Red blood cell and platelet transfusion support in the first 30 and 100?days after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant
BACKGROUND Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients often require substantial but variable transfusion support. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS This single-center, retrospective study evaluated the red blood cell (RBC) and platelet (PLT) transfusion data of first-time allo-HSCT recipients transplanted in 2011 to 2017. Multivariate analyses were performed to assess the associations between patient and transplant-related factors and transfusion requirements. RESULTS The study included 1762 patients who received peripheral blood stem cells (88.2%), marrow (7.0%), or umbilical cord (4.8%) from matched related (38.3%), unrelated (49.2%), or haploidentical (7.8%) donors. Almost all patients required RBCs (88.3%) or PLTs (97.4%) during the first 30?days, with medians of 3 (range, 1-37) RBC and 6 (range, 1-144) PLT units transfused. Fewer patients required RBC (43.8%) or PLT (27.3%) transfusions during Days 31 to 100, but the median (range) numbers of RBC and PLT units remained high at 3 (1-36) and 6 (1-116) among transfused patients. RBC and PLT transfusion independence was reached in medians of 24 (95% confidence interval [CI], 22-26) and 12 (95% CI, 11-12) days, respectively. Haploidentical donor, cord graft, and requiring RBC transfusions in the 10?days before HSCT were the most significant independent factors predictive of increased transfusion requirements. Advanced disease, diagnosis, ABO incompatibility, conditioning intensity, CD34+ cell dose, presence of severe acute graft-vs-host disease, and changes in recommended transfusion triggers were also shown to independently impact transfusion requirements. CONCLUSIONS This study provided for the first time quantitative and comparative transfusion data on a large contemporary cohort of HSCT recipients, including haploidentical and cord graft recipients, and identified factors predictive of increased transfusions.
Quantification of Liver Iron Overload: Correlation of MRI and Liver Tissue Biopsy in Pediatric Thalassemia Major Patients Undergoing Bone Marrow Transplant
Indian journal of hematology & blood transfusion : an official journal of Indian Society of Hematology and Blood Transfusion. 2020;36(4):667-673
Determination of the magnitude of body iron stores helps to identify individuals at risk of iron-induced organ damage in Thalassemia patients. The most direct clinical method of measuring liver iron concentration (LIC) is through chemical analysis of needle biopsy specimens. Here we present a noninvasive method for the measurement of LIC in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty-three pediatric Thalassemia major patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation at our centre were studied. All 23 patients had MRI T2* and R2* decay time for evaluation of LIC on a 1.5 Tesla MRI system followed by liver tissue biopsy for the assessment of iron concentration using an atomic absorption spectrometry. Simultaneously, serum ferritin levels were measured by enzymatic assay. We have correlated biopsy LIC with liver T2* and serum ferritin values with liver R2*. Of the 23 patients 11 were males, the mean age was 8.3 ± 3.7 years. The study results showed a significant correlation between biopsy LIC and liver T2* MRI (r = 0.768; p < 0.001). Also, there was a significant correlation between serum ferritin levels and liver R2* MRI (r = 0.5647; p < 0.01). Two patients had high variance in serum ferritin levels (2100 and 4100 mg/g) while their LIC was around 24 mg/g, whereas the difference was not seen in T2* MRI. Hence, the liver T2* MRI is a better modality for assessing LIC. Serum ferritin is less reliable than quantitative MRI. The liver T2* MRI is a safe, reliable, feasible and cost-effective method compared to liver tissue biopsy for LIC assessment.
Combination treatment of rituximab and donor platelets infusion to reduce donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies for stem cells engraftment in haploidentical transplantation
Journal of clinical laboratory analysis. 2020;:e23261
BACKGROUND Donor-specific anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies (DSAs) in recipients is a risk factor for donor stem cell graft failure in haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT), and the treatment to reduce the levels of DSAs is not unanimous. This study was to analysis the role of DSAs for stem cell engraftment and to discuss the effective treatment to reduce DSAs in haplo-HSCT. METHODS We retrospectively evaluated the levels of DSAs and the effect of the combination treatment of rituximab and donor platelets (PLTs) for donor stem cell engraftment in haplo-HSCT patients from June 2016 to March 2018 at our center. RESULTS Nine patients (11.5%) out of the total 78 patients were DSAs-positive and multivariate analysis revealed DSAs was the only factor that affected engraftment. Seven out of the 9 DSAs (+) patients received therapy: Four had antibodies against donor HLA class I (HLA-I) antigens and were administered two therapeutic amounts of donor apheresis platelets (platelet count approximately 3-5 x 10(11) ) before donor stem cell infusion and the other three patients received a combination therapy of donor apheresis platelets and rituximab due to the antibodies against both donor HLA-I antigens and HLA class II (HLA-II) antigens. All the seven patients achieved donor stem cell engraftment successfully, and the DSAs levels decreased rapidly after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS DSAs is an important factor affecting engraftment in haplo-HSCT. Donor platelet transfusion is one simple and effective treatment for HLA-I DSAs, and a combination therapy should be administered if patients have both HLA-I and HLA-II antibodies.
