Myeloablative haploidentical BMT with posttransplant cyclophosphamide for hematologic malignancies in children and adults
Blood advances. 2020;4(16):3913-3925
Promising results have been reported for patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies undergoing HLA-haploidentical bone marrow transplantation (haploBMT) with posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy), but there are few data on outcomes with myeloablative conditioning in this context. We report the results of a single-institution, prospective phase 2 trial of myeloablative haploBMT using busulfan-based or total body irradiation-based conditioning in 96 children or adults (median age, 42 years; range, 1-65 years) with high-risk hematologic malignancies. Recovery of neutrophils and platelets occurred at a median of 24 and 29 days. Engraftment of donor cells with chimerism >95% was achieved in 91%. The cumulative incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grades II to IV and grades III to IV at day 100 was 11% and 4%, and of chronic GVHD at 6 and 12 months was 4% and 15%, with 6% moderate to severe. The cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality was 6% at 100 days and 11% at 1 year (19% in those aged >55 years). The cumulative incidence of relapse at 1 year was 35%; at 3 years, it was 43%. In multivariable analysis, relapse was associated with increased age (P = .02 for age 20-55 years and P = .02 for age >55 years) and with minimal residual disease before transplantation (P = .05). The overall survival at 1 and 3 years is 73% and 54%, and event-free survival at 1 and 3 years is 57% and 49%. We show that haploBMT with PTCy after myeloablative conditioning is safe and efficacious for adult and pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies. Careful consideration must be given to using myeloablative conditioning in patients age >55 years. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00796562.
Late effects after ablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation for adolescent and young adult acute myeloid leukemia
Blood advances. 2020;4(6):983-992
There is marked paucity of data regarding late effects in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) who undergo myeloablative conditioning (MAC) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We evaluated late effects and survival in 826 1-year disease-free survivors of MAC HCT for AYA AML, with an additional focus on comparing late effects based upon MAC type (total body irradiation [TBI] vs high-dose chemotherapy only). The estimated 10-year cumulative incidence of subsequent neoplasms was 4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2%-6%); 10-year cumulative incidence of nonmalignant late effects included gonadal dysfunction (10%; 95% CI, 8%-13%), cataracts (10%; 95% CI, 7%-13%), avascular necrosis (8%; 95% CI, 5%-10%), diabetes mellitus (5%; 95% CI, 3%-7%), and hypothyroidism (3%; 95% CI, 2%-5%). Receipt of TBI was independently associated with a higher risk of cataracts only (hazard ratio [HR], 4.98; P < .0001) whereas chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) was associated with an increased risk of cataracts (HR, 3.22; P = .0006), avascular necrosis (HR, 2.49; P = .006), and diabetes mellitus (HR, 3.36; P = .03). Estimated 10-year overall survival and leukemia-free survival were 73% and 70%, respectively, and did not differ on the basis of conditioning type. In conclusion, late effects among survivors of MAC HCT for AYA AML are frequent and are more closely linked to cGVHD than type of conditioning.
Myeloablative unrelated cord blood transplantation in adolescents and young adults with acute leukemia
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2019
Outcomes for adolescents and young adults (AYA) with leukemia differ from other age groups but are still underrepresented in clinical research. The aim of this study was to analyze outcomes of umbilical cord blood transplant (UCBT) in AYA with acute leukemia reported to Eurocord/EBMT. Patients (n=504) had acute lymphoblastic (59%) or myeloid leukemia (41%), were aged 15-25 years, and received UCBT after myeloablative conditioning regimens between 2004 and 2016. Primary endpoint was 3-year overall survival (OS). Median follow-up was 3.9 years. Transplant was single in 58% and double UCBT in 42%. Three-year OS was 45% and leukemia free survival (LFS) was 41%. Cumulative incidence functions (CIF) of non-relapse mortality (NRM) and relapse were 31% and 28%, respectively. CIF of acute GVHD grade II-IV at day-100 was 28%. Three-year CIF of chronic GVHD was 25%. In adjusted analysis, better disease status at UCBT (HR 2.74, p <0.001) and more recent UCBT (HR 1.43, p=0.01) were associated with increased OS and a similar effect of these factors was observed on LFS. Contrastingly, the use of ATG had a negative effect in LFS. The risk of acute GVHD grade II-IV increased with the use of double UCBT (HR 1.65, p =0.02) and decreased with more recent transplantation period (HR 0.65, p=0.02) and ATG use (HR 0.55, p =0.01). Outcomes of AYA UCBT improved in more recent years becoming comparable to pediatric results. Demonstrating the feasibility of UCBT in AYA facilitates stem cell source selection and provides the basis for future prospective studies.
