Outcomes Using Narrowband UVB Phototherapy for Acute Cutaneous Graft Versus Host Disease in Pediatric Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients
Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology. 2021;43(1):e151-e153
[The clinical observation of sirolimus combined with calcineurin inhibitors for steroid-resistant/steroid-dependent extensive cGVHD]
Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi. 2020;41(9):716-722
Objective: To observe the efficacy and safety of sirolimus combined with calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) in the treatment of glucocorticoid resistant/dependent extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) . Methods: A total of 27 patients with steroid-resistant/steroid-dependent extensive cGVHD from November 2015 to January 2019 were enrolled and given sirolimus capsules combined with cyclosporine or tacrolimus to observe the clinical efficacy and adverse events. Results: The median duration of medication was 14.2 months and the mean duration was 16.7 months. The median follow-up time was 20.1 months (12.9-46.1 months) . Following the 6-month follow-up, 3 cases achieved complete response (CR) and 12 cases partial response (PR) . The overall response rate (ORR) was 55.6% ; for progression-free survival (PFS) , PFS-6 reached 88.9% (24/27) , and for overall survival (OS) , OS-6 was 100% . At the 1-year follow-up, there were 5 cases of CR and 11 cases of PR, ORR was 59.3% , PFS-12 reached 62.9% (17/27) , and OS-12 was 100% . The subgroup analysis found that the program was more effective for cGVHD in male donors and the target organ analysis had an advantage in the treatment of oral cavity, skin, and liver rejection. Adverse events were observed: hyperlipidemia 11.1% , oral ulcer 7.4% , fungal infection 11.1% , liver injury 3.7% , renal insufficiency 0, and no new CMV and EB viremia. Conclusion: Sirolimus combined with calcineurin inhibitors is effective in treating steroid-resistant/steroid-dependent extensive cGVHD, especially because adverse reactions (renal toxicity, CMV, EBV infection) are low in number, which is suitable for long-term treatment of cGVHD.
Ruxolitinib is an effective salvage treatment for multidrug-resistant graft-versus-host disease after haploidentical allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without posttransplant cyclophosphamide
Annals of hematology. 2020
The purpose of our study is to identify the efficacy of ruxolitinib in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) recipients with multidrug-resistant (MDR)-graft-versus-host disease (GVHD, n = 34). MDR-GVHD was defined as GVHD showing no improvement after at least 3 types of treatments. The median number of previous GVHD-therapies was 4 for both MDR-acute GVHD (aGVHD) and MDR-chronic GVHD (cGVHD). For MDR-aGVHD (n = 15), the median time to response was 10 days (range 2 to 65), and the overall response rate (ORR) was 60.0% (9/15), including 40.0% (6/15) complete response (CR) and 20.0% (3/15) partial response (PR). The 1-year probability of overall survival after ruxolitinib was 66.7%. The rates of hematologic and infectious toxicities were 73.3% and 46.7% after ruxolitinib treatment. For MDR-cGVHD (n = 19), the median time to response was 29 days (range 6 to 175), and the ORR was 89.5% (17/19), including 26.3% (5/19) CR and 63.2% (12/19) PR. All patients remained alive until our last follow-up. The rates of hematologic and infectious toxicities were 36.8% and 47.4% after ruxolitinib treatment. Ruxolitinib is an effective salvage treatment for MDR-GVHD in haplo-HSCT recipients.
Ruxolitinib Combined with Etanercept Induce a Rapid Response to Corticosteroid-refractory Severe Acute Graft versus Host Disease after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation: Results of a Multi-center Prospective Study
American journal of hematology. 2020
About half of patients with severe acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) show resistance to treatment with first-line steroids. We enrolled sixty-four patients with grades III-IV SR-aGVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) to assess the efficacy and safety of the combination therapy of ruxolitinib and etanercept. The overall response rate was 87.5% (95%CI, 79.7%~95.3%) at day 28 of the combination treatment, from which 73.4% reached complete response (CR). A marked reduction ≥75% in daily corticosteroid dosing was documented in 75.4% of patients at day 28. Delayed time from aGVHD to ruxolitinib (OR=4.88, 95%CI 0.98~23.56), stages 3-4 liver aGVHD (OR=8.57, 95%CI 0.96~46.59) and gut enterobacteriaceae colonization (OR=12.39, 95%CI 1.71~59.77) were related to incomplete response. Grades 3/4 anemia, leukopenia, or thrombocytopenia and CMV-reactivation were found in 29.7%, 26.6%, 39.1%, and 50.0% of patients, respectively. 25 (39.1%) experienced complications of severe infection ≥ 3 grade, in which pulmonary infections were most frequent (15/64, 23.4%). The 2-year overall survival (OS) after the combination therapy was 61.2%. The 2-year incidence of non-relapse mortality and relapse of the underlying malignancy was 26.7% and 15.7%, respectively. Combined treatment with ruxolitinib and etanercept was very effective and relatively safe to severe aGVHD patients while the various infection complications deserve more attention. This study was registered at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR1900024408). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Patients with grades III-IV steroid-refractory acute GVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (n=64)
Ruxolitinib and etanercept combination therapy
The overall response rate was 87.5% at day 28 of the combination treatment, from which 73.4% reached complete response (CR). A marked reduction >/=75% in daily corticosteroid dosing was documented in 75.4% of patients at day 28. Delayed time from aGVHD to ruxolitinib, stages 3-4 liver aGVHD and gut enterobacteriaceae colonization were related to incomplete response. Grades 3/4 anemia, leukopenia, or thrombocytopenia and CMV-reactivation were found in 29.7%, 26.6%, 39.1%, and 50.0% of patients, respectively. 25 (39.1%) experienced complications of severe infection >/= 3 grade, in which pulmonary infections were most frequent (15/64, 23.4%). The 2-year overall survival (OS) after the combination therapy was 61.2%. The 2-year incidence of non-relapse mortality and relapse of the underlying malignancy was 26.7% and 15.7%, respectively.
