Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Multiple Myeloma Patients Treated With Daratumumab After Allogeneic Transplantation
Clinical lymphoma, myeloma & leukemia. 2020
INTRODUCTION Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) represents an adoptive immunotherapy strategy for eliciting a graft-versus-myeloma, the effect for high-risk or relapsed multiple myeloma (MM). Allo-HCT recipients are at risk for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) as well as associated increases in morbidity and mortality. Daratumumab, an anti-CD38 human immunoglobulin G1 kappa humanized monoclonal antibody, is used for treatment of MM. Daratumumab also affects CD38(+) nonmyeloma cells, including T cells, which mediate GVHD. The use of daratumumab after allo-HCT has not been well described, and its potential impact on GVHD is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS In a multicenter retrospective study, we evaluated incidence of GVHD in 34 patients with relapsed MM treated with daratumumab after allo-HCT. RESULTS Overall response to daratumumab (partial response or better) was 41% (95% confidence interval, 24-59). Five patients (15%) developed acute GVHD after daratumumab therapy; no chronic GVHD events were observed after daratumumab therapy. One of these 5 patients had a history of chronic GVHD and developed a flare of acute GVHD during daratumumab therapy. The remaining 4 patients did not have a history of GVHD before daratumumab. CONCLUSION The incidence of GVHD after daratumumab was low and did not result in increased exacerbation of GVHD in patients with a history of GVHD.
Haploidentical Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Multiple Myeloma Using Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis
Biology of Blood & Marrow Transplantation. 2017;23(9):1549-1554
Allogeneic (allo) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) currently represents the only potentially curative therapy for patients affected by multiple myeloma (MM). Up to 30% of patients in western countries do not have a matched donor. Haploidentical HCT (haplo-HCT) may be an option, but currently, there are little available data regarding this treatment. We analyzed survival outcomes of 30 heavily pretreated MM patients who received haplo-HCT with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide as graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Median neutrophil and platelet engraftments at day +30 were 87% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66% to 95%) and 60% (95% CI, 40% to 75%), respectively. The cumulative incidences of relapse or progression of disease (PD) and nonrelapse mortality at 18 months were 42% (95% CI, 23% to 59%) and 10% (95% CI, 2% to 24%), respectively. The cumulative incidence of grade II to IV acute GVHD at day +100 was 29% (95% CI, 14% to 47%). The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD at 18 months was 7% (95% CI, 1% to 21%). With a median follow-up in survivors of 25 months (range, 15 to 73 months), the 18-month progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 33% (95% CI, 17% to 50%) and 63% (95% CI, 44% to 78%), respectively. No differences were observed between peripheral blood and bone marrow graft in terms of engraftment, GVHD, or PD incidence. Chemorefractory disease at transplantation was associated with a lower/reduced 18-month PFS (9% versus 47%, P=.01) and OS (45% versus 74%, P=.03). This was explained by a higher PD incidence (55% versus 33%, P=.05). In this multicenter study, we report encouraging results with haplo-HCT for patients with heavily pretreated MM.