[Second Survey on Patient-centred Care of Ocular Graft-versus-Host Disease in Germany]
Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde. 2019
BACKGROUND graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a common complication after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) and causes immunological rejection of host tissues, which can occur both acute or chronically. Approximately 40 - 80% of patients with the diagnosis of chronic GvHD (cGvHD) also develop ocular GvHD. For these patients, immediate and uncomplicated access to interdisciplinary patient-centred care is important. We performed this survey to improve understanding of the structure of patient-centred care in Germany. METHODS The GvHD working party of the Cornea Section of the German Society of Ophthalmology sent the "Survey of ocular GvHD 2016" to all university and specialised hospitals in Germany. We evaluated the data and compared the information with survey results from 2014, in order to draw conclusions about the structure and process of patient-centred care in ocular GvHD. Besides the questions from 2014 on the numbers of allo-SCT, frequency of examinations, etc. there were additional questions on the prescription of ciclosporin and autologous serum eye drops. The question on frequency examination was further expanded to include examinations of paediatric patients. RESULTS Of 30 participating hospitals, 22 had already taken part in the first survey. According to the information they provided, approx. 1860 allo-SCTs were performed in the transplantation units of the participating eye hospitals in 2016. This was more than half of the transplantations performed in Germany. Ophthalmologists examined between 2 and 250 Patients per year per centre. Eight clinics provide a specialised outpatient clinic for ocular GvHD. Nearly all the participating clinics prescribe ciclosporin eye drops. About (2/3) provide autologous serum eye drops, seven obtain them from external sources. Overall approx. 125 - 140 children were examined in 2016. CONCLUSIONS Due to the potential severity of ocular GvHD with immobilisation of the patients and the imminent loss of sight, further improvements in eye care are required. For example, offers such as special consultations, with expertise located close to any transplantation unit are recommended. This requires in particular ophthalmologists to participate in the patient care to enhance quality of life after allo-SCT. In summary, we conclude that the present structures are not sufficient to treat all patients suffering from ocular GvHD in Germany, but the situation has evidently improved.
Resolved versus active chronic graft-versus-host disease: Impact on post-transplant quality of life
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2019
The aim of this study was to determine if impaired quality of life (QOL) persisted among patients who experienced resolved chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Eligible participants were patients who were relapse-free for 3 years after allo-HCT who were aged ≥16 years at transplant and aged ≥20 years without relapse at survey. The SF-36, FACT-BMT, and VAS were administered to assess QOL. Physicians evaluated the current status of chronic GVHD at survey by NIH criteria, and pre-transplant characteristics and history of GVHD were extracted from the national transplant registry database. Patients without currently active GVHD but with a history of chronic GVHD were categorized as having "resolved GVHD." Of 1250 patients informed of the study, 1216 provided consent, and 1130 patients were included in the final analysis. A total of 745 patients (66%) had currently active chronic GVHD, 149 (13%) had resolved chronic GVHD, and 236 (21%) never had chronic GVHD after allo-HCT. Multivariable analyses showed that compared to patients with resolved or no chronic GVHD, those with active chronic GVHD reported significantly poorer QOL. QOL scores were similar between patients with resolved and no chronic GVHD. Larger differences were observed in SF-36 physical component and VAS scores between the two groups in patients aged ≥50 years, however these were not statistically significant. In conclusion, only currently active chronic GVHD has a significant impact on physical, mental, and social QOL in allo-HCT survivors, while past chronic GVHD does not impair QOL if it is resolved.
