Efficacy and safety of anti-CD19 CAR T-cell therapy in 110 patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with high-risk features
Blood advances. 2020;4(10):2325-2338
Anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is effective in patients with advanced B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). However, efficacy data is sparse in subgroups of patients with high-risk features such as BCR-ABL+, TP53 mutation, extramedullary disease (including central nervous system leukemia) or posttransplant relapse. It is also uncertain whether there is an added benefit of transplantation after anti-CD19 CAR T-cell therapy. We conducted a phase 1/2 study of 115 enrolled patients with CD19+ B-ALL. A total of 110 patients were successfully infused with anti-CD19 CAR T cells. In all, 93% of patients achieved a morphologic complete remission, and 87% became negative for minimal residual disease. Efficacy was seen across all subgroups. One-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) was 58%, and 1-year overall survival (OS) was 64% for the 110 patients. Seventy-five nonrandomly selected patients (73.5%) subsequently received an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT). LFS (76.9% vs 11.6%; P < .0001; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.6-108.4) and OS (79.1% vs 32.0%; P < .0001; 95% CI, 0.02-0.22) were significantly better among patients who subsequently received allo-HSCT compared with those receiving CAR T-cell therapy alone. This was confirmed in multivariable analyses (hazard ratio, 16.546; 95% CI, 5.499-49.786). Another variate that correlated with worse outcomes was TP53 mutation (hazard ratio, 0.235; 95% CI, 0.089-0.619). There were no differences in complete remission rate, OS, or LFS between groups of patients age 2 to 14 years or age older than 14 years. Most patients had only mild cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity. Our data indicate that anti-CD19 CAR T-cell therapy is safe and effective in all B-ALL subgroups that have high-risk features. The benefit of a subsequent allo-HSCT requires confirmation because of nonrandom allocation. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03173417.
Long-term follow-up of CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
BACKGROUND AIMS The efficacy of CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cells for treatment of relapsed B-cell malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and the long-term outcomes of these patients remain inconclusive. METHODS The authors focused on the survival of 35 patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia who relapsed after allo-HSCT and received CAR T cells. RESULTS Of the 34 eligible patients, 30 achieved minimal residual disease-negative complete remission (CR), with a total CR rate of 85.7% (79.8-91.6%). There were 14 patients who received various forms of additional therapy after achieving CR. After a median follow-up of 20.7 months, it was noted that 17 patients had relapsed at a median of 4.5 months (2-34 months). The cumulative recurrence rate (RR) at 18 months was 68.3% (57.6-79.0%). Additional treatment did not reduce the RR but seemed to delay the time to relapse (mean: 5.9 months vs 13.1 months; P = 0.046). Patients with a lower tumor burden (=10%) had a lower RR (25.0% vs 78.6% at 12 months; P = 0.006). The overall survival (OS) rate for the CR patients was 30.0% (20.3-29.7%) at 18 months, with a median OS of 12.7 months. CONCLUSIONS The authors' study indicated that for patients who relapsed after HSCT, although a high CR rate was achieved after CAR T therapy, the long-term efficacy was unsatisfactory. It is necessary to optimize additional treatment, including a second HSCT, to further improve long-term efficacy after CAR T infusion.