Liberal Versus Restrictive Red Blood Cell Transfusion Thresholds in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Randomized, Open Label, Phase III, Noninferiority Trial
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2020;:Jco1901836
PURPOSE Evidence regarding red blood cell (RBC) transfusion practices and their impact on hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes are poorly understood. PATIENTS AND METHODS We performed a noninferiority randomized controlled trial in four different centers that evaluated patients with hematologic malignancies requiring HCT who were randomly assigned to either a restrictive (hemoglobin [Hb] threshold < 70 g/L) or liberal (Hb threshold < 90 g/L) RBC transfusion strategy between day 0 and day 100. The noninferiority margin corresponds to a 12% absolute difference between groups in Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplant (FACT-BMT) score relative to baseline. The primary outcome was health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measured by FACT-BMT score at day 100. Additional end points were collected: HRQOL by FACT-BMT score at baseline and at days 7, 14, 28, 60, and 100; transplantation-related mortality; length of hospital stay; intensive care unit admissions; acute graft-versus-host disease; Bearman toxicity score; sinusoidal obstruction syndrome; serious infections; WHO Bleeding Scale; transfusion requirements; and reactions to therapy. RESULTS A total of 300 patients were randomly assigned to either restrictive-strategy or liberal-strategy treatment groups between 2011 and 2016 at four Canadian adult HCT centers. After HCT, mean pre-transfusion Hb levels were 70.9 g/L in the restrictive-strategy group and 84.6 g/L in the liberal-strategy group (P < .0001). The number of RBC units transfused was lower in the restrictive-strategy group than in the liberal-strategy group (mean, 2.73 units [standard deviation, 4.81 units] v 5.02 units [standard deviation, 6.13 units]; P = .0004). After adjusting for transfusion type and baseline FACT-BMT score, the restrictive-strategy group had a higher FACT-BMT score at day 100 (difference of 1.6 points; 95% CI, -2.5 to 5.6 points), which was noninferior compared with that of the liberal-strategy group. There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes between the transfusion strategies. CONCLUSION In patients undergoing HCT, the use of a restrictive RBC transfusion strategy threshold of 70 g/L was as effective as a threshold of 90 g/L and resulted in similar HRQOL and HCT outcomes with fewer transfusions.
Effects of red blood cell concentrate transfusion on blood tacrolimus concentration
International journal of clinical pharmacy. 2020
Background Elevated blood concentration of tacrolimus is frequently observed following transfusion of red blood cell concentrate in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Objective The aim of this retrospective study was to clarify the effects of transfusion of red blood cell concentrate on the blood concentration of tacrolimus. Setting Chiba University Hospital in Japan. Method Fifty-two patients (aged 0-65 years) receiving both tacrolimus and transfusion after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were enrolled. The ratio of measurement after transfusion to measurement before transfusion was calculated for hematocrit and blood concentration/dose ratio of tacrolimus (termed the hematocrit ratio and the tacrolimus ratio, respectively). Main outcome measure Change in blood concentration/dose ratio of tacrolimus and variable factors associated with variation in tacrolimus ratio. Results The blood concentration/dose ratio of tacrolimus was increased after transfusion compared with before transfusion (p < 0.001). A statistically significant correlation was seen between the hematocrit ratio and tacrolimus ratio (r = 0.32, p < 0.001). Hematocrit ratio, age or body surface area, and difference in aspartate aminotransferase level before and after transfusion were associated with the variation in tacrolimus ratio. There was no correlation between tacrolimus ratio and change in serum creatinine or potassium level in the short term. Conclusion Change in the blood concentration/dose ratio of tacrolimus was associated with change in the hematocrit ratio after transfusion, and more attention is required for children or patients with small body surface area. Dose adjustment of tacrolimus is required if the blood concentration of tacrolimus is much higher than the target concentration.
