Posttransplantation cyclophosphamide improves transplantation outcomes in patients with AML/MDS who are treated with checkpoint inhibitors
BACKGROUND There have been concerns regarding increased peritransplantation complications, especially severe acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), in patients with prior use of checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS The authors performed a retrospective study of 43 patients with acute myeloid leukemia and/or myelodysplastic syndromes who were treated with an antiprogrammed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) (32 patients) or anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) (9 patients) blockade or both (2 patients) prior to HSCT with the primary outcome of aGVHD by day 100 after HSCT. Outcome analyses were stratified by GVHD prophylaxis as use of post-HSCT cyclophosphamide (PTCy) (22 patients) or not (non-PTCy) (21 patients). RESULTS The PTCy group demonstrated a trend toward lower grade 3 to 4 aGVHD when compared with the non-PTCy group (5% vs 22%), although the rates of grade 2 to 4 aGVHD were comparable (49% vs 56%). The interval between CPI and HSCT did not appear to impact the incidence of aGVHD. However, a higher incidence of grade 3 to 4 aGVHD was observed in patients who received >4 treatments of CPI prior to HSCT if they were not given PTCy as GVHD prophylaxis (43% vs 12%). Matched control analyses using patients with no prior use of CPI confirmed the increase in grade 3 to 4 aGVHD with those agents. However, that increased risk was limited to patients who did not receive PTCy and was not observed in patients who received PTCy as GVHD prophylaxis. Despite persistent improvement in GVHD with the use of PTCy, disease control was not compromised and progression-free survival at 1 year was found to be superior for patients treated with PTCy compared with those not receiving PTCy among patients with prior use of CPI (55% vs 22%). CONCLUSIONS The results of the current study indicated that HSCT with prior use of CPI appears feasible in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and/or myelodysplastic syndromes and the use of PTCy as GVHD prophylaxis improves outcomes.
Post-transplant cyclophosphamide after matched sibling, unrelated and haploidentical donor transplants in patients with acute myeloid leukemia: a comparative study of the ALWP EBMT
Journal of hematology & oncology. 2020;13(1):46
BACKGROUND The use of post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) is highly effective in preventing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in the haploidentical (Haplo) transplant setting and is being increasingly used in matched sibling (MSD) and matched unrelated (MUD) transplants. There is no information on the impact of donor types using homogeneous prophylaxis with PTCy. METHODS We retrospectively compared outcomes of adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1) who received a first allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) with PTCy as GVHD prophylaxis from MSD (n = 215), MUD (n = 235), and Haplo (n = 789) donors registered in the EBMT database between 2010 and 2017. RESULTS The median follow-up was 2 years. Haplo-SCT carried a significantly increased risk of acute grade II-IV GVHD (HR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.4) and NRM (HR 2.6; 95% CI 1.5-4.5) but a lower risk of relapse (HR 0.7; 95% CI 0.5-0.9) that translated to no differences in LFS (HR 1.1; 95% CI 0.8-1.4) or GVHD/relapse-free survival (HR 1; 95% CI 0.8-1.3). Interestingly, the use of peripheral blood was associated with an increased risk of acute (HR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4-2.6) and chronic GVHD (HR 1.7; 95% CI 1.2-2.4) but a lower risk of relapse (HR 0.7; 95% CI 0.5-0.9). CONCLUSIONS The use of PTCy in patients with AML in CR1 receiving SCT from MSD, MUD, and Haplo is safe and effective. Haplo-SCT had increased risk of acute GVHD and NRM and lower relapse incidence but no significant difference in survival.