Pre-transplant MRD negativity predicts favorable outcomes of CAR-T therapy followed by haploidentical HSCT for relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a multi-center retrospective study
Journal of hematology & oncology. 2020;13(1):42
BACKGROUND Consolidative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a controversial option for patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia after chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy. We performed a multicenter retrospective study to assess whether patients can benefit from haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after CAR-T therapy. METHODS A total of 122 patients after CAR-T therapy were enrolled, including 67 patients without subsequent transplantation (non-transplant group) and 55 patients with subsequent haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (transplant group). Long-term outcome was assessed, as was its association with baseline patient characteristics. RESULTS Compared with the non-transplant group, transplantation recipients had a higher 2-year overall survival (OS; 77.0% versus 36.4%; P < 0.001) and leukemia-free survival (LFS; 65.6% versus 32.8%; P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that minimal residual disease (MRD) positivity at transplantation is an independent factor associated with poor LFS (P = 0.005), OS (P = 0.035), and high cumulative incidence rate of relapse (P = 0.045). Pre-transplant MRD-negative recipients (MRD- group) had a lower cumulative incidence of relapse (17.3%) than those in the non-transplant group (67.2%; P < 0.001) and pre-transplant MRD-positive recipients (MRD+ group) (65.8%; P = 0.006). The cumulative incidence of relapse in MRD+ and non-transplant groups did not differ significantly (P = 0.139). The 2-year LFS in the non-transplant, MRD+, and MRD- groups was 32.8%, 27.6%, and 76.1%, respectively. The MRD- group had a higher LFS than the non-transplantation group (P < 0.001) and MRD+ group (P = 0.007), whereas the LFS in the MRD+ and non-transplant groups did not differ significantly (P = 0.305). The 2-year OS of the MRD- group was higher than that of the non-transplant group (83.3% versus 36.4%; P < 0.001) but did not differ from that of the MRD+ group (83.3% versus 62.7%; P = 0.069). The OS in the non-transplant and MRD+ groups did not differ significantly (P = 0.231). CONCLUSION Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with pre-transplant MRD negativity after CAR-T therapy could greatly improve LFS and OS in patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia. TRIAL REGISTRATION The study was registered in the Chinese clinical trial registry (ChiCTR1900023957).
Haploidentical versus HLA-matched sibling transplantation for refractory acute leukemia undergoing sequential intensified conditioning followed by DLI: an analysis from two prospective data
Journal of hematology & oncology. 2020;13(1):18
BACKGROUND Compared with HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD) transplant, the outcomes of haploidentical donor (HID) transplant for refractory acute leukemia need to be further explored. In this study, we compared the outcomes of HID with MSD for refractory acute leukemia. PATIENTS AND METHODS This study population came from two prospective multicenter trials (NCT01883180, NCT02673008). Two hundred and seventy-eight patients with refractory acute leukemia were enrolled in this study, including 119 in HID group and 132 in MSD group. Sequential intensified conditioning was employed in all patients, and donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) was administered in patients in the absence of active GVHD and according to minimal residual disease (MRD) from day + 60 post-transplantation for preventing relapse. RESULTS The complete remission of leukemia by day + 30 post-transplant were 94% and 93%, respectively, in HID and MSD groups (p = .802). The 1-year incidence of grades II-IV acute GVHD was 62% and 54% (p = .025), and 3-year incidence of chronic GVHD was 55% and 55% (p = .789), respectively, in two groups. HID transplant had lower incidence of first episode of MRD positivity and relapse than MSD transplant (28% vs 45%, p = .006; 26% vs 38%, p = .034). There was higher infection-related mortality in HID than MSD (8% vs 2%, p = .049) within the first 100 days' post-transplant. The 5-year overall survival was 46% and 42% (p = .832), respectively; the 5-year disease-free survival was 43% and 39% (p = .665), in HID and MSD groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS HID transplant has lower relapse, but higher infection-related mortality and similar survival rates in refractory acute leukemia by the strategy of sequential intensified conditioning followed by DLI compared with MSD transplant.
Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation improves outcome of adults with relapsed/refractory Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia entering remission following CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Relapsed/refractory Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (r/r Ph+ ALL) has an extremely poor prognosis. Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CART) therapy has acquired unprecedented efficacy in B-cell malignancies, but its role in the long-term survival of r/r Ph+ ALL patients is unclear. We analyzed the effect of CART on 56 adults with r/r Ph+ ALL who accepted split doses of humanized CD19-targeted CART after lymphodepleting chemotherapy. 51/56 (91.1%) achieved complete remission (CR) or CR with inadequate count recovery (CRi), including 38 patients with negative minimal residual disease (MRD) tested by bone marrow BCR-ABL1 copies. Subsequently, 30/51 CR/CRi patients accepted consolidative allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). Their outcomes were compared with those of 21/51 contemporaneous patients without alloHSCT. The 2-year overall survival (OS) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) of CR/CRi patients with alloHSCT were significantly superior to those without alloHSCT (58.9%, CI 49.8-68.0% vs. 22.7%, CI 12.7-32.7%, p = 0.005; 53.2%, CI 43.6-62.8% vs. 18.8%, CI 9.2-28.4%, p = 0.000, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that alloHSCT and MRD-negative post-CART were the independent prognostic factors for OS and LFS. CART therapy is highly effective for r/r Ph+ ALL patients, and consolidative alloHSCT could prolong their OS and LFS.