Adolescents and young adults with acute leukaemia (n=504)
Unrelated cord blood transplantation after myeloablative conditioning
Three-year overall survival (OS) was 45% and leukemia free survival (LFS) was 41%. Cumulative incidence functions (CIF) of non-relapse mortality (NRM) and relapse were 31% and 28%, respectively. CIF of acute GVHD grade II-IV at day-100 was 28%. Three-year CIF of chronic GVHD was 25%. In adjusted analysis, better disease status at UCBT and more recent UCBT were associated with increased OS and a similar effect of these factors was observed on LFS. Contrastingly, the use of ATG had a negative effect in LFS. The risk of acute GVHD grade II-IV increased with the use of double UCBT and decreased with more recent transplantation period and ATG use.
Pharmacokinetics analysis results are similar for oral compared to intravenous busulfan in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, except for the earlier onset of mucositis. A controlled clinical study
Bone marrow transplantation. 2019
Busulfan is used in myeloablative schemes for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with monitoring of dosage through the area under the curve (AUC) of the drug plasma concentration (microMol min). In this study, we compared the complete pharmacokinetics of busulfan administered orally (Bu-Oral) and intravenously (Bu-IV). We evaluated 40 patients who underwent HSCT with different types of conditioning regimens. After one dose, in the Bu-Oral group (n = 21), the median AUC was 1174 microMol min (799-4000), reaching a median of 4440 microMol min (3428-7181.5) during conditioning in 24 h. In the Bu-IV group (n = 19), it was 1244.8 microMol min (1001.2-2021), reaching 5598.0 microMol min (3102-8818) during conditioning in 24 h. Measuring plasma concentration of Bu in patients undergoing HSCT is important, regardless of the formulation, and the inclusion of a pre-HSCT test can predict the optimal dose during conditioning. Pharmacokinetics of the oral administration of busulfan, as well as clearance, are extremely variable, and this can potentially compromise the clinical results of the treatment since it makes it difficult to predict clinical results.
Myeloablation followed by autologous stem cell transplantation normalises systemic sclerosis molecular signatures
Annals of the rheumatic diseases. 2019
OBJECTIVE In the randomised scleroderma: Cyclophosphamide Or Transplantation (SCOT trial) (NCT00114530), myeloablation, followed by haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), led to improved clinical outcomes compared with monthly cyclophosphamide (CYC) treatment in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Herein, the study aimed to determine global molecular changes at the whole blood transcript and serum protein levels ensuing from HSCT in comparison to intravenous monthly CYC in 62 participants enrolled in the SCOT study. METHODS Global transcript studies were performed at pretreatment baseline, 8 months and 26 months postrandomisation using Illumina HT-12 arrays. Levels of 102 proteins were measured in the concomitantly collected serum samples. RESULTS At the baseline visit, interferon (IFN) and neutrophil transcript modules were upregulated and the cytotoxic/NK module was downregulated in SSc compared with unaffected controls. A paired comparison of the 26 months to the baseline samples revealed a significant decrease of the IFN and neutrophil modules and an increase in the cytotoxic/NK module in the HSCT arm while there was no significant change in the CYC control arm. Also, a composite score of correlating serum proteins with IFN and neutrophil transcript modules, as well as a multilevel analysis showed significant changes in SSc molecular signatures after HSCT while similar changes were not observed in the CYC arm. Lastly, a decline in the IFN and neutrophil modules was associated with an improvement in pulmonary forced vital capacity and an increase in the cytotoxic/NK module correlated with improvement in skin score. CONCLUSION HSCT contrary to conventional treatment leads to a significant 'correction' in disease-related molecular signatures.
