Donor-derived CD19 CAR-T cell therapy of relapse of CD19-positive B-ALL post allotransplant
Safety and efficacy of allogeneic anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T cells) in persons with CD19-positive B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) relapsing after an allotransplant remain unclear. Forty-three subjects with B-ALL relapsing post allotransplant received CAR-T cells were analyzed. 34 (79%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 66, 92%) achieved complete histological remission (CR). Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) occurred in 38 (88%; 78, 98%) and was ≥grade-3 in 7. Two subjects died from multiorgan failure and CRS. Nine subjects (21%; 8, 34%) developed ≤grade-2 immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS). Two subjects developed ≤grade-2 acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). 1-year event-free survival (EFS) and survival was 43% (25, 62%). In 32 subjects with a complete histological remission without a second transplant, 1-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 41% (25, 62%) and 1-year EFS and survival, 59% (37, 81%). Therapy of B-ALL subjects relapsing post transplant with donor-derived CAR-T cells is safe and effective but associated with a high rate of CRS. Outcomes seem comparable to those achieved with alternative therapies but data from a randomized trial are lacking.
Single-center experience suggests donor lymphocyte infusion may promote long-term survival in children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Pediatric blood & cancer. 2019;:e27950
BACKGROUND Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) is often used to treat leukemic relapse after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). However, the relationship between outcomes and distinct DLI cellular composition has not been previously reported. Additionally, there are limited published data on efficacy in pediatrics. We evaluated whether DLI cellular content and development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) impacted disease and influenced overall survival (OS) in children receiving DLI for recurrent leukemia. METHODS We performed an Institutional Review Board-approved, retrospective study investigating all consecutive DLIs given to patients at the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin between 1980 and 2018. Analyses were conducted using Mann-Whitney, Fisher exact, and chi-square tests. RESULTS Thirty patients ≤20 years old with hematologic malignancies (myeloid [AML/MDS/CML/JMML], n = 23; lymphoid [ALL], n = 7) received DLI to treat post-transplant relapse. We found no significant difference in OS or development of GVHD based on CD3, CD4, CD8, CD56, or CD19 DLI cellular composition. With a median follow-up of 0.69 (range, 0.04-16.61) years, OS at five years was 32% +/- 9%. The lymphoid group had a five-year survival rate at 71% +/- 17% compared with the myeloid group at 22% +/- 9%, although not statistically significant (P = 0.11). The development of GVHD did not affect OS (P = 0.62). CONCLUSION Here, we report a single-center, long-term experience of pediatric DLIs. Surprisingly, many children with ALL were able to achieve durable remissions. Although cellular composition did not have a significant effect on GVHD or OS in our small study, engineering DLI products to maximize specific effector cell populations could be one strategy to improve efficacy.