Safety of bloodless autologous stem cell transplantation in Jehovah's Witness patients
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Due to the curative potential and improvement in progression-free survival (PFS), high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is considered the standard of care for several hematologic malignancies, such as multiple myeloma, and lymphomas. ASCT typically involves support with blood product transfusion. Thus, difficulties arise when Jehovah's Witness patients refuse blood transfusions. In order to demonstrate the safety of performing "bloodless" ASCT (BL-ASCT), we performed a retrospective analysis of 66 Jehovah's Witnesses patients who underwent BL-ASCT and 1114 non-Jehovah's Witness patients who underwent transfusion-supported ASCT (TF-ASCT) at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center between January 2000 and September 2018. Survival was compared between the two groups. Transplant-related complications, mortality, engraftment time, length of hospital stay, and number of ICU transfers were characterized for the BL-ASCT group. One year survival was found to be 87.9% for both groups (P = 0.92). In the BL-ASCT group, there was one death prior to the 30 days post transplant due to CNS hemorrhage, and one death prior to 100 days due to sepsis. Based on our data, BL-ASCT can be safely performed with appropriate supportive measures, and we encourage community oncologists to promptly refer JW patients for transplant evaluation when ASCT is indicated.
Transfusional iron overload in patients receiving autologous stem cell transplantation: An underestimated problem requiring further consideration
Transfusion and apheresis science : official journal of the World Apheresis Association : official journal of the European Society for Haemapheresis. 2020;:102837
Blood transfusion support for sickle cell patients during haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a single-institution experience
British journal of haematology. 2020
Efficacy of HLA virtual cross-matched platelet transfusions for platelet transfusion refractoriness in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
BACKGROUND Cross-matched platelet (cross-matched PLT) transfusion is effective for immune-mediated platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR), but is more costly and time-consuming for physical cross-match than using standard PLT units. Recent studies have reported the utility of human leucocyte antigens (HLA) virtual cross-matched PLT (HLA-matched PLT) that is defined as HLA-A/B matched or no antibody against donor-specific antigen. Here, we evaluated the effect of HLA-matched PLTs for PTR in post hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Our study included a total of 241 PLTs in 16 patients who underwent HSCT at Okayama University Hospital between 2010 and 2017, receiving either HLA-matched or cross-matched PLTs. We calculated the 24-hour corrected count increments (CCI-24) to evaluate the effect of PLTs. A CCI-24 ≥ 4500 was considered to be a successful transfusion. RESULTS We analyzed 139 cross-matched PLTs and 102 HLA-matched PLTs. In the immune-mediated PTR, the rate of successful transfusion was 60.5% for cross-matched PLT and 63.4% for HLA-matched PLT (p = 0.825). On the other hand, the median CCI-24 for cross-matched PLT transfusions and HLA-matched PLT transfusions were 1856 and 5824 (p < 0.001), with a success rate of 28.1 and 54.1% in cases with non-immune-mediated PTR, respectively (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION The effectiveness of HLA-matched PLT is not inferior to cross-matched PLT. This result indicates that physical cross-match can be omitted in post HSCT PTR.
Mitigation strategies for anti-D alloimmunization by platelet transfusion in haematopoietic stem cell transplant patients: a survey of NCCN((R)) centres
Vox sanguinis. 2020
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES D-negative patients are at risk of developing an alloantibody to D (anti-D) if exposed to D during transfusion. The presence of anti-D can lead to haemolytic transfusion reactions and haemolytic disease of the newborn. Anti-D alloimmunization can also complicate allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with haemolysis and increased transfusion requirements. The goal of this study was to determine whether cancer centres have transfusion practices intended to prevent anti-D alloimmunization with special attention in patients considered for HSCT. METHODS AND MATERIALS To understand transfusion practices regarding D-positive platelets in D-negative patients with large transfusion needs, we surveyed the 28 cancer centres that are members of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network((R)) (NCCN((R)) ). RESULTS Nineteen centres responded (68%). Most centres (79%) avoid transfusing D-positive platelets to RhD-negative patients when possible. Four centres (21%) avoid D-positive platelets only in D-negative women of childbearing age. If a D-negative patient receives a D-positive platelet transfusion, 53% of centres would consider treating with Rh immune globulin (RhIg) to prevent alloimmunization in women of childbearing age. Only one centre also gives RhIg to all D-negative patients who are HSCT candidates including adult men and women of no childbearing age. CONCLUSION There is wide variation in platelet transfusion practices for supporting D-negative patients. The majority of centres do not have D-positive platelet transfusion policies focused on preventing anti-D alloimmunization specifically in patients undergoing HSCT. Multicentre, longitudinal studies are needed to understand the clinical implications of anti-D alloimmunization in HSCT patients.