Post-transplant cyclophosphamide versus antithymocyte globulin in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation from 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated donors
Journal of hematology & oncology. 2020;13(1):87
BACKGROUND Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major contributor to mortality and morbidity after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The updated recommendations suggest that rabbit antithymocyte globulin or anti-T-lymphocyte globulin (ATG) should be used for GVHD prophylaxis in patients undergoing matched-unrelated donor (MUD) allo-HSCT. More recently, using post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY) in the haploidentical setting has resulted in low incidences of both acute (aGVHD) and chronic GVHD (cGVHD). Therefore, the aim of our study was to compare GVHD prophylaxis using either PTCY or ATG in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who underwent allo-HSCT in first remission (CR1) from a 10/10 HLA-MUD. METHODS Overall, 174 and 1452 patients from the EBMT registry receiving PTCY and ATG were included. Cumulative incidence of aGVHD and cGVHD, leukemia-free survival, overall survival, non-relapse mortality, cumulative incidence of relapse, and refined GVHD-free, relapse-free survival were compared between the 2 groups. Propensity score matching was also performed in order to confirm the results of the main analysis RESULTS No statistical difference between the PTCY and ATG groups was observed for the incidence of grade II-IV aGVHD. The same held true for the incidence of cGVHD and for extensive cGVHD. In univariate and multivariate analyses, no statistical differences were observed for all other transplant outcomes. These results were also confirmed using matched-pair analysis. CONCLUSION These results highlight that, in the10/10 HLA-MUD setting, the use of PTCY for GVHD prophylaxis may provide similar outcomes to those obtained with ATG in patients with AML in CR1.
Patients from the EBMT registry underoing 10/10 matched unrelated stem cell transplantation for AML (n=1626)
Post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY, n=174)
Antithymocyte globulin (ATG, n=1452)
No statistical difference between the PTCY and ATG groups was observed for the incidence of grade II-IV aGVHD. The same held true for the incidence of cGVHD and for extensive cGVHD. In univariate and multivariate analyses, no statistical differences were observed for all other transplant outcomes.
Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide Combined with Anti-Thymocyte Globulin as Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in High-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome
Acta haematologica. 2020;:1-8
BACKGROUND Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative for high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) but with significant non-relapse mortality (NRM) and relapse. We compared the combination of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG; 4.5 mg/kg) and post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy; 50 mg/kg on day +3 and +4) with other graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis regimens used for these patients. METHODS We retrospectively analyzed 159 patients, aged 22-73 (median 56) years, having undergone transplantation for high-risk AML (n = 120) or MDS (n = 39). The donors were matched related (33%), unrelated (55%) and haploidentical (12%). Almost all patients used peripheral blood stem cells. Conditioning was myeloablative (34%) or reduced intensity (66%). ATG + PTCy was used in 69 patients (43%), and other GvHD prophylaxis regimens in 90 patients (57%). RESULTS Grade III-IV acute GvHD occurred in 4% of the ATG + PTCy patients versus 20% of those using other regimens (p = 0.004), and chronic GvHD in 19% of the ATG + PTCy patients versus 41% of those using other regimens (p = 0.003). Two-year GvHD-free relapse-free survival (GRFS) was 30% with ATG + PTCy versus 18% with other regimens (p = 0.04). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that while ATG + PTCy had no significant influence on overall survival, cumulative incidence of relapse or NRM, there was a significant influence on GRFS in favor of ATG + PTCy (HR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.45-0.99, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS We conclude that the ATG + PTCy combination significantly improved GRFS in allogeneic HCT for high-risk AML and MDS without influencing other outcomes.
Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide versus antithymocyte globulin in patients with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors: A retrospective analysis from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
BACKGROUND Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Addition of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) or post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCY) to standard immunosuppressive agents reduces GVHD in different donor settings. METHODS We compared the outcomes of adults with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing allo-HSCT from HLA-identical sibling donors after the use of PTCY (n = 197) or ATG (n = 1913). RESULTS Patients in the PTCY group were younger than those in the ATG group (median age, 47 vs 54 years; P < .01). Peripheral blood was the most frequently used stem cell source, being significantly more frequent in the ATG group than in the PTCY group (95% vs 70% P < .01). The conditioning regimen was more frequently myeloablative in the PTCY group than in the ATG group (59% vs 48%; P < .01). Time to neutrophil engraftment was shorter in the ATG group than in the PTCY group (17 vs 20 days; P < .01). No differences were observed according to the other transplantation outcomes, except for chronic GVHD of all grades and extensive chronic GVHD at 2 years, which were significantly lower in the ATG group compared with the PTCY group (P < .02). CONCLUSION PTCY is feasible in an HLA-identical sibling setting, and despite similar outcomes, ATG may be associated with lower incidence of chronic GVHD.
