Effect of Sirolimus levels between days 11 and 20 after allogeneic stem cell transplantation on the risk of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome
Bone marrow transplantation. 2020
Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is a serious complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Sirolimus plus tacrolimus is an accepted regimen for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, with both agents implicated as risk factors for SOS. We analyzed 260 consecutive patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT following myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI)-based (n = 151) or chemotherapy only (n = 109) regimens, with sirolimus plus tacrolimus for GVHD prophylaxis. SOS occurred in 28 patients at a median of 22 (range, 12-58) days. Mean sirolimus trough levels were higher between days 11 and 20 following transplant in patients who developed SOS (10.3 vs. 8.5 ng/ml, P = 0.008), with no significant difference in mean trough levels between days 0 and 10 (P = 0.67) and days 21-30 (P = 0.37). No differences in mean tacrolimus trough levels during the same time intervals were observed between those developing SOS and others. On multivariable analysis, a mean sirolimus trough level ≥ 9 ng/ml between days 11 and 20 increased the risk of SOS (hazard ratio 3.68, 95% CI: 1.57-8.67, P = 0.003), together with a longer time from diagnosis to transplant (P = 0.004) and use of TBI (P = 0.006). Our results suggest that mean trough sirolimus levels ≥ 9 ng/mL between days 11 and 20 post transplant may increase the risk of SOS and should be avoided.
Hepatic veno-occlusive disease following sirolimus-based immune suppression
Bone marrow transplantation. 2018
Sirolimus-based graft vs. host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis is associated with higher incidence of veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). However, whether the clinical manifestations and prognosis of VOD/SOS differs when diagnosed in the setting of sirolimus-based GVHD prophylaxis is not well studied. To address this question, we examined presenting features and treatment outcome of VOD/SOS cases identified in a large retrospective cohort of consecutive HCT procedures (n = 818 total, sirolimus (SIR)/tacrolimus (TAC) n = 308, and methotrexate (MTX) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)/TAC n = 510). In multivariate analysis, sirolimus-based GVHD prophylaxis (p = 0.006, HR 3.33, 1.94-5.7) increased risk for VOD/SOS. A total of 58 patients were clinically diagnosed with VOD/SOS (SIR/TAC 38/308, 12.3%, vs. MTX or MMF/TAC 20/510, 3.9%). VOD/SOS diagnosed following SIR/TAC prophylaxis demonstrated later time of onset (median 39 vs. 26 days; p = 0.005), less severe hyperbilirubinemia (Bili > 2, 65% vs. 90% p = 0.04), lesser degree of weight gain (weight gain > 5%, 52% vs 80%, p = 0.04), and more frequent complete resolution of hepatic injury (79% vs. 55%, p = 0.05). Presenting features and natural history of VOD/SOS in the context of SIR/TAC GVHD prophylaxis differ and thus warrant particular clinical attention to later hepatic injury in these patients.