Pre-transplant MRD negativity predicts favorable outcomes of CAR-T therapy followed by haploidentical HSCT for relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a multi-center retrospective study
Journal of hematology & oncology. 2020;13(1):42
BACKGROUND Consolidative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a controversial option for patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia after chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy. We performed a multicenter retrospective study to assess whether patients can benefit from haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after CAR-T therapy. METHODS A total of 122 patients after CAR-T therapy were enrolled, including 67 patients without subsequent transplantation (non-transplant group) and 55 patients with subsequent haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (transplant group). Long-term outcome was assessed, as was its association with baseline patient characteristics. RESULTS Compared with the non-transplant group, transplantation recipients had a higher 2-year overall survival (OS; 77.0% versus 36.4%; P < 0.001) and leukemia-free survival (LFS; 65.6% versus 32.8%; P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that minimal residual disease (MRD) positivity at transplantation is an independent factor associated with poor LFS (P = 0.005), OS (P = 0.035), and high cumulative incidence rate of relapse (P = 0.045). Pre-transplant MRD-negative recipients (MRD- group) had a lower cumulative incidence of relapse (17.3%) than those in the non-transplant group (67.2%; P < 0.001) and pre-transplant MRD-positive recipients (MRD+ group) (65.8%; P = 0.006). The cumulative incidence of relapse in MRD+ and non-transplant groups did not differ significantly (P = 0.139). The 2-year LFS in the non-transplant, MRD+, and MRD- groups was 32.8%, 27.6%, and 76.1%, respectively. The MRD- group had a higher LFS than the non-transplantation group (P < 0.001) and MRD+ group (P = 0.007), whereas the LFS in the MRD+ and non-transplant groups did not differ significantly (P = 0.305). The 2-year OS of the MRD- group was higher than that of the non-transplant group (83.3% versus 36.4%; P < 0.001) but did not differ from that of the MRD+ group (83.3% versus 62.7%; P = 0.069). The OS in the non-transplant and MRD+ groups did not differ significantly (P = 0.231). CONCLUSION Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with pre-transplant MRD negativity after CAR-T therapy could greatly improve LFS and OS in patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia. TRIAL REGISTRATION The study was registered in the Chinese clinical trial registry (ChiCTR1900023957).
Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation improves outcome of adults with relapsed/refractory Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia entering remission following CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Relapsed/refractory Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (r/r Ph+ ALL) has an extremely poor prognosis. Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CART) therapy has acquired unprecedented efficacy in B-cell malignancies, but its role in the long-term survival of r/r Ph+ ALL patients is unclear. We analyzed the effect of CART on 56 adults with r/r Ph+ ALL who accepted split doses of humanized CD19-targeted CART after lymphodepleting chemotherapy. 51/56 (91.1%) achieved complete remission (CR) or CR with inadequate count recovery (CRi), including 38 patients with negative minimal residual disease (MRD) tested by bone marrow BCR-ABL1 copies. Subsequently, 30/51 CR/CRi patients accepted consolidative allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). Their outcomes were compared with those of 21/51 contemporaneous patients without alloHSCT. The 2-year overall survival (OS) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) of CR/CRi patients with alloHSCT were significantly superior to those without alloHSCT (58.9%, CI 49.8-68.0% vs. 22.7%, CI 12.7-32.7%, p = 0.005; 53.2%, CI 43.6-62.8% vs. 18.8%, CI 9.2-28.4%, p = 0.000, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that alloHSCT and MRD-negative post-CART were the independent prognostic factors for OS and LFS. CART therapy is highly effective for r/r Ph+ ALL patients, and consolidative alloHSCT could prolong their OS and LFS.