Autologous tumor cell vaccine induces antitumor T cell immune responses in patients with mantle cell lymphoma: A phase I/II trial
The Journal of experimental medicine. 2020;217(9)
Here, we report on the results of a phase I/II trial (NCT00490529) for patients with mantle cell lymphoma who, having achieved remission after immunochemotherapy, were vaccinated with irradiated, CpG-activated tumor cells. Subsequently, vaccine-primed lymphocytes were collected and reinfused after a standard autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). The primary endpoint was detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) within 1 yr after ASCT at the previously validated threshold of ≥1 malignant cell per 10,000 leukocyte equivalents. Of 45 evaluable patients, 40 (89%) were found to be MRD negative, and the MRD-positive patients experienced early subsequent relapse. The vaccination induced antitumor CD8 T cell immune responses in 40% of patients, and these were associated with favorable clinical outcomes. Patients with high tumor PD-L1 expression after in vitro exposure to CpG had inferior outcomes. Vaccination with CpG-stimulated autologous tumor cells followed by the adoptive transfer of vaccine-primed lymphocytes after ASCT is feasible and safe.
Low Non-Relapse Mortality after HLA Matched Related Two-Step Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation using Cyclophosphamide (CY) for Graft versus Host Disease Prophylaxis and the Potential Impact of Non-CY-Exposed T Cells on Outcomes
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2020
The use of cyclophosphamide (CY) for bidirectional tolerization of recipient and donor T cells is associated with reduced rates of graft versus host disease (GVHD) and non-relapse mortality (NRM) after human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, recurrent disease remains the primary barrier to long term survival. We extended our two-step approach to HLA matched related HSCT using a radiation-based myeloablative conditioning regimen combined with a high dose of T cells in an attempt to reduce relapse rates while maintaining the beneficial effects of CY tolerization. After conditioning, patients received their grafts in two components. First, a fixed dose of 2x10(8)/kg T cells was infused, followed 2 days later by CY. Second, a CD34-selected graft containing a small residual amount of non-CY exposed T cells, median dose of 2.98x10(3)/kg, was administered. Forty-six patients with hematological malignancies were treated. Despite the myeloablative conditioning regimen and use of high doses of T cells, at 1 and 5 years, the cumulative incidences (CI) of grades 2-4 acute and chronic GVHD, and NRM were very low at 13%, 9% and 4.3% respectively. This contributed to a high overall survival (OS) rate of 89.1% at 1 year and 65.8% at 5 years. Relapse was the primary cause of mortality with a CI of 23.9% at 1 year and 45.7% at 5 years. In a post hoc analysis, relapse rates were significantly lower in patients receiving greater than versus less than the group median of non-CY exposed, residual T cells in the CD34 product, 19.3% versus 58.1% (p=0.009) without concomitant increase in NRM. In its current form, this two-step regimen was highly tolerable but strategies to reduce relapse, potentially the addition of T cells not exposed to CY, are needed.