Ruxolitinib for Glucocorticoid-Refractory Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease
The New England journal of medicine. 2020
BACKGROUND Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major limitation of allogeneic stem-cell transplantation; not all patients have a response to standard glucocorticoid treatment. In a phase 2 trial, ruxolitinib, a selective Janus kinase (JAK1 and JAK2) inhibitor, showed potential efficacy in patients with glucocorticoid-refractory acute GVHD. METHODS We conducted a multicenter, randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial comparing the efficacy and safety of oral ruxolitinib (10 mg twice daily) with the investigator's choice of therapy from a list of nine commonly used options (control) in patients 12 years of age or older who had glucocorticoid-refractory acute GVHD after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. The primary end point was overall response (complete response or partial response) at day 28. The key secondary end point was durable overall response at day 56. RESULTS A total of 309 patients underwent randomization; 154 patients were assigned to the ruxolitinib group and 155 to the control group. Overall response at day 28 was higher in the ruxolitinib group than in the control group (62% [96 patients] vs. 39% ; odds ratio, 2.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65 to 4.22; P<0.001). Durable overall response at day 56 was higher in the ruxolitinib group than in the control group (40% [61 patients] vs. 22% ; odds ratio, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.43 to 3.94; P<0.001). The estimated cumulative incidence of loss of response at 6 months was 10% in the ruxolitinib group and 39% in the control group. The median failure-free survival was considerably longer with ruxolitinib than with control (5.0 months vs. 1.0 month; hazard ratio for relapse or progression of hematologic disease, non-relapse-related death, or addition of new systemic therapy for acute GVHD, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.60). The median overall survival was 11.1 months in the ruxolitinib group and 6.5 months in the control group (hazard ratio for death, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.15). The most common adverse events up to day 28 were thrombocytopenia (in 50 of 152 patients [33%] in the ruxolitinib group and 27 of 150 [18%] in the control group), anemia (in 46 [30%] and 42 [28%], respectively), and cytomegalovirus infection (in 39 [26%] and 31 [21%]). CONCLUSIONS Ruxolitinib therapy led to significant improvements in efficacy outcomes, with a higher incidence of thrombocytopenia, the most frequent toxic effect, than that observed with control therapy. (Funded by Novartis; REACH2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02913261.).
Steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease graded III-IV in pediatric patients. A mono-institutional experience with a long-term follow-up
Pediatric transplantation. 2020;:e13806
aGvHD remains a major obstacle to successful HSCT. We report our experience on steroid-refractory aGvHD III and IV from 1989 to 2017. Ninety patients with aGvHD III or IV were stratified according to the HSCT year: 1989-1998, 1999-2007, and 2008-2017 and to aGvHD extension (GvHD III vs IV) and finally the probability of OS, RI, and TRM was calculated accordingly. aGvHD III patients had a substantial improvement over time: day 100 OS raised from 64% (95% CI 39-89) in the first cohort to 100% in the latest (P = .022), and it was mainly due to a reduction of TRM (it was 28% [95% CI 12-65] in the first cohort to 0% in the latest (P = .01). The aGvHD IV patients did not present a significant improvement. Day 100 OS was 42% (95% CI 16-68) in the first group and 54% (95% CI 25-83) in the year 2008-2017 (P = NS), and the day-100 TRM was very similar (it was 57% [95% CI 36-90] in the first cohort and 45% [95% CI 23-89] in the latest (P = NS). We report significant improvements in OS and TRM in patients diagnosed with grade III aGvHD. Patients with the most severe aGvHD appear to have no or fewer benefits on long-term outcomes.
