Term Risk of Relapse after Unrelated Cord Blood Transplantation in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission
Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation. 2017;23(8):1350-1358
For pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), relapse is an important cause of treatment failure after unrelated cord blood transplant (UCBT). Compared with other donor sources, relapse is similar or even reduced after UCBT despite less graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We performed a retrospective analysis to identify risk factors associated with the 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse after UCBT. In this retrospective, registry-based study, we examined the outcomes of 640 children (<18 years) with ALL in first complete remission (CR1; n=257, 40%) or second complete remission (CR2; n=383, 60%) who received myeloablative conditioning followed by a single-unit UCBT from 2000 to 2012. Most received antithymocyte globulin (88%) or total body irradiation (TBI; 69%), and cord blood grafts were primarily mismatched at 1 (50%) or 2+ (34%) HLA loci. Considering patients in CR1, the rates of 5-year overall survival (OS), leukemia-free survival (LFS), and relapse were 59%, 52%, and 23%, respectively. In multivariate analysis (MVA), acute GVHD (grades II to IV) and TBI protected against relapse. In patients in CR2, rates of 5-year OS, LFS, and the cumulative incidence of relapse were 46%, 44%, and 28%, respectively. In MVA, longer duration from diagnosis to UCBT (>=30 months) and TBI were associated with decreased relapse risk. Importantly, receiving a fully HLA matched graft was a strong risk factor for increased relapse in MVA. An exploratory analysis of all 640 patients supported the important association between the presence of acute GVHD and less relapse but also demonstrated an increased risk of nonrelapse mortality. In conclusion, the impact of GVHD as a graft-versus-leukemia marker is evident in pediatric ALL after UCBT. Strategies that promote graft-versus-leukemia while harnessing GVHD should be further investigated.
[The curative efficacy of unrelated umbilical cord blood stem cells transplantation in intensified myeloablative conditioned patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia]. [Chinese]
Chung-Hua Nei Ko Tsa Chih Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine. 2016;55(3):191-5
OBJECTIVE To retrospectively analyze the efficacy of unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) with intensified myeloablative conditioning regimen in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). METHODS From September 2006 to December 2013, a total of 110 consecutive patients with ALL had received UCBT, including 79 male and 31 female patients with a median age of 14(2-51) years, a median weight of 45(12-100)kg. Sixty-one cases were in the first complete remission (CR), 30, 6 and 13 patients in the second, the third CR and advanced stages respectively. The conditioning regimen consisted of total body irradiation, cyclophosphamide and cytarabine (TBI/Cy/Ara-C) in 61 patients, busulfan, cyclophosphamide and fludarabine (BU/Cy/Flu) in 39 patients and BU/Cy/Ara-C in 10 patients. All patients received a combination of cyclosporine (CsA) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for the prophylaxis of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). RESULTS The median amount of total nuclear cells(TNC) and CD34(+) cells were 3.90(1.97-13.50)x10(7)/kg and 2.07(0.40-5.56)x10(5)/kg. The cumulative incidence of sustained donor engraftment was 94.5% (95% CI 94.5%-94.6%) at a median of 18 days after transplantation (range, 12-37 days). The cumulative incidence of platelet recovery at 180 days after transplantation was 82.1% (95% CI 81.8%-82.4%) with a median time to recovery of 40 (range, 15-153) days. Incidences of grade II~IV and III~IV acute GVHD were 21.8% and 10.9% respectively. The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 17.9%. During a median follow up period of 26 (range 6-94) months, the disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates at 3 years were 54.5% and 58.8%, respectively. The transplantation-related mortality (TRM) at 180 days after transplantation was 22.7%. The cumulative incidence of 3-year relapse rate was 18.3% (95% CI 17.9%-18.6%). CONCLUSIONS UCBT with intensified myeloablative conditioning regimen not only improves the donor engraftment, but also shortens the interval of neutrophil and platelet recovery. It is a safe and effective option for children and adult ALL patients lack of matched related donors.