Efficacy and safety of anti-CD19 CAR T-cell therapy in 110 patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with high-risk features
Blood advances. 2020;4(10):2325-2338
Anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is effective in patients with advanced B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). However, efficacy data is sparse in subgroups of patients with high-risk features such as BCR-ABL+, TP53 mutation, extramedullary disease (including central nervous system leukemia) or posttransplant relapse. It is also uncertain whether there is an added benefit of transplantation after anti-CD19 CAR T-cell therapy. We conducted a phase 1/2 study of 115 enrolled patients with CD19+ B-ALL. A total of 110 patients were successfully infused with anti-CD19 CAR T cells. In all, 93% of patients achieved a morphologic complete remission, and 87% became negative for minimal residual disease. Efficacy was seen across all subgroups. One-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) was 58%, and 1-year overall survival (OS) was 64% for the 110 patients. Seventy-five nonrandomly selected patients (73.5%) subsequently received an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT). LFS (76.9% vs 11.6%; P < .0001; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.6-108.4) and OS (79.1% vs 32.0%; P < .0001; 95% CI, 0.02-0.22) were significantly better among patients who subsequently received allo-HSCT compared with those receiving CAR T-cell therapy alone. This was confirmed in multivariable analyses (hazard ratio, 16.546; 95% CI, 5.499-49.786). Another variate that correlated with worse outcomes was TP53 mutation (hazard ratio, 0.235; 95% CI, 0.089-0.619). There were no differences in complete remission rate, OS, or LFS between groups of patients age 2 to 14 years or age older than 14 years. Most patients had only mild cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity. Our data indicate that anti-CD19 CAR T-cell therapy is safe and effective in all B-ALL subgroups that have high-risk features. The benefit of a subsequent allo-HSCT requires confirmation because of nonrandom allocation. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03173417.
[CAR T-cell bridging to allo-HSCT for relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: the follow-up outcomes]
Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi. 2020;41(9):710-715
Objective: This study aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell bridging allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in the treatment of recurrent and refractory acute B-lymphocytic leukemia (R/R B-ALL) . Methods: A total of 50 R/R B-ALL patients who underwent CAR T-scell therapy to bridge allo-HSCT in the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University from January 2017 to May 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. The overall survival (OS) rate, event-free survival (EFS) rate, cumulative recurrence rate (CIR) , and transplant-related mortality (TRM) of patients with different bone marrow minimal residual disease (MRD) levels were analyzed before and after CAR T-cell infusion and before allo-HSCT. Results: The response rate of CAR T-cell therapy and the incidence rate of severe cytokine release syndrome were 92% and 28% , respectively. During 55 infusions, no treatment-related deaths occurred in any of the patients. The median time of CAR T-cell infusion to allo-HSCT was 54 (26-232) days, the median follow-up time after CAR T-cell infusion was 637 (117-1097) days, and the 1-year OS and EFS rates were (80.0±5.7) % and (60.0±6.9) % . The 1-year CIR and TRM after allo-HSCT were (28.0±0.4) % and (8.0±0.2) % . After CAR T-cell infusion and before allo-HSCT, patients with bone marrow MRD<0.01% had a significantly longer EFS [ (70.0±7.2) % vs (20.0±12.6) % , P<0.001; (66.7±7.5) % vs (36.4±14.5) % , P=0.008]and lower CIR [ (25.0±0.5) % vs (70.0±2.6) % , P<0.001; (23.08±0.47) % vs (45.45±2.60) % , P=0.038]. Conclusion: CAR T-cell therapy bridging allo-HSCT is safe and effective for recurrent and refractory B-ALL.
Long-term follow-up of CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
BACKGROUND AIMS The efficacy of CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cells for treatment of relapsed B-cell malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and the long-term outcomes of these patients remain inconclusive. METHODS The authors focused on the survival of 35 patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia who relapsed after allo-HSCT and received CAR T cells. RESULTS Of the 34 eligible patients, 30 achieved minimal residual disease-negative complete remission (CR), with a total CR rate of 85.7% (79.8-91.6%). There were 14 patients who received various forms of additional therapy after achieving CR. After a median follow-up of 20.7 months, it was noted that 17 patients had relapsed at a median of 4.5 months (2-34 months). The cumulative recurrence rate (RR) at 18 months was 68.3% (57.6-79.0%). Additional treatment did not reduce the RR but seemed to delay the time to relapse (mean: 5.9 months vs 13.1 months; P = 0.046). Patients with a lower tumor burden (=10%) had a lower RR (25.0% vs 78.6% at 12 months; P = 0.006). The overall survival (OS) rate for the CR patients was 30.0% (20.3-29.7%) at 18 months, with a median OS of 12.7 months. CONCLUSIONS The authors' study indicated that for patients who relapsed after HSCT, although a high CR rate was achieved after CAR T therapy, the long-term efficacy was unsatisfactory. It is necessary to optimize additional treatment, including a second HSCT, to further improve long-term efficacy after CAR T infusion.