Adverse events in second- and third-line treatments for acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease: systematic review
Therapeutic advances in hematology. 2020;11:2040620720977039
BACKGROUND Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is associated with an increased risk of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), a strong prognostic predictor of early mortality within the first 2?years following allo-HSCT. The objective of this study was to describe the harm outcomes reported among patients receiving second- and third-line treatment as part of the management for GvHD via a systematic literature review. METHODS A total of 34 studies met the systematic review inclusion criteria, reporting adverse events (AEs) across 12 different second- and third-line therapies. RESULTS A total of 14 studies reported AEs across nine different therapies used in the treatment of acute GvHD (aGvHD), 17 studies reported AEs of eight different treatments for chronic GvHD (cGvHD) and 3 reported a mixed population. Infections were the AE reported most widely, followed by haematologic events and laboratory abnormalities. Reported infections per patient were lower under extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) for aGvHD (0.267 infections per patient over 6?months) relative to any of the therapies studied (ranging from 0.853 infections per patient per 6?months under etanercept up to 1.998 infections per patient on inolimomab). CONCLUSION The reported incidence of infectious AEs in aGvHD and grade 3-5 AEs in cGvHD was lower on ECP compared with pharmaceutical management.
Efficacy of MSC for steroid-refractory acute GVHD associates with MSC donor age and a defined molecular profile
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
A multicenter prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled phase II/III trial for preemptive acute graft-versus-host disease therapy
Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) contributes to about 50% of transplant-related mortality (non-relapse mortality) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Here the predictive value of a urinary proteomic profile (aGvHD_MS17) was tested together with preemptive prednisolone therapy. Two-hundred and fifty-nine of 267 patients were eligible for analysis. Ninety-two patients were randomized upon aGvHD_MS17 classification factor above 0.1 to receive either prednisolone (2-2.5 mg/kg, N = 44) or placebo (N = 47; N = 1 randomization failure) for 5 days followed by tapering. The remaining 167 patients formed the observation group. The primary endpoint of the randomized trial was incidence of aGvHD grade II between randomization and day +100 post HSCT. Analysis of the short-term preemptive prednisolone therapy in the randomized patients showed no significant difference in incidence or severity of acute GvHD (HR: 1.69, 95% CI: 0.66-4.32, P = 0.27). Prednisolone as preemptive treatment did not lead to an increase in relapse (20.2% in the placebo and 14.0% in the prednisolone group (P = 0.46)). The frequency of adverse events was slightly higher in the placebo group (64.4% versus 50%, respectively). Taken together, the results of the Pre-GvHD trial demonstrated the feasibility and safety of preemptive prednisolone treatment in the randomized patients.
Patients undergoing allogeneic transplant, with a urinary proteomic profile (n=259). Patients with a positive aGvHD_MS17 at any visit were randomised (n=92)
Pre-emptive prednisolone 2-2.5 mg/kg BW (n=44)
The primary endpoint of the randomized trial was incidence of aGvHD grade II between randomization and day +100 post HSCT. Analysis of the short-term preemptive prednisolone therapy in the randomized patients showed no significant difference in incidence or severity of acute GvHD (HR: 1.69). Prednisolone as preemptive treatment did not lead to an increase in relapse (20.2% in the placebo and 14.0% in the prednisolone group) The frequency of adverse events was slightly higher in the placebo group (64.4% versus 50%, respectively).
The CELLEX is comparable to the UVAR-XTS for the treatment of acute and chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD)
BACKGROUND Two extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) instruments, the CELLEX and the UVARXTS are currently being used "off-label" in the US for treatment of graft versus host disease (GVHD). Our study compared the performance of the two instruments in the setting of acute and chronic GVHD. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of patients with steroid refractory or steroid resistant GVHD undergoing ECP at Barnes Jewish Hospital. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the comparative efficacy of the two instruments with respect to steroid dose reduction (≥50% from baseline) and clinical improvement in GVHD. Chi-square/Fisher exact tests were used to compare the incidence of adverse events, while multivariate Cox regression was employed to assess a potential difference in mortality between the two instrument treatment cohorts. RESULTS After adjusting for potential confounders, there was no significant difference in the odds of steroid dose reduction (OR = 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.51-3.90, p = 0.50) or clinical improvement (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 0.63-6.41, p = 0.24) between the two instrument treatment cohorts. The frequency of adverse events (CELLEX 45.4%; UVAR XTS 40.5%, p = 0.55) was also comparable between the cohorts. There was no significant difference in mortality of either acute or chronic GVHD patients when treated by the CELLEX as compared to the UVAR-XTS (aHR 0.66, 95% CI: 0.35-1.25, p = 0.20). CONCLUSION The efficacy and safety of the two ECP instruments, the CELLEX and the UVAR-XTS, are comparable for the treatment of acute and chronic GVHD.