Donor KIR2DS1 reduces the risk of transplant related mortality in HLA-C2 positive young recipients with hematological malignancies treated by myeloablative conditioning
PloS one. 2019;14(6):e0218945
BACKGROUND Recognition of HLA-C2 group alleles on recipient cells by activating killer immunoglobulin like receptors, KIR2DS1 on donor natural killer cells may lead to increased graft-versus-leukemia effect or immunomodulation in patients treated by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) influencing disease free and overall survival (OS). OBJECTIVE In the present study, 314 consecutive, allo-HSCT recipient and donor pairs were included with retrospective donor KIR-genotyping and clinical parameters analyzes. RESULTS After a median follow-up of 23.6 months, recipients with HLA-C2 group allele (rC2) showed improved (p = 0.046) OS if transplanted with KIR2DS1 positive donors (d2DS1) compared to those without one or both of this genetic attribute. Within the myeloablative conditioning (MAC) subgroup (n = 227), rC2 homozygous+d2DS1 patients (n = 14) showed a 5 years OS of 93% followed by rC2 heterozygous+d2DS1 patients (n = 48, 65%) compared to rC2 and/or d2DS1 negatives (47%, p = 0.018). Multivariate analyses indicated rC2+d2DS1 positivity as an independent predictor of OS (HR:0.47, 0.26-0.86, p = 0.014) besides donor type, presence of CMV-reactivation or chemoresistant disease. Among MAC-treated patients, the combined rC2+d2DS1 presence was associated with a markedly decreased cumulative incidence of transplant related mortality (p = 0.0045). CONCLUSION The combination of rC2+d2DS1 may be a favorable genetic constellation in allo-HSCT with MAC potentially reducing transplant related mortality.
Increased overall and bacterial infections following myeloablative allogeneic HCT for patients with AML in CR1
Blood advances. 2019;3(17):2525-2536
Presumably, reduced-intensity/nonmyeloablative conditioning (RIC/NMA) for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) results in reduced infections compared with myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimens; however, published evidence is limited. In this Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research study, 1755 patients (aged ≥40 years) with acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission were evaluated for infections occurring within 100 days after T-cell replete alloHCT. Patients receiving RIC/NMA (n = 777) compared with those receiving MAC (n = 978) were older and underwent transplantation more recently; however, the groups were similar regarding Karnofsky performance score, HCT-comorbidity index, and cytogenetic risk. One or more infections occurred in 1045 (59.5%) patients (MAC, 595 [61%]; RIC/NMA, 450 [58%]; P = .21) by day 100. The median time to initial infection after MAC conditioning occurred earlier (MAC, 15 days [range, <1-99 days]; RIC/NMA, 21 days [range, <1-100 days]; P < .001). Patients receiving MAC were more likely to experience at least 1 bacterial infection by day 100 (MAC, 46% [95% confidence interval (CI), 43-49]; RIC/NMA, 37% [95% CI, 34-41]; P = .0004), whereas at least a single viral infection was more prevalent in the RIC/NMA cohort (MAC, 34% [95% CI, 31-37]; RIC/NMA, 39% [95% CI, 36-42]; P = .046). MAC remained a risk factor for bacterial infections in multivariable analysis (relative risk, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.23-1.67; P < .0001). Moreover, the rate of any infection per patient-days at risk in the first 100 days (infection density) after alloHCT was greater for the MAC cohort (1.21; 95% CI, 1.11-1.32; P < .0001). RIC/NMA was associated with reduced infections, especially bacterial infections, in the first 100 days after alloHCT.