Efficacy and Safety of Topical Corticosteroids for Management of Oral Chronic Graft versus Host Disease
International Journal of Dentistry. 2017;2017:1908768
BACKGROUND Oral chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) is a major complication in transplantation community, a problem that can be addressed with topical intervention. Topical corticosteroids are the first line of treatment although the choice remains challenging as none of the available treatments is supported by strong clinical evidence. OBJECTIVE This systematic review aims to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of topical corticosteroids for the management of the mucosal alterations of oral cGVHD. DATA SOURCES Electronic search of different databases was conducted: PubMed, Cochrane library, Grey literature, WHO, and clinical trials.gov for clinical trial registration as well as hand search in the references of relevant articles up to November 2016. DATA EXTRACTION Extracted pieces of information were intervention, population, sample sizes, and outcomes. DATA SYNTHESIS Six studies were included: 2 randomized clinical trials (RCTs), 3 cohort studies, and 1 pre-post clinical trial. RESULTS There is a limited evidence concerning clinical efficacy of topical corticosteroids. Clobetasol, dexamethasone, and budesonide were the topical corticosteroid of choice. The highest level of evidence score was given to clobetasol followed by budesonide with a lower evidence level. CONCLUSION All three topical corticosteroid preparations are effective for management of oral chronic GVHD with minimal easily avoided side effects.
Long-term safety and efficacy of autologous platelet lysate drops for treatment of ocular GvHD
Bone Marrow Transplantation. 2017;52(1):101-106
Current ocular GvHD (oGvHD) treatments are suboptimal. We investigated the safety and efficacy of long-term continuous treatment with autologous platelet lysate (PL) drops in patients with oGvHD Dry Eye Syndrome (DES) score 2-3 refractory to topical conventional therapy. Ophthalmic evaluation was performed at 6 month intervals. Symptoms were assessed using the Glaucoma Symptom Scale (GSS). Patients were defined 'responders' when showing a reduction at least one grade on National Institutes of Health Eye Score from baseline at the 6 month visit. Thirty-one patients were included, and 16 (51%) completed 36 months of follow-up (range 6.5-72.7). At 6 months all patients were classified as responders: median GSS symptom score decreased from 70 to 41 (33 at 36 months), median GSS function score reduced from 68 to 46 (33 at 36 months) (all P<0.001). Median Tear Break Up Time improved from 3 to 6s after 6 months and was maintained over time. All signs improved at 6 and 36 months (clinical and statistical significance). No severe adverse events occurred. Long-term treatment with PL drops is secure and effective for oGvHD and can be an efficient therapy option from initial stages of oGvHD to prevent permanent ocular impairment and improving quality of life.
A Randomized Phase II Crossover Study of Imatinib or Rituximab for Cutaneous Sclerosis after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation
Clinical Cancer Research. 2016;22(2):319-27
PURPOSE Cutaneous sclerosis occurs in 20% of patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and can compromise mobility and quality of life. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We conducted a prospective, multicenter, randomized, two-arm phase II crossover trial of imatinib (200 mg daily) or rituximab (375 mg/m(2) i.v. weekly x 4 doses, repeatable after 3 months) for treatment of cutaneous sclerosis diagnosed within 18 months (NCT01309997). The primary endpoint was significant clinical response (SCR) at 6 months, defined as quantitative improvement in skin sclerosis or joint range of motion. Treatment success was defined as SCR at 6 months without crossover, recurrent malignancy or death. Secondary endpoints included changes of B-cell profiles in blood (BAFF levels and cellular subsets), patient-reported outcomes, and histopathology between responders and nonresponders with each therapy. RESULTS SCR was observed in 9 of 35 [26%; 95% confidence interval (CI); 13%-43%] participants randomized to imatinib and 10 of 37 (27%; 95% CI, 14%-44%) randomized to rituximab. Six (17%; 95% CI, 7%-34%) patients in the imatinib arm and 5 (14%; 95% CI, 5%-29%) in the rituximab arm had treatment success. Higher percentages of activated B cells (CD27(+)) were seen at enrollment in rituximab-treated patients who had treatment success (P = 0.01), but not in imatinib-treated patients. CONCLUSIONS These results support the need for more effective therapies for cutaneous sclerosis and suggest that activated B cells define a subgroup of patients with cutaneous sclerosis who are more likely to respond to rituximab. Copyright ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
A Clinical Trial Comparing the Safety and Efficacy of Topical Tacrolimus versus Methylprednisolone in Ocular Graft-versus-Host Disease