Comparison of mycophenolate mofetil and calcineurin inhibitor versus calcineurin inhibitor-based graft-versus-host-disease prophylaxis for matched unrelated donor transplant in acute myeloid leukemia. A study from the ALWP of the EBMT
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
The association of Cyclosporine A (CsA) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has increased in the setting of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC). Nevertheless, the use of CsA or CsA+MMF has not been reported in a large and uniform cohort. We analyzed 497 patients with acute myeloid leukemia in complete remission (CR) who underwent matched unrelated donor (MUD) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). All patients received a fludarabine busulfan RIC regimen and anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) with either CsA alone or in combination with MMF. The cumulative incidence (CI) of grade II-IV acute GvHD was 27% (95% CI 21-33%) for CsA and 33% (95% CI 27-38%) for CsA+MMF (p?=?0.25). The 2-year CI of chronic GvHD was 38% (95% CI 31-45%) and 33% (95% CI 28-39%) for the CsA and the CsA+MMF group, respectively (p?=?0.26). On multivariate analysis, no statistically significant differences with respect to relapse incidence (RI), non-relapse mortality (NRM), leukemia-free survival (LFS), overall survival (OS), acute and chronic GvHD were found between the two groups, also when conducting a subgroup analysis in peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) recipients. Our results support the importance of randomized trial to identify patients who could benefit from the addition of MMF in MUD HSCT.
Patients who underwent a 10/10 MUD HSCT for acute myeloid leukaemia (n=497)
Cyclosporine A and mycophenolate mofetil (CsA + MMF, n=314)
Cyclosporine A alone (CsA, n=183)
The cumulative incidence (CI) of grade II-IV acute GvHD was 27% for CsA and 33% for CsA+MMF. The 2-year CI of chronic GvHD was 38% and 33% for the CsA and the CsA+MMF group, respectively. On multivariate analysis, no statistically significant differences with respect to relapse incidence (RI), non-relapse mortality (NRM), leukemia-free survival (LFS), overall survival (OS), acute and chronic GvHD were found between the two groups, also when conducting a subgroup analysis in peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) recipients.
Impact of antithymocyte globulin on outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with TBI
Blood advances. 2019;3(13):1950-1960
The impact of the use of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) following a total body irradiation (TBI)-based myeloablative conditioning regimen has been poorly explored. We retrospectively analyzed 724 patients who underwent a first allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) following a TBI-based conditioning regimen for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and compared the outcomes of 251 (35%) patients who received ATG (ATG group) with 473 (65%) patients who did not (non-ATG group). Median follow-up of surviving patients was 59 months (interquartile range, 28-83). The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) for non-ATG and ATG groups in the first 100 days was 33% vs 24%, respectively (P = .0098). The 2-year cumulative incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) was reduced significantly in the ATG group in comparison with the non-ATG group (46% vs 34%, P = .003). Using multivariate analysis, in vivo T-cell depletion (ATG group) was independently associated with a decreased incidence of grade II-IV aGVHD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.28; P < .001), grade III-IV aGVHD (HR, 0.21; P < .001), cGVHD (HR, 0.63; P = .02), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (HR, 0.54; P = .02). Relapse risk, overall survival, and leukemia-free survival were similar between the 2 groups. Our results suggest that the addition of ATG to TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for allo-HCT in AML patients results in a significant reduction in aGVHD and cGVHD, translating into a significant reduction in NRM without increasing the relapse rate.