Allogeneic Transplantation after Myeloablative Rituximab/BEAM +/- Bortezomib for Patients with Relapsed/Refractory Lymphoid Malignancies: 5-Year Follow-up Results
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2019
Although bortezomib and rituximab have synergistic activity in patients with lymphoma, and can both attenuate graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), the drugs have not been used together in patients undergoing allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (alloSCT). In this phase 1/2 trial, we assessed the safety and activity of bortezomib added to the rituximab (R) plus BEAM (carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan) regimen in patients with relapsed lymphoma undergoing alloSCT. Primary GVHD prophylaxis consisted of tacrolimus and methotrexate. Bortezomib (1 - 1.3 mg/m(2) per dose) was administered intravenously on days -13, -6, -1, and +2. We performed inverse probability weighting analysis to compare GVHD and survival results to a historical control group that received R-BEAM without bortezomib. Thirty-nine patients were assessable for toxic effects and response. The median age was 54 years. The most common diagnosis was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (41%). Twenty-two patients (56%) and 17 patients (44%) received their transplants from matched related and unrelated matched donors, respectively. The maximum tolerated bortezomib dose was 1 mg/m(2). The weighted cumulative incidences of grade II-IV and grade III or IV acute GVHD were 50% and 34%, respectively; these incidences and survival rates were not significantly different from those of the control group. Median survival has not been reached in patients age ≤50 years and who had a long follow-up time of 60.7 months. The R-BEAM regimen has a survival benefit in lymphoma patients age ≤50 years undergoing alloSCT. The addition of bortezomib has no impact on survival or incidence of GVHD.
Patients with relapsed lymphoma undergoing allo-SCT
Bortezomib added to the rituximab plus BEAM (carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan) regimen (n=39)
Historical control group that received R-BEAM without bortezomib.
The R-BEAM regimen has a survival benefit in lymphoma patients age </=50 years undergoing alloSCT. The addition of bortezomib has no impact on survival or incidence of GVHD.
Myeloablative single-unit cord blood transplantation overcomes the negative prognostic impact of FLT3-ITD in adult acute myeloid leukemia
Leukemia & lymphoma. 2019;:1-4
Fludarabine exposure in the conditioning prior to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation predicts outcomes
Blood advances. 2019;3(14):2179-2187
Fludarabine is the most frequently used agent in conditioning regimens for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Body surface area-based dosing leads to highly variable fludarabine exposure. We studied the relation between fludarabine exposure and clinical outcomes. A retrospective, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis was conducted with data from patients undergoing HCT with fludarabine (160 mg/m(2)) as part of a myeloablative conditioning (busulfan targeted to an area under the plasma-concentration-time curve [AUC] of 90 mg*h/L) and rabbit antithymocyte globulin (6-10 mg/kg; from day -9/-12) between 2010 and 2016. Fludarabine exposure as AUC was calculated for each patient using a previously published population pharmacokinetic model and related to 2-year event-free survival (EFS) by means of (parametric) time-to-event models. Relapse, nonrelapse mortality (NRM), and graft failure were considered events. One hundred ninety-two patients were included (68 benign and 124 malignant disorders). The optimal fludarabine exposure was determined as an AUC of 20 mg*h/L. In the overexposed group, EFS was lower (hazard ratio [HR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-3.5; P = .02), due to higher NRM (HR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.6-6.9; P <001) associated with impaired immune reconstitution (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.26-0.70; P <001). The risks of NRM and graft failure were increased in the underexposed group (HR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.2-9.4; P = .02; HR, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.2-19; P = .02, respectively). No relationship with relapse was found. Fludarabine exposure is a strong predictor of survival after HCT, stressing the importance of optimum fludarabine dosing. Individualized dosing, based on weight and "renal function" or "therapeutic drug monitoring," to achieve optimal fludarabine exposure might improve survival.