A Prospective Pilot Study of Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide and Ruxolitinib in Patients with Myelofibrosis
Acta haematologica. 2020;:1-8
INTRODUCTION This prospective study evaluated a calcineurin inhibitor-free graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis regimen of ruxolitinib in combination with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy). Patents and Methods: Twenty patients with primary or secondary myelofibrosis were prospectively enrolled. Reduced intensity conditioning was performed, followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation from related (n = 7) or unrelated (n = 13) donors. GVHD prophylaxis included only PTCy and ruxolitinib (45 mg) from day-7 to day-2, and 15 mg from day+5 to day+100. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02806375. RESULTS Primary engraftment was documented in 17 patients. One patient experienced primary graft failure and 2 died before engraftment. Eleven patients demonstrated severe poor graft function (SPGF), which required ruxolitinib dose reduction. The regimen was well tolerated, with grade 3-4 non-haematological toxicity in 30%, viral reactivation in 45%, and severe sepsis in 15% of patients. The incidence of acute GVHD grade II-IV was 25%, grade III-IV GVHD was 15%, and moderate chronic GVHD was 20%, with no severe cases. Only 2 patients required systemic steroids. Haematological relapse was documented in 1 patient. Two-year non-relapse mortality was 15%, 2-year overall survival was 85%, and 2-year event-free survival was 72%. CONCLUSION GVHD prophylaxis with PTCy and ruxolitinib is associated with low toxicity, good acute and chronic GVHD control, and low relapse incidence. However, the relatively high rate of SPGF should be taken into account. SPGF could possibly be mitigated by ruxolitinib dose reduction.
Antilymphocyte Globulin for matched sibling donor transplantation in patients with myelofibrosis
Antihuman T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin is still much debated in the setting of transplant from an HLA matched related donor. Acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease are the main cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell in patients with myelofibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of antihuman T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin in a large cohort of patients with myelofibrosis. 287 patients were included in the study. Cumulative incidence of grade 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease was 26% and 41% with or without antihuman T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin. Chronic graft-versus-host disease incidence was 52% and 55%. Non-adjusted overall Survival, Disease Free Survival and non-relapse mortality were 55% vs 53%, 49% vs 45%, and 32% vs 31%, respectively with or without antihuman T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin. An adjusted model confirmed that acute graft-versus-host disease risk was lower following antihuman T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin (Hazard ratio : 0.54, p=0.010) whilst it did not decrease the risk of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Hazard ratio for overall survival and non-relapse mortality were 0.66 and 0.64, with p-value at 0.05 and 0.09, respectively. Antihuman T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin did not influence disease-free survival, graft-versus-host disease and relapse free survival and relapse risk. In conclusion, in the setting of matched related transplantation in myelofibrosis patients, this study demonstrates that antihuman T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin decreases acute graft-versus-host disease risk without increasing relapse risk.