Are CAR-T therapies living up to their hype? A study using real-world data in two cohorts to determine how well they are actually working in practice compared with bone marrow transplants
BMJ evidence-based medicine. 2019
With the increasing use of new regulatory tools, like the Food and Drug Administration's breakthrough designation, there are increasing challenges for European health technology assessors (HTAs) to make an accurate assessment of the long-term value and performance of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapies, particularly for orphan conditions, such as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. The aim of this study was to demonstrate a novel methodology harnessing longitudinal real-world data, extracted from the electronic health records of a medical centre functioning as a clinical trial site, to develop an accurate analysis of the performance of CAR-T compared with the next-best treatment option, namely allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). The study population comprised 43 subjects in two cohorts: 29 who had undergone HCT treatment and 14 who had undergone CAR-T therapy. The 3-year relapse-free survival probability was 46% (95% CI: 08% to 79%) in the CAR-T cohort and 68% (95% CI: 46% to 83%) in the HCT cohort. To explain the lower RFS probability in the CAR-T cohort compared with the HCT cohort, the authors hypothesised that the CAR-T cohort had a far higher level of disease burden. This was validated by log-rank test analysis (p=0.0001) and confirmed in conversations with practitioners at the study site. The authors are aware that the small populations in this study will be seen as limiting the generalisability of the findings to some readers. However, in consultation with many European HTAs and regulators, there is broad agreement that this methodology warrants further investigation with a larger study.
Anti-CD19 CAR-T Therapy Bridging to Allo-HSCT for Relapsed/refractory B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: An Open-Label Pragmatic Clinical Trial
American journal of hematology. 2019
Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T-cell (CAR-T) therapy is effective and safe for patients with relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (r/r B-ALL), but its value has been limited in terms of long-term leukemia-free survival. New strategies that can help CAR-T therapy achieve lasting effect are urgently warranted. This non-randomized interventional pragmatic clinical trial aimed to explore whether consolidative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) could improve the long-term prognosis of the minimal residual disease-negative complete remission (MRD(-) CR) patients after CAR-T therapy. In the first stage, 58 r/r B-ALL patients received split doses of CAR-T cells after lymphodepleting chemotherapy, and 51 (87.9%) achieved CR. In the second stage, 21/47 MRD(-) CR patients without previous allo-HSCT and contraindications or other restrictions, on their own accord, received consolidative allo-HSCT within three months after CAR-T therapy. There was no difference in overall survival (OS) between the MRD(-) CR patients who received allo-HSCT and those who didn't, but event-free survival (EFS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) were significantly prolonged by allo-HSCT in the subgroups with either high (≥ 5%) pre-infusion bone marrow MRD assessed by flow cytometry (BM-FCM-MRD) or poor prognostic markers (P < 0.05). However, no difference was found in EFS and RFS for patients with pre-infusion BM-FCM-MRD < 5% and without poor prognostic markers (P > 0.05). To conclude, CAR-T therapy bridging to allo-HSCT is a safe and effective therapeutic strategy for r/r B-ALL patients, and may prolong their EFS and RFS, especially when they have high pre-infusion BM-FCM-MRD or poor prognostic markers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Post-chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for 52 cases with refractory/relapsed B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
British journal of haematology. 2019
Although chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T) targeted at CD19 or CD22 have achieved high complete remission (CR) in refractory/relapsed B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL), it is uncertain if allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) should be performed after CAR-T therapy to accomplish a sustainable remission. Fifty-two cases with relapsed/refractory B-ALL who underwent allo-HSCT after CR by CD19 or CD22 CAR-T were enrolled. The median time from CAR-T infusion to allo-HSCT was 50 (34-98) days. Myeloablative reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) with total body irradiation/fludarabine-based or busulfan/fludarabine-based regimens was used. Incidences of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and severe aGVHD were 23.1% and 5.8% respectively. Of 48 evaluable cases, 16 developed chronic GVHD (cGVHD) and in three of them the pattern was extensive. With a median follow-up of 334 (41-479) days, one-year overall survival and event-free survival (EFS) were 87.7% and 73.0%. One-year relapse rate and transplant-related mortality (TRM) were 24.7% and 2.2% respectively. With quick bridge to allo-HSCT after CAR-T therapy, high EFS for refractory/relapsed B-ALL has been achieved in this relatively large cohort. Our myeloablative RIC regimens have resulted in low incidences of aGVHD, cGVHD, viral reactivation and very low TRM even majority of transplants from haploidentical donors. Long-term follow-up is warranted.