PURPOSE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of topical tacrolimus 0.05% versus topical methylprednisolone 0.5% in patients with ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). DESIGN Phase 1/2 prospective, randomized, double-masked clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS Eighty eyes of 40 patients diagnosed with chronic ocular GVHD were enrolled. METHODS Forty patients with ocular GVHD were randomized; 24 patients were treated with topical tacrolimus 0.05% and 16 patients were treated with topical methylprednisolone 0.5% twice daily for 10 weeks, in addition to continuing their baseline treatment regimen. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Safety was evaluated based on occurrence of adverse events. Tolerability was assessed based on subject reports of discomfort after drop instillation. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was monitored. The main efficacy end points were corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), tear film break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer test results, and expression of the ocular surface inflammatory markers human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Symptoms were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). RESULTS After 10 weeks of treatment, no major adverse events occurred in either treatment group, and there was no significant difference in the composite tolerability scores between the 2 groups (P = 0.06). However, burning sensation was more pronounced with tacrolimus (P = 0.002). Topical tacrolimus was more effective than methylprednisolone in reducing the CFS score at week 10 (55% vs. 23% reduction, respectively; P = 0.01) and achieved significant improvement in TBUT when compared with baseline (P < 0.001). Reduction in OSDI score achieved statistical significance with tacrolimus (27% reduction; P = 0.02), but was marginal with methylprednisolone (32% reduction; P = 0.06). Expression of ICAM-1 by ocular surface epithelium decreased significantly in both groups (tacrolimus, P = 0.003; methylprednisolone, P = 0.008), whereas HLA-DR expression decreased significantly only in the tacrolimus group (P = 0.03). Schirmer test scores did not change significantly in either group during the study; IOP increased significantly with methylprednisolone at week 10 (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS Topical tacrolimus 0.05% is safe, generally well tolerated, and effective for the treatment of ocular GVHD without the hypertensive effects of topical corticosteroids. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PROSE Treatment for Ocular Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease as a Clinical Network Expands
Eye & Contact Lens: Science & Clinical Practice. 2016;42(4):262-6
BACKGROUND Keratoconjunctivitis sicca occurs in 40% to 90% of patients with ocular chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Ocular symptoms can have profound effects in both the visual function and quality of life of patients with GVHD. We report the impact of prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) treatment in patients with cGVHD as a clinical network expands. METHODS We queried the BostonSight PROSE manufacturing database from January 2002 to December 2011. Patients treated for ocular cGVHD were reported by age, gender, year, and network site where the treatment was undertaken. The baseline and six-month follow-up scores of visual function using a standardized validated instrument, the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25), were evaluated for a period in 2006 and again in 2010 after network expansion had occurred. RESULTS A total of 407 patients with a male:female ratio of 226:181, mean age was 51 years with ocular cGVHD underwent PROSE treatment from January 2002 to December 2011. By 2011, 67% of all cases were treated at network clinics. Baseline characteristics of patients treated throughout the network in 2010 were similar to that of 2006 and 2010 cohorts from the main center. There was a significant improvement of 41 points (P<0.001) in composite NEI VFQ score among patients treated across the network in 2010, similar to the improvement of 30 points (P<0.001) seen among the patients treated at the main center in 2010. There was a trend toward lower baseline self-reported general health status (SRGHS) and VFQ scores among patients treated at network clinics, suggesting that expansion of the network allows treatment of sicker patients (lower general health status) or those more severely affected by ocular cGVHD. CONCLUSIONS PROSE treatment of ocular cGVHD has increased in the last decade with the establishment of BostonSight network clinics across the United States. Patients treated at network clinics showed similar levels of baseline visual function and SRGHS, and achieved a similar high level of improvement in visual function as those treated at the main center. Patient-reported measures of functional status are useful in evaluating treatment options for patients with cGVHD. PROSE treatment has significant positive impact on the visual function of patients with ocular cGVHD regardless of whether the patient is treated at the main center or at a network site.