Infectious Complications Following CD19 Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell Therapy for Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults
Open forum infectious diseases. 2020;7(5):ofaa121
Background: Infectious complications of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell immunotherapy in children and young adults have not been well described. Methods: Medical records of patients ≤26 years old receiving CD19 CAR T-cell infusion (CTI) at a single institution between 2014 and 2017 were reviewed. The number of infections per 100 days-at-risk (infection density) in the 90 days preceding and 0-28 and 29-90 days after CTI was calculated. Poisson regression and Cox analyses were utilized to identify risk factors for infections. Results: Eighty-three patients received CTI during the study period. Most patients (98%) had refractory or relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Infections occurred in 54% of patients in the 90 days before CTI (infection density, 1.23) and in 40% of patients in the first 28 days following CTI (infection density, 2.89). Infection density decreased to 0.55 in the 29-90 days post-CTI. Most infections were bacteremias (39%) or respiratory viral infections (43%). Pre-CTI risk factors associated with infection included prior hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), immunoglobulin G (IgG) level <400 mg/dL, and lymphodepletion other than cyclophosphamide plus fludarabine; post-CTI risk factors included higher-severity CRS and IgG <400 mg/dL. Conclusions: Infection rates in children and young adults receiving CD19 CAR T-cell therapy increase in the first month and then decline. Understanding types and timing of infections and contributing risk factors may help inform prophylactic and monitoring strategies. Specific attention should be given to patients with prior HCT, severe hypogammaglobulinemia, and severe CRS.
Impact of prophylactic/preemptive donor lymphocyte infusion and intensified conditioning for relapsed/refractory leukemia: a real-world study
Science China. Life sciences. 2020
Prophylactic/preemptive donor lymphocyte infusion (p/pDLI) and intensified conditioning have shown promising results in experimental studies of refractory/relapsed acute leukemia (RRAL), but real-world data remain scarce. We conducted a multicenter, population-based analysis of 932 consecutive patients. The three-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) rates were 56% for patients receiving both p/pDLI and intensified myeloablative conditioning (MAC) (intenseMAC) and 30% for those who received neither therapy per landmark analysis. Multivariable analyses were run separately for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and p/pDLI treatment was linked to significantly higher LFS than non-DLI for both AML and ALL patients without increasing the nonrelapse mortality. IntenseMAC was associated with significantly lower relapse and higher LFS than nonintensified MAC despite higher nonrelapse mortality rates in ALL, while there was no impact of intenseMAC observed in AML. p/pDLI achieved superior outcomes in both matched-sibling donor (MSD) and haploidentical donor transplantation, while intenseMAC only influenced MSD outcomes. Data suggest that RRAL patients receiving "total therapy" by way of p/pDLI and intensified conditioning treatment have an improved chance for LFS, with p/pDLI being safer with a more extensive impact relative to intenseMAC. Patients with RRAL can tolerate both interventions and achieve a reasonable outcome.
Investigation of the Role of Dinutuximab Beta-Based Immunotherapy in the SIOPEN High-Risk Neuroblastoma 1 Trial (HR-NBL1)
To explore the effects of immunotherapy in the International Society of Paediatric Oncology Europe Neuroblastoma Group SIOPEN high-risk neuroblastoma 1 trial (HR-NBL1 trial), two cohorts were studied: one prior to and one after the introduction of dinutuximab beta. All patients received standard induction and high-dose therapy (HDT) with autologous stem cell rescue (ASCR); the local control comprised surgery and radiotherapy to the primary tumour site, followed by isotretinoin. A landmark timepoint of 109 days, resulting from the median time between ASCR and initiation of immunotherapy, was used to define patients' eligibility in the pre-immunotherapy analysis cohort. Median follow-up was 5.8 years (inter-quartile range (IQR): 4.2-8.2 years) for 844 eligible patients balanced for risk factors, such as age, sex, stage 4, MYCN amplification and response prior to HDT. The five-year event-free and overall survival (95% confidence interval (CI) of 466 patients not receiving immunotherapy was 42% (38-47%) and 50% (46-55%) but was 57% (51-62%) and 64% (59-69%) for 378 patients receiving immunotherapy (p < 0.001). A multivariate analysis identified absence of immunotherapy (p = 0.0002, hazard ratio (HR) 1.573); type of HDT (p = 0.0029, HR 1.431); less than complete response prior to maintenance therapy (p = 0.0043, HR 1.494) and >1 metastatic compartment at diagnosis (p < 0.001, HR 2.665) as risk factors for relapse or progression. Results suggest an important role for dinutuximab beta-based immunotherapy within the treatment concepts applied in HR-NBL1/SIOPEN.