Control of graft-versus-host disease with rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin, rituximab, and bortezomib in TCRalphabeta/CD19-depleted graft transplantation for leukemia in children: a single-center retrospective analysis of two GVHD-prophylaxis regimens
Pediatric transplantation. 2019;:e13594
Both acute GVHD and chronic GVHD remain the leading cause of morbidity and death after allogeneic HSCT. We conducted a retrospective analysis comparing two GVHD-prophylaxis regimens: 35 patients received "Regimen 1" (horse ATG, tacrolimus, and methotrexate) and 46 "Regimen 2" (rabbit ATG, rituximab, and peritransplant bortezomib). All 81 patients with a median age of 9 (0.6-23) years with ALL (n = 31) or AML (n = 50) in complete remission received TCRalphabeta/CD19-depleted transplants between May 2012 and October 2016, from 40 HLA-matched unrelated and 41 haploidentical donors. After a median follow-up of 3.9 years, the CI of acute GVHD II-IV was 15% (95% CI: 7-30) in the "Regimen 2" group and 34% (95% CI: -54) in the "Regimen 1" group, P = .05. "Regimen 2" was also more effective in the prevention of chronic GVHD; the CI at 1 year after HSCT was 7% (95% CI: 2-19) vs 31% (95% CI: 19-51), P = .005. The CI of relapse at 3 years adjusted for the GVHD-prophylaxis regimen groups 31% (95% CI: 19-51) for the "Regimen 1" vs 21% (95% CI: 11-37) for the "Regimen 2", P = .3. The retrospective observation suggests that the use of the rATG, rituximab, and bortezomib was associated with significantly lower rate of GVHD without the loss of anti-leukemic activity.
The impact of anti-thymocyte globulin on the outcomes of Patients with AML with or without measurable residual disease at the time of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation
Measurable residual disease (MRD) status pre-allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) has been shown to predict transplant outcomes. We investigated the effect of Anti-Thymocyte Globulin (ATG) on acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) relapse by pretransplant MRD status. AML patients undergoing allo-HCT in first complete remission from either a matched sibling or unrelated donor during the 2006-2017 period were selected. Outcomes of 1509 patients (MRD(+), n = 426) were studied. ATG was used in 561 (52%) and 239 (58%) patients within the MRD(-) and MRD(+) cohorts, respectively. In MRD(-) patients, ATG did not affect relapse incidence (RI) (HR = 0.80, p = 0.17), but was associated with reduced incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD, grade II-IV and chronic GVHD, reduced nonrelapse mortality (HR = 0.66, p = 0.05), improved leukemia-free survival (HR = 0.74, p = 0.02), overall survival (HR = 0.69, p = 0.01), and GVHD-relapse free survival (HR = 0.62, p < 0.01). In MRD(+) patients, ATG was associated with a lower incidence of chronic GVHD (total, HR 0.56 p = 0.03; extensive, HR 0.40 P = 0.01), without an impact on other allo-HCT outcome parameters, including RI(HR = 1.02, p = 0.92). The use of ATG was associated with reduced risk for GVHD. ATG did not increase RI, even in high-risk AML patients who were MRD(+) before allo-HCT.
Impacts of post-transplantation cyclophosphamide treatment after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia
Scientific reports. 2019;9(1):2046
Post-transplant cyclophosphamide has become a promising medical option after allogeneic HSCT. In this study we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of cyclophosphamide and cyclosporine combination in acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases scheduled for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Retrospective analysis of data from 40 cases who underwent allogeneic HSCT under GvHD prophylaxis with cyclophosphamide and cyclosporine combination between April 2016 and August 2017 was made. Cyclophosphamide was given at daily doses of 50 mg/kg on post-transplant 3(rd) and 4(th) days, and cyclosporine was applied at daily doses of 3 mg/kg/day starting from the 5(th) post-transplant day. Cyclosporine dose was tapered beginning from the 45(th) postoperative day and completely discontinued on the 90(th) post-transplant day. Mean age was 38.25 +/- 15.25 years. Posttransplant median follow-up was six months (6-17 months). Post-transplant, the number of deaths and mortality rates related and unrelated to transplantation were 5 (12.5%), and 2 (5%), respectively. Acute GvHD was diagnosed in 7 cases (17.5%), and relapse was noted in 9 cases (22.5%). Myeloablative or reduced intensity conditioning was performed in 22 (55%) and 18 (45%) patients, respectively. The distribution of the donors was as follows: match-related (n = 26; 65%), match-unrelated (n = 9, 22.5%) and haploidentical donors (n = 5; 12.5%). There was no statistically significant correlation between the transplant-related and unrelated mortality and parameters under investigation.Cyclophosphamide use appears to be a highly effective and promising strategy for acute GvHD prophylaxis in non-haploidentical allogeneic HSCT cases. Identification of the impact of cyclophosphamide use on the development of chronic GvHD needs further investigation.