Clinical utilization of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cells (CAR-T) in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)-an expert opinion from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) and the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT)
Bone marrow transplantation. 2019
On August 30, 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA) approved tisagenlecleucel (KYMRIAH, Novartis, Basel, Switzerland), a synthetic bioimmune product of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor-T cells (CAR-T), for the treatment of children and young adults with relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). With this new era of personalized cancer immunotherapy, multiple challenges are present ranging from implementation of a CAR-T program to safe delivery of the drug, long-term toxicity monitoring and disease assessments. To address these issues, experts representing the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplant (ASBMT), the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT), the International Society of Cell and Gene Therapy (ISCT), and the Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (FACT), formed a global CAR-T task force to identify and address key questions pertinent for hematologists and transplant physicians regarding the clinical use of anti CD19 CAR-T therapy in patients with B-ALL. This article presents an initial roadmap for navigating common clinical practice scenarios that will become more prevalent now that the first commercially available CAR-T product for B-ALL has been approved.
Children and young adults with relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Expert opinion on clinical utilization of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cells (CAR-T) in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia
An initial roadmap for navigating common clinical practice scenarios since the approval of the first commercially available CAR-T product for B-ALL.
Long-Term Follow-up of CD19 CAR Therapy in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
The New England journal of medicine. 2018;378(5):449-459
BACKGROUND CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells induce high rates of initial response among patients with relapsed B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and long-term remissions in a subgroup of patients. METHODS We conducted a phase 1 trial involving adults with relapsed B-cell ALL who received an infusion of autologous T cells expressing the 19-28z CAR at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC). Safety and long-term outcomes were assessed, as were their associations with demographic, clinical, and disease characteristics. RESULTS A total of 53 adults received 19-28z CAR T cells that were manufactured at MSKCC. After infusion, severe cytokine release syndrome occurred in 14 of 53 patients (26%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 15 to 40); 1 patient died. Complete remission was observed in 83% of the patients. At a median follow-up of 29 months (range, 1 to 65), the median event-free survival was 6.1 months (95% CI, 5.0 to 11.5), and the median overall survival was 12.9 months (95% CI, 8.7 to 23.4). Patients with a low disease burden (<5% bone marrow blasts) before treatment had markedly enhanced remission duration and survival, with a median event-free survival of 10.6 months (95% CI, 5.9 to not reached) and a median overall survival of 20.1 months (95% CI, 8.7 to not reached). Patients with a higher burden of disease (≥5% bone marrow blasts or extramedullary disease) had a greater incidence of the cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxic events and shorter long-term survival than did patients with a low disease burden. CONCLUSIONS In the entire cohort, the median overall survival was 12.9 months. Among patients with a low disease burden, the median overall survival was 20.1 months and was accompanied by a markedly lower incidence of the cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxic events after 19-28z CAR T-cell infusion than was observed among patients with a higher disease burden. (Funded by the Commonwealth Foundation for Cancer Research and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01044069 .).